Presentation on theme: "Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides"— Presentation transcript:
1 Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides
2 Intent of Web TrainingProvide an overview of energy efficient and cost-effective design strategies for multifamily new construction buildingsBenefits of energy efficiency in multifamily new construction buildingsBuilding energy code applicable to low-rise and high-rise buildingsEnergy efficiency design conceptsInformation on financial incentives, andList of resources for energy efficiencyIt should take approximately one hour to review the contents of this training. This is not a comprehensive training, but will provide you with links to additional resources where you can learn more about multifamily energy efficiency.
3 Overview of ContentIntroduction: The Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily BuildingsUnique Aspects of Multifamily Building ConstructionDesign Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily BuildingsEnergy Efficiency Measure SelectionEnvelopeHeatingCoolingWater HeatingLightingAppliances
4 Overview of ContentHow to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code Using an Integrated ApproachHow to do Cost-Benefit and Payback AnalysesCase StudyNon-Energy Benefits of Energy EfficiencyFinancing for Energy Efficiency and Green MeasuresSummaryResources
5 Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings IntroductionValue of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings
6 Why Energy Efficiency? …to list a few Energy efficiency savesmoney, energy, and resources…making homes moreaffordable, comfortable, and attractive to residents.It increases:ComfortEnergy SavingsProperty ValueMaintenance SavingsTenant Payment Security…to list a fewA minimally compliant Title 24 building is the worst building you can legally build in California!
7 CA Residential New Construction Multifamily is making its way back into new constructionOverall home-building is down, but the proportion of multifamily to single family units permitted in California is growing*45% of new California homes permitted between January and September 2008 were multifamily** U.S. Census Bureau
8 Multifamily Trends and Projections The California Department of Finance projects there will be over 44 million people in 2020 (almost 5 million more than California’s current population) More people equates to more demand for housing
9 Unique Aspects of MF Buildings MF buildings come in high-rise and low-rise varietiesBuilding design, equipment selection, construction practices, and code regulations vary by building typeMF buildings often include nonresidential areasCommon spaces: Corridors, entry ways, laundry facilities, leasing offices, recreational rooms, etc.Energy measures must be analyzed separately if more then 20% of the total floor area is common space (i.e. one energy model for the residential area, another for the non-residential are)Mixed Use ProjectsAlso follow the above 20% rule if more than 20% nonresidential floor area.Live Work ProjectsTypically heated and/or cooled like a residence and using domestic water heating systems, so abide to residential standardsLighting in designated workspaces, however, must comply with the nonresidential prescriptive lighting requirements.MF High Rise – 4+ storiesResidential DHW and lighting code requirementsNon residential HVAC and envelope measuresMF Low Rise - 3 or fewer storiesAll residential code requirements
10 Unique Aspects of MF Buildings Split IncentivesDevelopers have less financial incentive to invest in energy efficiency when they don’t benefit from utility bill savingsEnergy efficiency measures typically benefit the tenantsDepending on whether the energy using systems are centralized or individually metered…the cost of the energy use is borne by the space occupants or the building owner/management.Energy use schedules varyIt’s difficult to predict when many tenants will be occupying the building.Domestic Hot Water (DHW): The energy used to heat water is typically a higher percentage of the overall energy due to increased occupant density and reduced building envelope areas.
11 Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency You’re probably asking yourself: Does energy efficiency really add value to a building? As energy costs continue to sharply rise, where will people want to live? Owners: can you afford not to build an energy efficient building? Designers: can you afford not to design energy efficient buildings?
