5Synonyms welt - mark decade - a period of ten years pursuit - chase triumphantly - victoriouslydenied - refusedbrutality - crueltydiligence - steady effortimplementation- carrying outpenalized - punishedsimultaneously- at the same time
8Synonyms 1. popular – well known 2. amazing – surprising 3. Battered -beaten out/rags/out of shape4. Extended – offered /expanded5. Patched – sewn up, stitched6. Invidious - unjust7. Reverent - respectful8. Generous - benevolent9. unsophisticated - inexperienced/simple/natural10. Hostile - opposing
9Antonyms Inability x ability Eagerly x indifferently Piteous x Joyous Private x publicRare x CommonWide x narrowClean x dirtyForeign x local / nativeSweet x bitterProud x humble
10Antonyms Selfish x generous Impressive x unimpressive Opulence x povertyReverence x irreverencePatronized x discouragedAscended x dethronedPrivileged x miserableNarrow x wideViolence x non – violenceTragedy x comedy
11Antonyms Brutality x kindness Slavery x freedom Seasonal x erratic Far away x nearbyMighty x tinyArtificial x naturalFascinating x uninterestingValour x cowardiceImpressive x dullSacred x unholy
12Abbreviations and Acronyms PA –P.S –BPO –KPO –B.Tech –SBI –RRB –UFO –CA –UAE –Personal AssistantPersonal Secretary / Post ScriptBusiness Process outsourcingKnowledge Process outsourcingBachelor of TechnologyState Bank of IndiaRailway Recruitment BoardUnidentified Flying objectChartered AccountantUnited Arab Emirates
13Abbreviations and Acronyms NGO –SSC –TAFE –TANSI –RAM –ROM –VISCOM –AIR –UNESCO –CAT –Non Governmental OrganisationStaff Selection CommissionTractor and Farm EquipmentTamilnadu Small Scale IndustriesRandom Access MemoryRead Only MemoryVisual CommunicationAll India RadioUnited Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural OrganisationCAT - Career Aptitude Test
14Abbreviations and Acronyms NEWS –AIDS –RADAR –SIM –ATM –SR –ILO –IAS –North East West SouthAcquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeRadio Detection And RangingSubscriber’s Identity ModuleAutomatic Teller MachineSouthern RailwaysInternational Labour OrganisationIndian Administrative Service
15HomophonesThe Colour of your is the same as that of the (hair / hare)Do you the answer? , I don’t (no / know)I can the bell from (hear / here)day on earth is measured by the (hour / our)He wants to a flat selling his house ( by / buy)The prince is the next to the throne (heir / air)The ball is into the air (thrown / throne)hairhareknownohearhereourhourbuybyheirthrown
16British English and American English Memory Tips British English LL l our re nce que ce SSAmerican EnglishLllorernsechseS
17British English and American English CentreMetreTheatrepractisefocussedorganiseprogrammecolourskilfulneigbourAmerican EnglishCenterMetertheaterpracticefocusedorganizeprogramcolorskillfulneighbor
18British English and American English Memory Tips favouritetyrefellowjamanti clockwisebonnetbootblindchipscotAmerican Englishfavoritetireguyjellycounter clock wisehoodtrunkwindow shadeFrench friesCrib
19British English and American English Memory Tips cuttingdust binfire brigadegoods trainintervaljugriseshop assistantsingletorchAmerican EnglishClippingGarbage can, trash canFire departmentfreight trainintermissionpitcherraisesales clerkone wayflash light
20British English and American English Memory Tips wash basinwind screenwitness boxzedtrumpetstormAmerican Englishsinkwind shieldwitness standzeehorntempest
21British English and American English Memory Tips British English 1. cupboard - 2. sweet - 3. flat - 4. tap - 5. Anticlockwise - 6. Bonnet – 7. Boot (of car) – 8.Blind – 9. Chips – 10. Cot –American EnglishClosetCandyApartmentFaucetCounterclockwiseHoodTrunkwindow shadeFrench friescrib
22British English and American English Memory Tips British English 1. cupboard - 2. sweet - 3. flat - 4. tap - 5. Anticlockwise - 6. Bonnet – 7. Boot (of car) – 8.Blind – 9. Chips – 10. Cot –American EnglishClosetCandyApartmentFaucetCounterclockwiseHoodTrunkwindow shadeFrench friescrib
28Compound wordsFoot hills Fly catcher Ice caps Air port Hand written Over load Moon light River bed Type writeLand markSea foodStar lightWater fallFree driveDry cleanDeep fryOut runWell defined
29Compound wordsChild hood Good will Soft ware Gentle man Insight Outpost Fast food Safe guard School boySewing machineWalking stickWash outFlash backMake overNight fallDay breakDown castRadio activeLight sensitivePale blueLight greenOut sourcingIncoming
30Prefix and Suffix Prefix un – in – en – ig – sub – em – ultra – hyper –SuffixAble- or- tion- ly- ment- ian- bleFul- ity- ic- ive- y- ous- ness- ance- ion- shiptrans –over –inter –im –pre –dis –mis –non –
31Examples Prefix mistaken in secure non violent en vision sub standard un announcedig nobleem powerultra violetinter lockdis playmistakennon violentsub standardhyper tensiontrans formover lapim possibleprefix
32Examples Securely Security Musician Comparable brightness education colourfuldangerousfriendshippartyperformancesecretivemetalliccolourfulannouncementinferior, director
