Presentation on theme: "By W. A. Boyce. INEQUALITIES BETWEEN RICH AND POOR Many peasants were on military service and were away from their villages Small units of land No farm."— Presentation transcript:
INEQUALITIES BETWEEN RICH AND POOR Many peasants were on military service and were away from their villages Small units of land No farm machinery, no fertilisers Old-fashioned methods of farming by hand. The ordinary people lived in great poverty, poor housing, working long hours, often in dangerous conditions, for low pay, poor health, little education. In the countryside, most of the land was owned by a few rich landowners In the cities, factories and businesses were owned by an elite rich. Years of foreign and civil wars had caused widespread damage to Chinese industry. Lack of investment Outdated machines Damage to transport systems –roads, rail, bridges PROBLEMS FACING CHINA IN 1949 FARMINGINDUSTRY
Mao wanted China to be a great military power which could dominate other countries. But China was poor and over 90% of its population were peasant farmers. If China was to be strong, prosperous and independent, then both Chinese industry and farming had to be reformed. HOW WAS THIS TO BE ACHIEVED? 1. FIVE YEAR PLANS were introduced - based on the Russian model. Russian advisers were brought in to help. 2. IRON AND STEEL - Mao made iron and steel production the central focus of his industrial reform programme. Why? 3. FARMING REFORMS - The cost of modernising industry would have to be paid by selling Chinese farm produce. Mao saw that Chinese farming also needed to be reformed.
MAOs REFORM PROGRAMMES INDUSTRY FARMING 1953-1957 - 1 ST FIVE YEAR PLAN 1950 - LAND REFORM ACT EXPANSION OF HEAVY INDUSTRIES: IRON + STEEL, COAL, MACHINERY 1952 – MUTUAL AID TEAMS COLLECTIVISATION 1953 – CO-OPERATIVE FARMS 1955 – COLLECTIVE FARMS 1958-1963 - 2 ND FIVE YEAR PLAN : THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD THE BACKYARD STEEL CAMPAIGN COMMUNES EXTREME COMMUNIST LIFESTYLE FARM PRODUCE TO PAY FOR FOREIGN MACHINERY PEASANTS USED TO HELP EXPAND STEEL PRODUCTION
The steel works at Anshan in Manchuria, built in the 1950s Heavy industries are those basic industries that a country needs to develop before other areas of its economy can expand. Iron Coal Steel Oil Cement Chemical Fertiliser
Identify the various materials that were needed to construct the features shown below. How does this help answer the question above? Nanjing Bridge over the Yangzi River Steel - bridge spars Girders – Steel Steel - Deisel engine Steel – railway lines Steel - pipes Iron - Railings Steel - Motor Vehicles Iron – lamp posts Ships IRON COAL CEMENT OILRUBBER
WHO IS BEING SHOWN ON THIS POSTER? WHAT MESSAGE DO YOU THINK THIS POSTER IS MAKING? That Communist Russia and Communist China are close friends, and should help each other. That Chinese people can learn from Russias example.
The idea for Five Year Plans was borrowed from Stalins Russia. It involved the ideas of: NATIONALISATION - CENTRAL PLANNING - TARGETS / QUOTAS - INCENTIVES - Private businesses and industries are taken over and run by the national government – state control. All decisions about the economy are decided by the central [national] government. To increase output the government sets production targets which have to be met within a 5 year time span. To encourage workers [and supervisors] to work harder to reach the targets set, incentives are offered eg. bigger food ration, better apartment, better schooling for their children.
We will protect the honour of the Red Flag! The Five Year Plans were accompanied by major propaganda Campaigns What was the idea behind this poster?
We devote our greatest strength to socialism!, 1954
Production figures before the start of the 1 st Five Year Plan. Expected production figures at end of 1 st Five Year Plan. Compare 1957 figures with 1952 figures. S S S F??? S Were these failures?
Transport raw materials to the factories, deliver machinery to the rural villages, 1955 Probably a mix of feelings: - PRIDE: in helping to build a strong, modern and industrialised China. - CONCERN: due to increasing shortages both of food and luxury and consumer goods. Why were there shortages? FOOD - Most surplus farm produce was being sent overseas to buy machinery for Chinas industries. LUXURY AND CONSUMER GOODS - The Chinese economy was focused on developing heavy industries, there were few resources available for consumer products - soap, clothing, etc. HOW DID CHINESE PEOPLE FEEL ABOUT THE FIVE YEAR PLANS? - CONCERN: movement of peasants from countryside into the cities to work in the new industries. More mouths had to be fed.
PAST EXAM QUESTIONS ON THE FIVE YEAR PLANS: 2006 (b) (i) In what ways did Mao Zedong change the organisation of agriculture and industry in the years 1949-59? You may use the following information to help you with your answer: (15) Land Reform Collectivisation 1953-57: First Five Year Plan 1958: Great Leap Forward 2004 6a (1) What is meant by the term Five-Year Plan? (3)
2003 (b) (i) In what ways did Mao Zedong change agriculture and industry in China in the years from 1949 to the beginning of the Cultural Revolution in 1966? (15) You may use the following information to help you with your answer Collectivisation Communes Five Year Plan Great Leap Forward