12 First cost is important to consider, but the life-cycle costis an even more valuable metric …
13 Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency So … what are the costs of energy efficiency?Incremental first costsRisk (design or installation errors)Delays (procurement or design)Maintenance (knowledge)Financing
14 Offsetting Additional Costs What’s out there to help offset those costs?City & Local SupportState and Federal Tax Credits Increased Basis ThresholdResidential Utility Incentive ProgramsNew ConstructionPolicy programsEnergy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowance (EEBUA) schedulesGreen Building ProgramsLEED New HomesBIG Green PointsEnterprise Green CommunitiesNAHB Green BuilderSmart DesignLead to potential lower number of call backsLower construction costs
15 Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings
16 Design TeamEarly team collaboration results in the most cost-effective solutions:Involve an energy consultant as early as possible in the design processOptimize building orientation, window areas and any other potential design restrictions BEFORE they are locked in by the entitlement processTitle 24 can be started in schematic drawing phaseE ConsultantEngineersArchitectOwner/DevFinancingBuilderGoals/ObjectivesMaximize EfficiencyDesign & ProgramMinimize CostParameters/OptionsEnergy Efficiency Design OptionsMarketing StrategiesFinancing OptionsBuilding StrategiesAnalysisEnergy SimulationAlternativesNon-energy benefitsCost AnalysisFinal DecisionsConstruction DocumentsObtain PermitsSecure FundsInform all contractors
17 Title 24 Basics Mandatory Measures Lighting efficiencyShell insulation minimumsEquipment efficiency minimumsAppliance standardsPrescriptive Packages offer a checklist of compliance measuresEstablishes Performance baselineClimate Zone dependantPerformance Calculation allows trade-offs to meet the standard energy budget (baseline)Envelope:Orientation, Insulation, Windows, AssembliesHVAC:Heating and Cooling equipment and distributionDHW:Central and individual water heating equipment & distribution
18 Title 24 Basics2005 code was 24.3% more stringent than 2001 for electricity use and 15.7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings*2008 code is 19.7% more stringent than 2005 for electricity use and 7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings*Lower prescriptive U-factors for windowsAdditional HERS measuresRequired ventilation in residential codeMinimum prescriptive reflectivity of roof materials in specific CZOpaque building elements have different default assumptions in non-res calculation methodsImproved controls required for outdoor lighting* California Energy Commission’s Energy Impact Analysis for 2005 and 2008 Title 24, respectively.18
19 Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) TDV affects energy trade-offs in the performance approach by changing the way energy is ‘valued’ based on the time of use of that energyBefore 2005, T24 energy use estimates had a constant value regardless of the time of useTDV assigns higher value for on-peak savings, lower value for off-peak savingsFlat Energy Value used in prior standardsTime Dependent Energy Value in 2008 Standards are ‘Peakier’ than the 2005 StandardsWith TDV value a kWh saved during a high-cost peak hour is valued more highly than a kWh saved during an off-peak hourTime of DayEnergy valueTDV Values StandardsTDV Values StandardsWith flat energy value a kWh saved is valued the same for every hour of the day
20 Time Dependent Valuation (TDV) TDV favors technologies that save more energy on-peak than off-peak (and dings harder for wasteful peak usage)Greater credit for:Higher EER air conditionersLower SHGC glazingBetter duct insulation (in unconditioned spaces)Daylighting controls for lightingGreater penalties for:West-facing glassOversized, unshaded windows/skylightsGenerally neutral for:EconomizersEnvelope insulationHigh efficiency water heatingThis affects trade-off choices using the performance approach (computer simulation)20
21 Third PartyVerification 21Building department focus is Health and Life Safety, not energy efficiencyEnergy savings are not realized unless measures are installed properlyHERS rater verifies measures for T-24 complianceProvide quality assurance, making certain that products are installed properly for maximum safety and efficiencyThree C-HERS providers: CHEERS, CalCERTS, CBPCACommissioningDoes not give credit in T-24 performance or prescriptive, but a worthwhile option for you to considerAssures that equipment is working as designed
22 Third Party Verification The following measures require HERS verification if claimed for minimal Title 24 code compliance (or ENERGY STAR compliance):New in 2008 codeLow Leakage Air HandlersRefrigerant Charge Indicator Light DisplayVerified Cooling Coil AirflowEvaporatively Cooled CondensersIce Storage Air ConditionersQII for Spray Polyurethane FoamPV Field Verification ProtocolContinued from past yearsReduced Duct Leakage (6%)Supply Duct LocationDeeply Buried DuctsDuct Surface Area and R-valueAir Handler Fan Watt DrawRefrigerant ChargeHigh EER for A/CMaximum Cooling CapacityBuilding Envelope SealingQuality Insulation Installation (QII)
