Presentation on theme: "US Department of Energy FIMS / RE Workshop"— Presentation transcript:
1US Department of Energy FIMS / RE Workshop GSHP Systems: Fundamentals, Efficiency, Uses & Design/Installation ConsiderationsJune 15, 2011US Department of Energy FIMS / RE WorkshopLas Vegas, NevadaTerry Proffer, CGDMajor Geothermal
2Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
3What is a heat pump? Examples: Heat Pumps – Definition, HistoryWhat is a heat pump?According to the second law of thermodynamics heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter areaAny mechanical device that moves energy from one space to another is considered a ‘heat pump’Modern heat pumps rely on refrigerants that easily change phase from liquid to gas and back to achieve heat transferExamples:Brine plants used to make iceIce rink plantsRefrigeratorsAir conditionersReversing air conditioners – air source heat pumpsGround source heat pumps
4GSHP systems offer other advantages in addition to energy efficiency Heat Pumps: AdvantagesGSHP systems offer other advantages in addition to energy efficiencyNo externally exposed mechanical equipmentNo external noiseNo impact from weather, vandalismLess mechanical room space, reduced infrastructureMay reduce structural componentsMay increase zoning and comfort at little additional costReduced controls complexityReduced maintenance
5No noise pollution from external equipment (eliminated) Load sharing Heat Pumps: AdvantagesLEED, green advantages2 to 15+ energy points typical of most LEED projects using GSHP systemsReduced CO2 emissions, even considering point source of electrical powerNo noise pollution from external equipment (eliminated)Load sharing
6Heat Pumps – Definition, History Air conditioners and air-source heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside.Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen.HEATHEAT
7Greater energy density in mass – gas,fluid, solid – will result Heat Pumps – The Amount of Energy in Mass Determines TemperatureGreater energy density in mass– gas,fluid, solid – will resultin a higher temperature212 °FTypical room temperature °F32 °FGround temperature about °F- 40 °FLess energy density in mass– gas,fluid, solid – willresult in a lower temperatureHeat can be taken from anything above absolute zero- 454 °F
10Heat Pumps - ExamplesThe average sheet of ice for a hockey rink can heat two or more Olympic size swimming pools, with heat to spare, with the only significant additional cost being circulation pump power
11Heat Pumps – HistoryHeat pumps are not new -1748: William Cullen demonstrates artificial refrigeration1834: Jacob Perkins builds a practical refrigerator with diethyl ether1852: Lord Kelvin describes heat pump theory1855–1857: Peter Ritter von Rittinger develops and builds the first heat pump using Lord Kelvin’s theoryIce-making ammonia brine plants were in use in the latter part of the 19th century
12Heat Pumps – HistoryMr. Bill Loosley, designed and installed a direct exchange geothermal system in his home in Burlington, ON in 1950Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
13Air coil in old oil furnace Desuperheater added to hot water tank Heat Pumps – HistoryBelt drive compressorAir coil in old oil furnaceDesuperheater added to hot water tankCourtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
14Heat Pumps – HistoryCompressor was initially powered by hand crank diesel motor… changed to electric motor (still being used!!) in 1953 when his wife couldn’t start it.Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy
15Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
16Heat Pumps – Earth Coupled Ground source heat pumps are tied to the earth for better efficiency, regardless of climateMost GSHPs rely on water to carry energy to and from the earth instead of exchanging heat with the airSome GSHP units utilize direct exchange (DX) by placing metallic lines in the earth to carry the refrigerant to achieve a phase change directlyThe amount of energy consumed to heat or cool with this technology is far less than any conventional mechanical systemTransferring energyAcquiring heat – space heating - is a renewable cycle, as GSHPs capture energy from near-surface solar gain and natural thermal gradientRejecting heat – space cooling – utilizes the nearly unlimited capacity of the earth to dissipate energy, and in some situations, permit a GSHP system to store energy to be reclaimed later
