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Progressions in Psychomotor Development Birth through 9 years.

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Presentation on theme: "Progressions in Psychomotor Development Birth through 9 years."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Progressions in Psychomotor Development Birth through 9 years

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8 From 2 – 2.5 years A child canA child can –Jump from a height of 12 with one foot leading –Jump off the floor with both feet –Balance on one foot –Takes short running steps on toes –Throws a 9.5 ball 4-5 feet

9 From 2.5 – 3 years A child canA child can –Jump from a height of 18 with one foot leading –Stands on a walking board 6 cm. wide –Attempts to step while on walking board –Catches a inch ball with arms straight

10 From 3 – 3.5 years Child canChild can –Walk backwards easily –Walk UP stairs alternating feet, no rails –Make sharp turns while running –Jump forward and land on both feet –Rises to feet from a kneeling position in a mature pattern –Climb on playground equipment –Jumps down from 8 inch elevation with both feet together –Demonstrates elementary hopping pattern – 1 foot

11 From 3.5 to 4 years Child canChild can –Walk down stairs, alternating feet, WITH use of rail –Jump from a height of 12 with feet together; –Performs 3 consecutive hops on preferred foot –Throw a tennis ball for distance (8-9 feet) using a forward stance –Identify body planes –Catches a inch ball with elbows in front

12 From 4 – 4.5 years Child canChild can –Stand/balances on one foot for 4-8 seconds –Walk on the balance beam –Balance while changing direction, from the trunk –Walk up and down stairs WITHOUT rail, alternating feet –Run smoothly, at alternating speeds –Jump forward, 8-10 inches; running jump inches –Jump over a rope 2 inches high

13 4 – 4.5 years - continued Child canChild can –Catch a large ball with arms flexed at the elbow –Throw a tennis ball overhand with trunk rotation –Bounce a large playground ball –Kick a large playground ball with accuracy –Ride a tricycle expertly –Turn a forward summersault

14 From 4.5 – 5 years Child canChild can –Jump backward –Jump over a stationary rope 4 high –Slide down a playground slide –Swing on a playground swing

15 From 5 – 5.5 years Child canChild can –Stand on one foot without visual feedback –Walk the balance beam forward, sideways and backwards –Run 35 feet in 10 seconds –Hop 45 feet in 10 seconds –Throw a tennis ball with trunk rotation and forward weight shift (step) –Catch a bounced tennis ball with hands

16 From 5 – 5.5 yrs. - continued Child canChild can –Hit a T-ball with a bat –March, keeping time to the music –Use skates, sled, wagon or scooter well –Gallop leading with both preferred and non-preferred leg –Kicks a soccer ball through the air a distance of feet –Alternates feet in basic skipping movements

17 From 5.5 – 6 years Child canChild can –Throw a 9.5 inch ball feet –Catch a inch ball with elbows at the side of the body

18 From 6 to 7 years Child canChild can –Skip at an intermediate level –Throw a softball for distance Boys feetBoys feet Girls - 19 feetGirls - 19 feet –Walk on a balance beam 4 cm wide and 2.5 meters long in 9 seconds stepping off less than once per trial –Run Boys yd/sec.Boys yd/sec. Girls yd/sec.Girls yd/sec.

19 6 – 7 years - continued Child canChild can –Perform a standing broad jump Boys inchesBoys inches Girls inchesGirls inches –Perform a standing high jump of 8 inches –Kick a soccer ball in the air a distance of feet –Perform 2-2 hopping pattern and skip in mature pattern ~ 6.5 yrs [Girls]. –Hop 15 ft. on right and left feet [Boys]

20 6 – 7 years - continued Child canChild can –Visually fixate on and pursue (track) an object through all meridia and cross the mid-line smoothly while Keeping the head/neck in a fixed positionwhile Keeping the head/neck in a fixed position –Can cross mid-line in gross and fine motor activities in a differentiated [smooth and easy] fashion

21 From 7 – 8 years Child canChild can –Run Boys – 4.6 yd/sec.Boys – 4.6 yd/sec. Girls – 4.4 yd/sec.Girls – 4.4 yd/sec. –Throw softball for distance Boys – 45+ feetBoys – 45+ feet Girls – 25+ feetGirls – 25+ feet –Perform a standing broad jump Boys – 41+ inchesBoys – 41+ inches Girls – 40 inchesGirls – 40 inches

22 7 – 8 years - continued Most girls can perform 3-2 hopping patternMost girls can perform 3-2 hopping pattern Both boys and girls Mature skip in mature fashionBoth boys and girls Mature skip in mature fashion

23 From 8 – 9 years Child canChild can –Throw a softball for distance Boys – 59 ft.Boys – 59 ft. Girls – 34 ft.Girls – 34 ft. –Run Boys yd/sec.Boys yd/sec. Girls – 4.6 yd/sec.Girls – 4.6 yd/sec. –Perform a standing broad jump Boys – 46+ inchesBoys – 46+ inches Girls – 46 inchesGirls – 46 inches

24 Also from 8-9 years Most boys can perform 2-2 hopping patternMost boys can perform 2-2 hopping pattern

25 Developmental Parameters of Vision

26 VISION TWO TYPES: TWO TYPES: – REFRACTIVE (focal vision) … VERSUS ORTHOPTIC (related to depth perception and balance) THESE ARE THE CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF VISION AND VISUAL DEVELOPMENTTHESE ARE THE CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF VISION AND VISUAL DEVELOPMENT