24 Energy Efficiency Measures Apply your understanding of individual measures to an integrated design approachThe goal is to have a good ‘package’ of measures that are cost-effective in the long run and minimize first costs as much as possibleSite ConsiderationsBuilding Envelope OptionsHVAC EquipmentWater Heating SystemLightingAppliancesOperations & MaintenanceClimateSolar AccessOrientationThese are used in Title 24 performance compliance calculationsInsulationRadiant barrierCool roofAttic ventingWindows and glazingShading of building and windows (vegetation, overhangs, etc)Infiltration/leakageQuality insulationSpace heating and coolingCorrect sizing and distributionCentral or individualStorage or tanklessDistribution controlsLocationPipe and tank insulationHardwired high efficacy lighting fixtures (CFLs, LEDs, etc)Lighting controls (dimmers, occupancy sensors, photometric sensors)ENERGY STAR® dishwashers, refrigerators, clothes washers and natural gas clothes dryersLeave a guide on how to maintain and operate a high performance building
25 California’s Climate Zones There are 16 in CaliforniaThe best package of measures will vary by building design and climate zoneEach building is unique, so there is no single “silver bullet” solution for every buildingsCoastal Climate Zones: 1-7Inland Climate Zones: 8-16
26 Envelope: Site Considerations With careful design, the building envelope can control loads that affect residential building heating and cooling energy useKeep out summer heatAllow heat penetration from the sun in the winterBuildings interact with site influences such as sun and wind throughShape and shadeBuilding OrientationInter-building shading to minimize afternoon solar heat gainPlant deciduous trees on the south sideMaterial propertiesSolar transmittance of windowsAir infiltration properties of building envelopeReflectivity and emissivity of outer surfacesShort faces of building East-West reduce heat gain when the sun is at low angles in mornings and afternoonsLong faces of building facing North-South allow heat gain when the winter sun is lower in the skyShade with summer leaves and allow sun penetration when bare in winter
27 Envelope: Windows and Ventilation Cross VentilationInlet without outlet - Breeze will not really enter spaceInlet and outlet - Cross ventilation occurs. Stack effect improves flowStack Effect: Window or roof opening for the outlet in a higher position than the opening for the inletWarm air rises and exhaustsResulting low pressure draws air in through lower openingsWindowsUse appropriate shading devicesMinimize SHGC and U-factorsSelect based on NFRC* performance valuesDual glazing – also provides acoustic insulationBetter windows can result in reduction of heating and cooling equipment size – saving first costs* NFRC = National Fenestration Ratings Council* SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
28 Envelope: Windows and Ventilation What do window ratings mean?SHGC: Fraction of solar radiation thru window (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient)If SHGC=0.53, 53% of solar heat gain transmittedLook for SHGC of 0.35, or lessVLT: Amount of visible light transmittedIf VLT=0.75, 75% of visible light transmittedLook for VLT of 0.50 or moreU-factor: Rate of heat loss:Low-emittance (Low-E) coatings are deposited on a window to suppress radiative heat flow (reduce U-factor)Look for U-factor of 0.40 or lessAir Leakage: Rate of Infiltration
29 Envelope: Insulation Basics Insulation resists the flow of heatMeasured by R-value (R = Resistance)Types:Fibrous Insulation: Blankets, Batts, Loose-fillSpray FoamRigid Foam PanelsInsulated Concrete Forms (ICF)Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS)Better insulation can help reduce HVAC equipment size by reducing heating and cooling loadsSource:Source:Source:Source:Source:Source:
30 Envelope: Insulation Basics Insulation is cost effective when installed correctly:In continuous contact with air barrierNo gapsNo compressionsNo voidsStandard Practice: Poor installationGaps and voidsNot in contact with air barrier (drywall)Compression
31 Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices:Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless…A quality insulation installation (QII) inspection is conducted by a HERS rater and passes the following points:Fully lofted and filled framing cavities (no compression)Full contact with air barrierRim joists insulatedBatts butt-fit or split around wiring and plumbingWall cavities caulked or foamed for air-tight sealPre-insulation of hard-to-access wall stud cavitiesKnee walls and skylight shafts insulated to min. R-19Insulation over all recessed lighting fixtures
32 Envelope: Insulation Basics Due to poor installation practices:Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless…The Thermal Bypass Checklist and QII are requirements for the ENERGY STAR for Homes labelThe checklist requires inspection of the following to ensure the building envelope is thermally efficient:Overall air barrier and thermal barrier alignmentWalls Adjoining Exterior Walls or Unconditioned SpacesFloors between Conditioned and Exterior SpacesShaftsAttic/Ceiling InterfaceCommon Walls Between Dwelling Units