17GSHP Equipment – GSHP vs. Conventional WSHP Conventional WSHP equipment will only tolerate EWT ranges of 50°F to 80°F – this product is commonly used in commercial applications using a boiler and chillerGSHP equipment is designed to accept a wide range of EWT, typically an extended range of 20°F to 120°FThis wider temperature bandwidth capability allows for the economic installation of closed loop ground heat exchangers
18Fan & fan motor Air heat exchanger High efficiency compressor GSHP – Typical UnitFan & fan motorAir heat exchangerHigh efficiencycompressorDomestic hot waterexchangerLoop heat exchangerSolid state controls
19Typical coaxial water-refrigerant HX used in most GSHP equipment GSHP – Water-to-Refrigerant Heat ExchangerTypical coaxial water-refrigerant HX used in most GSHP equipment
20Most energy ratings or calculations describe: GSHP EfficiencyMost energy ratings or calculations describe:What you pay forvs.What you get
21COP = Btuh delivered / Btuh consumed GSHP Efficiency - HeatingGSHP systems routinely operate at efficiencies exceeding 300% in the heating mode, regardless of altitude or outside climate conditionsFor a comparison, the best conventional furnaces and boilers operate at 90% efficiency, at sea levelHeating performance is usually rated by a ratio expressed as COP (coefficient of performance):COP = Btuh delivered / Btuh consumed
22EER and SEER are not the same! GSHP Efficiency - CoolingGSHP systems routinely operate at efficiencies exceeding 15 EER in the cooling mode, regardless of altitude or outside climate conditionsEER = Energy Efficient Ratio, orEER = Cooling Btuh capacity / WattsFor a comparison, the best conventional air conditioners operate at 14 to 15 SEER, but are dependent upon outside air temperature for efficiencySEER = Seasonal Energy Efficient Ratio, orSEER = Seasonal Cooling Energy (Btu) removed / WattsHrEER and SEER are not the same!
23GSHP efficiency, the real world: GSHP Efficiency – Residential ExamplesGSHP efficiency, the real world:3,200 ft² residence, Montrose, Colorado, $325 per year to heat and cool – forced air, water-air HP, new construction3,600 ft² residence, Gunnison, Colorado, $250 per year to heat – radiant floor, water-water HP, new construction2,700 ft² residence, Golden, Colorado, $355 per year to heat, cool & make 100% of the domestic hot water – forced air, water-air/water HP, retrofit of 25+ year old homeEach of these examples use separate power meters to monitor the electricity consumed for the GSHP system
24Example analysis – 70,000 ft² assisted living facility: Heat Pumps – Mechanical System ComparisonsExample analysis – 70,000 ft² assisted living facility:A “professional” energy evaluation service predicted the GSHP system would cost double the conventional system operating cost, yet later admitted they did not understand how to model the GSHP option on their eQuest software; consider also that the client paid a substantial amount for this evaluation. Client compared the conventional operating cost with a similar sized building with equivalent use/occupancy and confirmed our estimate to be more accurate.
25Example analysis – 70,000 ft² assisted living facility: Heat Pumps – Mechanical System ComparisonsExample analysis – 70,000 ft² assisted living facility:
26Typical operating cost ranges, commercial closed loop systems GSHP –Commercial Applications – CostingTypical operating cost ranges, commercial closed loop systems$0.15 to $0.50 per ft² per year operating cost$0.05 to $0.15 per ft² per year maintenanceTypical installation (1st cost) ranges, commercial$15 to $20 per ft², 2-pipe system, packaged heat pumps, with ground loop$18 to $25 per ft², 4-pipe system with hydronic fan coils, central water-water heat pumps, with ground loopThese install costs are often within the same ranges as conventional mechanical applications. GSHP systems may be competitive on a 1st cost basis for larger commercial applications!