27 –The critical subcomponents of vision and visual development –VISUAL ACUITY REFRACTIVEREFRACTIVE –FIGURE-GROUND PERCEPTION ORTHOPTICORTHOPTIC –DEPTH PERCEPTION ORTHOPTICORTHOPTIC –VISUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION OPTHOPTICOPTHOPTIC

28 Visual AcuityVisual Acuity -Static Vision (pick out detail in stationary objects, Snellen chart: 20/20) -Dynamic Vision (pick out detail in moving out detail in movingobjects) -Developmental aspects ( rapid improvement 5-7, plateau 7-8, mature )

29 Figure-GroundFigure-GroundPerception where where -Figure (specific object) -Ground (background object(s)) -Developmental aspects (slow improvement 3-4, rapid improvement 4-6, mature 8-12) An element of depth perceptionAn element of depth perception

30 Depth Perception judging distanceDepth Perception judging distance -accomplished via depth cues - ( monocular = size, texture, distance, shading etc.) - ( binocular = retinal disparity, convergence) -Developmental aspects (frequent errors 3-4 yrs., few errors 5-6 yrs., rapid improvement 7-11 yrs., mature 12 yr.)

31 Visual-Motor Coordination the ability to coordinate vision with bodyVisual-Motor Coordination the ability to coordinate vision with body movements movements -A.K.A. Object tracking & interception - Developmental aspects ( rapid improvement 3-7 yrs., slow improvement, 7-9 yrs., mature yrs.)

32 Development of Body Image Identification of Body PartsIdentification of Body Parts Understanding the Function of Body PartsUnderstanding the Function of Body Parts Efficient Utilization of SpaceEfficient Utilization of Space Right-left and Bi-Lateral Discriminations during Movement FunctionRight-left and Bi-Lateral Discriminations during Movement Function

33 A child from birth through 3 can visually/verbally identify these body parts BirthBirth 1 year1 year 3 years3 years Can watch the hand move Stomach, head, parts of face, limbs, hands, fingers and toes Objects in relation to body planes, e.g., things are in front, to the back or to the side of..

34 Also …. a child at age 3 Knows the words right and left, but not that they are on opposite sides of the bodyKnows the words right and left, but not that they are on opposite sides of the body

35 A child from 5 through 7 can visually/verbally identify these body parts 5 years5 years 6 years6 years 7 years7 years Shoulders, elbows, knees; middle and ring fingers Trunk appears in drawings; thighs, forearms, etc. identified Wrists, ankles, shins, parts of limbs

36 Left-right identification 5 – 9 years 5 years5 years 6 years6 years 7 years7 years 8 years8 years 9 years9 years Knows right and left are on opposite sides but is unable to tell which is which Some left-right judgments made accurately More correct right-left judgments on self and in letters, numbers etc. Can identify the left-right of others when facing them Can describe the left-right movements of others while watching them

37 Fine Motor Skill Progressions

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39 Note Critical Developmental Skills of Prehension, Grasping and Releasing –Prehension grasping and releasing e.g. tennis ball, pencil, etc. Effective grasping (9 mos.)Effective grasping (9 mos.) Thumb opposition (9-10 mos.)Thumb opposition (9-10 mos.) Object release (18 mos.)Object release (18 mos.)

40 Manipulating a Writing Instrument – Sequence = supination, pronation, dynamic tripod (7 yrs.) –Posture, hand position

41 Continued - Fine Motor Manipulative Behavior Drawing and writingDrawing and writing

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48 Stages of Drawing and Writing

49 Stage 1 Stage 1 –Scribbling developing hand-eye coordination (15-20 MOS.)

50 Stage 2 Development of Diagrams and combinations of diagrams ~ 1-2 yrs.Development of Diagrams and combinations of diagrams ~ 1-2 yrs.

51 Stage 3 Stage 3 Combine stage basic geometric figures (spirals, crosses) to more precise figures, e.g., circles, squares, etc. ~ 2 yrsCombine stage basic geometric figures (spirals, crosses) to more precise figures, e.g., circles, squares, etc. ~ 2 yrs

52 ~ 2 yrs.~ 2 yrs.

53 Stage 4 Stage 4 –Aggregate stage combines diagrams and figures into combinations (3+) resulting in more complex drawings 3/7 yrs.

54 Stage 5 –Pictorial stage increased precision and complexity ~ 8-9 yrs.

55 Fine motor development – printing and writing patterns 4yr. olds olds may be able to print recognizable letters/numbers NoNo particular organizational pattern for numbers/letters

56 5-6 yrs. = name printing5-6 yrs. = name printing –5 yrs. = ½ - 2 upper case letters –Letters become larger toward end of name –6 yrs. = similar with occasional reversals – may include surname –By 7 letters are ~1/4 inches – lowercase letters may continue to be difficult

57 By 3 rd grade Single stroke letters easier (I, c, l)Single stroke letters easier (I, c, l) Horizontal-vertical letters follow (E, T)Horizontal-vertical letters follow (E, T) Letters with Slants (horizontal- vertical) followLetters with Slants (horizontal- vertical) follow – (K, B, Z) Spacing (9 yrs.)Spacing (9 yrs.)


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