33Phrasal verbs back up - support drop out – discontinue hold on - wait get over - overcomeput off - post poneset in - begincall forth - meet withdepend on - relycome in - enterturn off - switch off
34Phrasal verbs get on - have a friendly relationship, cope with give in - yieldstand out - continue to resistlay by - keep for future usegive up - abandon an attempt to do somethingget back - returnstand back - move backlay over - stop at a place on journeystand-offish - aloof, reservedlook after - take care
35Use the words / Phrases given below in a sentence of your own Use to - I used to go to the local library every Sunday.take up - The teacher took up the second lesson, on finishing the first one.On account of - On account of heavy rain, I did not got to school yesterday.To make matters worse – Already the price of Onion is very high. To make matters worse, the price of the other Vegetables is also going up everyday.Divine - To err is human, but to forgive is divine.
36Use the words / Phrases given below in a sentence of your own Testimony - The old man’s testimony helped the family to win their case.Magnanimous - Bill Gates was magnanimous when he went out to help the needy countries.harmonious - In some film songs, we find a harmonious blend of classical music and western music.On the rear side of - In our village, on the rear side of our house flows the river cauvery.an array of - An array of little children in cartoon figures stood as guards of honour for the children’s day function.
37Give the verb form / Noun form / Adjective form / Adverb form Give the verb form / Noun form / Adjective form / Adverb form Memory TipsVerb- Es- ed- ire / ize- fy- en- ate- ish- dom- ship- hood- er / - orNoun- ment- ness- tion- sion- ance- cy- ity- th- ce- ant- ar- ingAdjective- able- ible- ive- ful- al- ant- ic- aveEntAdverb- ly
38Give the verb form / Noun form / Adjective form / Adverb form Examples FearedlovedrelateunderstanddefineastonishedexciteexceedemptieddependNounfearloverelationshipunderstandingdefinitionastonishmentexcitementexcessemptinessdependenceAdjectivefearfullovablerelativeunderstanddefiniteastonishingexcitedexcessiveemptydependentAdverbfearfullylovingly-definitelyastonishinglyexcitedlyexcessivelydependently
39Words borrowed from other languages 1. ahimsa - the policy of not harming any living being2. yoga - a discipline through which one seeks union with the divine3. curry - a sauce made with vegetables4. dal / dhal - split pulse5. dhoti - loin cloth worn by men6. ghat - mountain pass.7. lathi - a heavy stick8. purdah - a veil, cover9. bonafide - in good faith, genuine
40Words borrowed from other languages 10. etcetera - and the rest11. exempligracia - for example12. Ibidem - in the same place, passage13. id est (i.e) - that is14. Notabene - notice well15. repertoire - inventory, skills of performing different tasks16. repartee - a ready and witty retort17. valet - an attendant18. bonanza - a situation to make extra money or to be successful
41Words borrowed from other languages 19. cantina - canteen20. finale - the final part of a performance.21. vendetta - a long violent agreement22. chaos - confusion or disorder23. climax - culminating point24. kudos - praise25. trauma - emotional shock.26. psyche - sour or mind.
42Know your idioms1. A penny for your thoughts? - what are you thinking about?2. a chance in a million - a very slim chance3. two sides of the same coin - two contrasting characters in the same category4. a million dollar question - a question with a much awaited and valuable answer5. as good as gold - very well behaved
43Know your idioms 6. to cash in on - to take advantage 7. thirty pieces of silver - symbol of betrayal8. drag up a child - bring up a child without proper training9. done to a turn - extremely well done10. drop out - cease to complete11. drop outs - those who withdraw12. extract from - demand and get from
44Know your idioms13. feather in one’s cap - something one may feel proud of14. follow something up - pursue15. heart and soul - completely, with utter dedication16. in deep water - in difficulties17. fish out of water - a person who does not fit in, out of place18. in hot water - in serious trouble19. second child hood - old age20. an early bird - some one who rises early
45Complete the following sentences with idioms 1. If you do something good for the world, future generations will sing your praises.2. I don’t agree with you on this matter. So don’t harp on the same3. If we don’t complete the work by tomorrow, we will have to face the music.4. The president’s frank speech struck a chord with the audience
46Complete the following sentences with idioms 5. Most of the students beat the drum for the student Leader’s college campus reforms.6. He left the company as he did not want to play second fiddle to the new manager.7. It’s natural to feel uncomfortable, when there is a power – cut during a storm. So, don’t make a strong and dance about.