27Example – Hirschfeld Towers, Denver Housing Authority Heat Pumps: Commercial Example, RetrofitExample – Hirschfeld Towers, Denver Housing AuthorityOriginally built in 1960’s, remodeled in 2008DHA architect wanted no external mechanical equipmentNeighbors complained for 20+ years about condenser noiseOriginal system very high maintenance (low bid design, low bid installation – highest operating and service cost after employee overhead!)Pre-modeling determined that 100% loop driven system would be a wash with loop+combined chiller hybrid; hybrid system also added back more maintenance, op. cost, controls and infrastructure (ESCO wanted this option but was reminded by client that outside equipment was unacceptable!)Optimum system – decoupled GSHP design
28Example of de-coupled configuration, forced load sharing Heat Pumps: Commercial Example, RetrofitExample of de-coupled configuration, forced load sharingHeatPumpZone Valve12” max.T - °FT - PSIT - °F Transducer, temperature controlledT - PSI Transducer, pressure controlledPrimary – Building LoopSecondary – Injection (Ground) LoopConceptual SchematicPrimary / Secondary Loop SystemVFD Pump Control StrategyForced load sharing, reduced pumping cost
29Client estimates operating cost cut by half Heat Pumps: Commercial Example, RetrofitHirschfeld Towers, Denver, CO140,000 ft², 9 stories110 tonsVertical loop81 boreholes x 450’ depthClient estimates operating cost cut by halfMaintenance reduced by over 75%Ground loop injection only active about 55% of time annually due to forced load sharingNoise complaints from neighbors eliminated!
30No external mechanical equipment or related maintenance! Heat Pumps: Commercial Example, RetrofitCitizenship & Immigration Services Centennial, CO46,000 ft², 3 stories72 load tons, 95 equipment tonsVertical loop54 boreholes x 400’ depthLEED® SilverGSHP option was lower 1st cost compared to conventional boiler/chiller WSHP system!Ground loop injection only active about 50% of time annually due to forced load sharingNo external mechanical equipment or related maintenance!
31Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
32Water-to-Air Water-to-Water Direct Exchange Types of GSHP Systems – ApplicationsWater-to-AirForced air space heating and coolingWater-to-WaterForced air heating & cooling using hydronic fan coilsRadiant floor heat, baseboard, radiatorsDomestic hot waterProcess water conditioningSpecialized – ice sheet conditioning, thermal energy storage, otherDirect ExchangeDX-to-AirDX-to-Water
33Ground Source Heat Pumps Types of GSHP Systems – Water-Air PackagedGround Source Heat PumpsSizes and configurations for every applicationOutdoor SplitWater-to-WaterIndoor SplitUpflow & DownflowPackagedHorizontal PackagedConsoleCommercial Roof Top
38Ground heat exchanger under building footprint Typical commercial configurationsGround heat exchanger under building footprint
39Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
40Certified GeoExchange Designer (CGD) GSHP Systems – Design TeamExperienceCertified GeoExchange Designer (CGD)Certification by AEETraining/testing by IGSHPAComprehends site and potential closed and/or open loop options early in evaluation processRequires a detailed load calculation as early as possibleMakes a qualified comparison of GSHP and quality conventional options, including a life-cycle cost analysis (LCA)Understands what is necessary, and more importantly, what is a waste of time and budgetInitiates due diligence throughout the evaluation, design, installation and start-up process
42Potential red flags, Design Team: GSHP Systems – Design TeamPotential red flags, Design Team:Engineer/designer has immediate negative perception and/or history with GSHP systemsUses wrong evaluation software, or incorrectly uses tool, to kill GSHP option - ie, uses eQuest to “design” a ground loop – eQuest is not a loop design tool!Believes all that is necessary for a loop design is a peak load calculationThinks a closed loop system will always need a conventional backup systemBelieves the 1st cost of a GSHP system is always highestThinks the controls and sequence of operation will be more complex for a GSHP optionWants to run a thermal conductivity test before the system is pre-modeled, or worse, calls a TC testing service and asks them to do a TC test without any parameters for hole depth or pipe size (vertical) or probe test depth (horizontal)For an open loop option asks a water well driller for cost of a water well completion, instead of going to a hydrogeologist to design both an extraction and reinjection well systemDue diligence excludes accessing successful design and installation resources for evaluation, design and start-upRequires a vault between a closed ground loop and building, no matter the situation (goes back to understanding what is necessary, and more importantly, what is a waste of time and budget)Due diligence for the ground loop design amounts to calling a driller and asking “how much hole per ton?....”
43Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
44GSHP Systems require the following determinations for sizing: GSHP Systems – Design MethodologyGSHP Systems require the following determinations for sizing:Load calculations for the application – how much energy is required for heating and cooling to meet setpointMatch the HP equipment to the load and application specificsGround loopClosed loop – sufficient closed loop heat exchanger designOpen loop – sufficient water flow rate to meet HP and load requirements
45GSHP Systems – Design Methodology Note: Closed loop ground heat exchangers require that the ground loop have sufficient capacity to maintain a specific range of EWT to the equipment to operate indefinitely – they cannot be treated as an unlimited pipeline of energyMost closed loop systems are designed to feed GSHP equipment with an EWT range from 30°F to 90°F, although most equipment will tolerate extreme EWT ranges of 20°F to 120°F if sufficient fluid flow is maintainedClosed loop design require calculations involving loads, equipment performance and knowledge of the host geologyOne size does not fit all – rule of thumb methods cannot be used for the design of these systems!
46Load Calculations – Residential GSHP Systems – Design MethodologyLoad Calculations – ResidentialUsually a load that is driven by climatePeak heat loss and heat gain are typically sufficientLoad durations for ground loop calculations are determined by seasonal durationsLoad Calculations – CommercialTypically defined as internally drivenFor example, most commercial buildings and schools are cooling dominated, even in winterRequires a monthly energy load calculation
48GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, Residential Load durations are calculated based upon peak loads against climate bin data
49Common mistakes with commercial “design” efforts GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialCommon mistakes with commercial “design” effortsOperating and LCA calculations completed by people with no design experience, no competence with defining or identifying variablesLoop design completed by asking looping contractor how many holes will be needed (looping contractor responds with hard number without even asking for the loads, equipment flow rate, etc.)Number of circuits and depth based on rule of thumb “design”; ie, one hole per ton….Run TC test without knowing anything about the building (loads, equipment) or consideration of drilling parameters (depth, pipe size)A ground loop is a key part of the mechanical system – budgeting, evaluation, design and testing efforts are the last things that should be based on rule-of-thumb assumptions and guess-work by unqualified assets!
50Vertical, Surface Water GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, Commercial - ConsiderationsClosed LoopHeat Exchanger(Ground Loop)GSHP Schedule,Efficiency Ratings& Flow RatesCapability ofInstallation AssetsIAQ, EnergyReclamationPipe Size,SchedulePeak &Energy LoadsDeterminationof Horizontal,Vertical, Surface Waterand/or HybridSite Conditions,Physical Access& AreaRegulatoryConsiderationsScheduling orTiming of JobTimelinePipe Handling,Ease of Installation
52Commercial load output example GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialCommercial load output exampleTOTALPEAKMonthlyCOOLINGHEATINGLoad FactormbtumbtuhCoolingHeatingJanuary91620975.760001876.50.130.09February818461005.960016901.60.120.10March1335181528.425908629.00.06April1609631906.27293253.50.04May3770442735.0290.70.19June2953963171.90.00.00July3336763322.8August2841503136.240.20.03September3533182818.3300.90.170.05October1911112029.96502278.4November1410331709.116273525.10.11December970411001.836753721.10.07Your mechanical design team must be able to furnish the loads in this format for any school or commercial application.Delaware School for the Deaf, 110,000 ft², Newark, Delaware
53Must be sized to meet peak heating and cooling load of the application GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialHeat Pump SelectionMust be sized to meet peak heating and cooling load of the applicationLoad performance is balanced between Delivery variables of the system (ducting, radiant tubing, controls, other)Water flow rateEWT range
54Example performance sheet cut, nominal 5.0 ton GSHP GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialExample performance sheet cut, nominal 5.0 ton GSHP
55Starts with understanding the site and system requirements GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialClosed Loop DesignStarts with understanding the site and system requirementsLoad calculations, HP equipment scheduleRequired flow rate of the HP equipmentNumber and size of circuits is a balance between flow resistance (pressure drop) and turbulence (Reynolds #)The Reynolds number is significant for heat transfer for heating dominated loadsPressure drop and Reynolds # are directly effected by temperature and fluid type – pure water, water with antifreeze (type and %)The length of the ground loop circuits is determined by:Load durationThermal performance of the geology that the loop is installed in. Three key values are required to determine thermal performance:Undisturbed temperature - °FThermal conductivity – Btuh/ft/°FDiffusivity – ft²/dayThermal conductivity test IS NOT done until pre-design effort is complete to select best test parametersFinal design once all variables are accounted for
56Starts with the required flow rate of the HP equipment GSHP Systems – Design Methodology, CommercialOpen Loop DesignStarts with the required flow rate of the HP equipmentWater source must meet the minimum equipment flow ratesAn open loop system design assumes a relatively constant water temperatureRequires that the water be returned to the source aquifer in most casesMost states and provinces have strict regulations for the implementation of these types of heat exchangersSome jurisdictions permit the water to be returned to streams or lakes
57Drilling* Pipe Loop Insertion Fusing Piping Loops Ready for Unit GSHP Systems – ExecutionDrilling*Pipe LoopInsertionFusingPipingLoopsReady forUnitInstalledHeat Pump* or horizontal, surface water
58Do you know what contractor resources are available? GSHP Systems – ExecutionDo you know what contractor resources are available?
59Sometimes a horizontal loop can be installed – fast! GSHP Systems – Execution600+ hp NASCAR Chevy engine in custom Ditchwitch - Super Witch IVSometimes a horizontal loop can be installed – fast!600+ hp Super Witch IV6’ deep 20+ mph
60Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
61GSHP Systems – Quality Control As the primary representative of the Client, insist on quality control of the loop and mechanical installation!Contaminated header lines – Imagine what elsemight be in the rest of the ground loop!Pin flags marking borehole locations being“relocated” by driller’s pet lab – improperand unauthorized redesign!
62Pressure/temperature ports critical for GSHP Systems – Quality ControlPressure/temperature ports critical fortesting, service efforts – they must remain accessible!Maintain service clearances for airfilters, control boards, large component change outs andFunctional Performance Testing
63May be a warranty requirement! Establishes a service baseline GSHP Systems – Quality ControlCompletion of your project - consider functional performance testing (FPT) of the heat pump system:Confirms system is operating as designed and as per equipment manufacturer’s specsMay be a warranty requirement!Establishes a service baselineOften reveals ‘hiccups’ that could become issues with the client!Eliminates conflicts and finger pointing between design team and contractors!
64Introduction – history of GSHP technology and how it works Heat Pumps – OutlineIntroduction – history of GSHP technology and how it worksTypes of heat pumps, efficiencyHeat pump and loop configurations, residential and commercialSelecting a Design TeamDesign methodologyQuality controlInstallation examples
65GSHP System Example Installations Schools:CSSD #11 – Colorado Springs areaD38 – Colorado Springs areaFountain-Ft. CarsonDenver Public SchoolsAuroraMesa State CollegeFort CollinsCanon CityMoscaPuebloCalhanRangelyOak CreekYampaWeld CountyAnimasFlemingMonte VistaOther……
66Military installations: Fort Carson Army Base (5..?) GSHP System Example InstallationsMilitary installations:Fort Carson Army Base (5..?)Fort Riley Army Base (2..?)Buckley Air Force Base (3..?)USAF Academy (2..?)National Guard (Ft. Lupton, Alamosa)Colorado VA (Monte Vista)F. E. Warren AFB, Cheyenne (3..?)Ft. Polk, LALittle Rock, Charleston, Bolling, Tyndall, Offut, Langley, MacDill, others….