47Section – B (Grammar) If Clause conditionIf-clauseMain clauseType –IProbableIf you work hard (Present)You will pass(Future)Type-IIImprobableIf you worked hard (past)You would passType- IIIImpossibleIf you had worked hardYou would have passed
49If Clause 1. If you waste water, you will suffer 2. If you lend me some money, I can buy a new car3. If Naveen is late, he will be punished4. If the bus breaks down, I won’t be able to attend the class.5. If it rains, I shall get wet.
50If Clause 6. If he studied well, he would pass the exam 7. If he went late, he would not get water8. If I won a lottery, I would feed a lot of people9. If we got out of the gate, the dog would bite us.10. If I had more money, I would buy a BMW car.
51If Clause11. If Raj had got enough water, he would have shared it with his neighbour.12. If Bagya hadn’t started early, she would have been late to work.13. If we had saved rain water more in ponds and lakes, we could have survived the drought.14. Anandh would have found a job, if he had attended the interview15. James would have got a prize, if he had performed well.
52Respond to the Following as directed Which of the options given below will suit the following sentence?If the driver had been alert. ________________(a) The accident cant be avoided(b) The accident could be avoided(c) The accident could have been avoided
53Respond to the Following as directed If I were your employer, _________ a) I will hike your salary b) I would hike your salary c) I would have hiked your salary.If you waste water, _________ a) you would have suffered. b) you would suffer c) you will suffer
54Respond to the Following as directed If I won lottery ________ a) I would buy a BMW car. b) I will buy a BMW car. c) I would have buy a BMW car._______she would have completed her work. a) If she had started in time b) If she started in time c) If she starts in time
55Respond to the Following as directed ______ it will float. a) If we dropped a piece of wood in water b) If we drop a piece of wood in water c) If we had dropped a piece of wood in waterIf the driver had been alert ____________ a) the accident can be avoided b) the accident could be avoided c) the accident could have been avoided
58Sentence Pattern 1. Raju woke up - S + V S V 2. He wore his new uniform - S + V + OS V O3. His father gave him his school bag - S + V + IO + DOS V IO DO4. He was excited - S + V + CS V C5. Reading made him a complete man - S + V + O + CS V O C6. He was going to school – S + V + AS V A
59Sentence Pattern 1. Mr.Raj is a teacher. - S + V + C S V C 2. He is my friend - S + V + CS V C3. He Wrote him a letter - S + V + IO + DOS V IO DO4. He invited me to Sriperumbudur - S + V + O + AS V O A5. I visited the temple at Sriperumbudur - S + V + O + AS V O A
60Sentence Pattern 6. We travelled in his car - S + V + A S V A 7. His car is painted green - S + V + CS V C8. We both enjoyed the trip - S + V + OS V O
61Sentence Pattern 1. Dr. Nanjappa / is / a dentist - SVC 2. He / treats / his patients / at his clinic – SVOA3. He / shows / kindness / to his patients – SVOC4. He / has dedicated / his life / for their welfare – SVOA5. He / works / cheerfully / throughout the day – SVAA6. Never / is / he / tired! – AVSC7. He / loves / his profession – SVO8. All his patients / adore / him – SVO
62Sentence Pattern 1. SV – Birds / fly S V 2. SVC – He / is / a teacher 3. SVO – He / gave / a penS V O
63Sentence Pattern 4. SVIODO – He / gave / me / a pen S V IO DO 5. SVIODOA – He / gave / me / a pen / yesterdayS V IO DO A6. SVA – He / sings / loudly.S V A7. SVOC – He / called / me / a fool.S V O C
64Identify the pattern of the following sentence : He answered my question instantly.(a) SVOA(b) SVCA(c) SVIODO.
65Question Tag ; 1. Positive Sentence – Negative Tag : a. She will be here soon, won’t she?b. There was a lot of problem. Wasn’t there?2. Negative Sentence – Positive Tag.a. She won’t be late. Will she?b. They don’t like it. Do they?
66Question Tag ;3. Words like few, rarely, hardly, little , scarcely, seldom, none and never form negative sentence. Use positive tag.a. He is scarcely aware of the tragedy, is he?b. They seldom see each other nowadays, do they?4. Suggestion :a. Let us play hockey, shall we?b. Let me go for a walk, shall I?
67Question Tag ; 1. The bus is early today, isn’t it? 2. There is no water in the tank, is there?3. People ought to keep the streets clean, outghtn’t they?4. I shall carry the bags for you, shan’t I?5. The conductor will not give you change for Rs.10/- will he?
68Question Tag ; 6. Our team will win the match, won’t it? 7. The flag has four colours on it, hasn’t it?8. I haven’t answered your questions, have I?9. Plants give out oxygen during the day, don’t they?10. You should treat each other with respect, shouldn’t you?Choose the correct question tag for the following statement. Students should be allowed to use the library every day, shouldn’t they?
69Question Tag ; 1. Positive Sentence – Negative Tag : a. She will be here soon, won’t she?b. There was a lot of problem. Wasn’t there?2. Negative Sentence – Positive Tag.a. She won’t be late. Will she?b. They don’t like it. Do they?3. Suggestion :a. Let us play hockey, shall we?b. Let me go for a walk, shall I?
70Question Tag ;Words like few, rarely, hardly, little , scarcely, seldom, none and never form negative sentence. Use positive tag.a. He is scarcely aware of the tragedy, is he?b. They seldom see each other nowadays, do they?Noteam + not = ain’t (or) aren’twill + not = won’tshall + not = shan’tcan + not = can’t
71Degrees of comparison Positive degree as + Adj + as Comparative degree Adj + er + than more + adjSuperlative degree the + Adj + est the + most + adj.
72Degrees of comparison Positive Comparative Superlative Sweet Happy Big CoolBeautifulGood / WellBad/ Evil / IllMany / MuchLittleFarSweeterHappierBiggerCoolerMore BeautifulbetterWorseMoreLessFartherSweetestHappiestBiggestCoolestMost BeautifulBestWorstMostLeastFarthest
73Degrees of Comparison1. The girl runs as fast as the boy. 2. She types as quickly as her tutor. 3. Her pen doesn’t write as smoothly as his. 4. The servant cooks as deliciously as my mother. 5. The girl isn’t as fast as the boy. 6. She is as good as he is. 7. Her pen isn’t as big as his.
74Degrees of Comparison8. The girl’s cycle is as heavy as the boy’s. 9. My old cycle isn’t as expensive as a new one. 10. Of course, it is not so comfortable as the new one. 11. And it doesn’t look as attractive as the new one, either. 12. Ice is as light as snow. 13. Your words are not as effective as your father’s. 14. My watch is just as expensive as yours, too.
75Degrees of Comparison15. This soap removes stains as effectively as the other. 16. He rides as fast as she does. 17. Bar soap doesn’t clean as effectively as soap powder. 18. The new menu is more expensive than the old menu. 19. The new waiters are better than old waiters. 20. The cream cake is richer than the plain cake. 21. The new sweets are better.
76Degrees of Comparison22. It is getting more and more and more difficult to find an expensive restaurant. 23. The prices of vegetables are going higher and higher. 24. It is getting harder and harder. 25. Air conditioners are be becoming less and less expensive. 26. Shorter the queue the faster the service. 27. The more expensive the restaurant the heavier the bill.
77Change of Kinds of Sentences : 1. What an amazing performance! (Exclamatory) The performance was amazing. (Statement). 2. Can anyone be more patient than a mother? (Interrogative) No one can be more patient than a mother. (Statement). 3. Leave the room now. (Imperative) You should leave the room immediately. (Statement).
78Transform as directed.1. How ferocious the tiger is! (into a statement) The tiger is very ferocious. 2. No one can match his intelligence (into an affirmative sentence). His intelligent is matchless. 3. Does anyone dare to disobey the headmaster?? (into a statement). No one dares to disobey the headmaster. 4. Check your belongings before you leave. (into as statement). You should check your belongings before you leave.
79Transform as directed.5. Is there any substance hotter than fire? (into a statement) There is no substance hotter than fire. 6. He is always late in completing his work. (into a negative) He is never early in completing his work. 7. How can you give up the project when it is nearing completion? (into a statement) No one can give up project when it is nearing its completion. 8. Fill all the Vessels with water. (into a statement) You should fill all the vessels with water.
81Phrases / Phrase Propositions 1. Inspite of his hard work, he was poor. 2. In the event of playing well, you will win the prize. 3. On account of her illness, she was absent. 4. Owing to joy, they danced. 5. Despite her poverty, she is honest. 6. In case of his coming late, don’t wait.
82Phrases / Phrase Propositions 7. Because of his old age, he could not walk too far 8. Seeing a tiger in front of him, he ran away. 9. Due to her illness, she did not attend her office. 10. He works day and night in order to earn a lot. 11. According to old tradition, Women were not given equal rights.