67Lakewood FD (4 installations current) GSHP System Example InstallationsOther commercial:Lakewood FD (4 installations current)Arvada FD (1 installation pending)United Power (Brighton)Windsor PDPikes Peak Library District (Falcon)Mt. View Electric (Falcon)Salud Clinic (Ft. Morgan)Maple Leaf Medial Clinic (Pueblo West)Citizenship & Immigration (Centennial)National Renewal Laboratories (Golden)University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (Boulder)Doerr-Hosier Events Center, Aspen Institute (Aspen)Water Treatment Admin. Facility (Glenwood Springs)Observatory (Gunnison)Senior Recreation Facility (Brighton)
68Water Treatment Admin. Facility (Aspen) Conoco/Wendys (Frisco) GSHP System Example InstallationsOther commercial:Water Treatment Admin. Facility (Aspen)Conoco/Wendys (Frisco)Auto Museum (Gateway)Homeless Shelter (Boulder)Salud Clinic (Commerce City)Hirschfeld Towers (Denver)Pioneer Museum (Hotchkiss)Holy Cross Lutheran Church (Wheat Ridge)Larimer County Waste Management (Ft. Collins)Water Treatment Admin. Facility (Rifle)M & M Ranch, Elk Processing Barn (Steamboat Springs)Green Mountain Events Center (Golden)Condominiums Complex (Snowmass Village)Golf Clubhouse (Snowmass Village)Western Dynamics (Golden)Paepke Center, Aspen Institute (Aspen)
69Eureka Lodge (Silverton) Major Geothermal (Wheat Ridge) GSHP System Example InstallationsOther commercial:Eureka Lodge (Silverton)Major Geothermal (Wheat Ridge)Housing Authority (Boulder)Midland Center (Glenwood Springs)Vitamin Cottage (Thornton)Art Museum (Carbondale)City Hall (Montrose)Bowling Alley (Nucla)Monkey House, Zoo (Pueblo)Ft. Lupton FDCandelas Community Center (Arvada)Swanbrat Professional Center (Littleton)Housing Authority (Loveland)Fairmont FD (Arvada)IKEA – 420,000 ft² (Centennial)Other…..
70Ground loop sited under driveway and landscaping GSHP System Example Installations – West Metro Fire Station #10, Lakewood, COGround loop sited under driveway and landscaping
71Two administration facilities GSHP System Example Installations – Colorado Springs School District 11Four schoolsTwo administration facilities
72Fleming School, CO Oak Creek School, CO Las Animas School, CO GSHP System Example Installations – Horizontal Loop InstallationsFleming School, COOak Creek School, COHorizontal loops save installation costs, as drill rigs are more costly to operateLas Animas School, CO
73Scottsbluff, Nebraska Aspen, Colorado GSHP System Example Installations – Pond Loop InstallationsScottsbluff, NebraskaAspen, Colorado
74Holy Cross Lutheran Church Wheat Ridge, CO GSHP System Example Installations – Church RetrofitHoly CrossLutheran ChurchWheat Ridge, CO
75Holy Cross Lutheran Church GSHP System Example Installations – Church RetrofitHoly CrossLutheran ChurchWheat Ridge, CO
76Conoco / Wendy’s, Frisco, CO GSHP System Example Installations – Church RetrofitConoco / Wendy’s, Frisco, CO40 tons water to water & water to air provides space conditioning, domestic hot water, snowmelt and radiant floor heatingHeat recovery to GHX from store refrigeration54 x 400’ vertical boresDual bay car wash60 tons water to water heat pumpSnowmelt at vehicle entry and exitAuxiliary gas boiler for snowmelt to account for unknown durationsDesigned by Major GeothermalInstalled by Major Heating76
77Greybull Elementary – Mechanical room under glass, LEED silver GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingGreybull Elementary – Mechanical room under glass, LEED silver
78Rocky Mountain High School – 72,000 ft² GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingRocky Mountain High School – 72,000 ft²
79Aspen Park Elementary School – 54,000 ft² GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingAspen Park Elementary School – 54,000 ft²
80West Elementary School – 55,000 ft² GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingWest Elementary School – 55,000 ft²
81Joint Forces Readiness Center – 150,000 ft² GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingJoint Forces Readiness Center – 150,000 ft²
82Nat’l Guard Aviation Support Facility – 92,000 ft² GSHP System Example Installations – WyomingNat’l Guard Aviation Support Facility – 92,000 ft²
83Resort lodge, Manitoba, Canada GSHP System Example Installations – Lake Loop InstallationResort lodge, Manitoba, Canada
84Courtesy of Practical GeoExchange Solutions GSHP System Example Installations – Recreational FacilitiesEast Bayfield Recreation Centre, Barrie, ON480 tonsVertical loopPort Hawkesbury Civic Centre, Port Hawkesbury, NS265 tonsHorizontal loopCourtesy of Practical GeoExchange Solutions
85US Department of Energy FIMS / RE Workshop DISCUSSION & QUESTIONSGSHP Systems: Fundamentals, Efficiency, Uses & Design/Installation Considerations QUESTIONS?June 15, 2011US Department of Energy FIMS / RE WorkshopLas Vegas, NevadaTerry Proffer, CGDMajor Geothermal