33 Envelope: Radiant Barrier Radiant barrier is most effective in cooling-dominated zones because it reflects heat from the sun, preventing it from penetrating the attic spaceBenefitsCan reduce attic heat by up to 30% and block up to 97% of radiant heat gainReduced heat gain in duct workDoes not carry heating penalty of cool roofsNo additional labor costs (new construction)TypesSingle-sided foil stapled to roof joists (retrofit)Foil-faced roof sheathing (new construction)InstallationMust be adjacent to air gapMust face down (to avoid dust accumulation)
34 Heating and Cooling Federal Appliance Standards System TypeSplit DXPackaged TerminalAir Conditioning/Heat PumpHydronicFan Coil/FurnaceCoolingEfficiency MetricSeasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)/ Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER)SEER/EERN/AHeatingHeating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF)/ Coefficient of Performance (COP)HSPF/COPEnergy Factor (EF)Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE)AdvantagesOccupies little interior spaceCan cool multiple rooms/large areasNo ductworkEfficient in individual roomsCan combine with DHW systemDucted or ductlessDisadvantagesNeed adjacent or roof spaceOccupies wall spaceSeen on bldg exteriorAdditional plumbing requiredNot packaged with A/CFederal Appliance StandardsSEER 13 Federal Standards in effect since Jan 23, 2006 (National Appliance Efficiency Conservation Act)Title 24 does not govern equipment efficiency of federally mandated equipment
35 HVAC Equipment SizingProperly sized equipment can reduce energy usage by as much as 35%Energy loss due to improper sizing can be greater than savings from higher efficiency equipmentTools for proper sizingThe Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA):Guidelines for sizing HVAC equipment & ACCA Manual J Residential Load CalculationThe American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE ):HandbooksSheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA):Residential Comfort Manual
36 Tools for HVAC Selection Directory of ARI (Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute) Verified HVAC EquipmentCalifornia Energy Commission Certified Equipment DirectoryENERGY STAR® Savings Calculator
37 SEER vs. EERMinimum air conditioner efficiency is based on SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) because of Federal StandardsSEER is the only performance indicator allowed on manufacturer labelsSEER test conducted at 82º F: Southeast US; warm, humid climatesEER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) is the full load efficiency at specific operating conditionsEER test conducted at 95º F: California conditions; hot, dry climateHelps reduce peak loadsCredit granted for higher EER in 2008 Title 24Manufacturers not required to report EERRequires HERS inspection to obtain Title 24 credit
38 HVAC: HERS Compliance Measures High Efficiency Air ConditionerAir Handler Watt DrawMinimum Cooling CapacityDuct Sealing and TestingLow Leakage Air HandlersRefrigerant Charge Measurement or Refrigerant Charge Indicator Light DisplayDuct Location (within conditioned space)Blower Door Test (Envelope infiltration)Verified Cooling Coil AirflowEvaporatively Cooled CondensersIce Storage Air ConditionersHigher SEERHigher EERHigh efficiency fan & duct system with low wattage fan“Right sized” cooling system criteriaSource: National Renewable Energy LaboratoryReduce duct leakage to 6%No more than 12 lineal feet of supply duct is outside the conditioned space12’ includes the air handler and plenum length
39 Ducts Reduce distribution losses by: Placing ducts within conditioned spaceConduct tight duct testIncrease duct insulationCorrectly size ductsRun duct as straight as possibleUnsealed duct systems can leak 20-40% of their conditioned airTight ducts are <6%R-4.2, 6 or 8 duct insulation prescriptively required depending on climate zoneAn exception is allowed if more efficient windows and/or HVAC systems are provided (except CZ 15)
40 Water Heating TypesWater heating energy represents a significant portion of the overall energy budget in multifamily buildingsWater Heating System Considerations:Storage or Tankless/InstantaneousGas or ElectricCentral or IndividualIndirect or DirectIntegrated with space heating system?
41 Water Heating: Central Systems Important Elements of Energy Efficient Central Water Heating SystemsHigh efficiency hot water sourceRecirculation loop designed for efficiencyRecirculation loop controlsWell insulated hot water piping and storage tankEfficient fixtures and appliances that reduce hot water consumptionLarge boilers with indirect storage tanks last longer than smaller water heaters and can often be repaired rather than replaced.The federal minimum standard for large gas boilers is 80% thermal efficiencySimple atmospheric boilers can reach a maximum of about 82% thermal efficiencyCondensing boilers can attain thermal efficiencies up to 98% by capturing the sensible and latent heat from the flue gases.Central hot water systems designed with continuous recirculation systems are simple and keep tenant complaints to a minimum, but are extremely inefficient.Significant energy savings can be achieved with a well designed “structured plumbing” recirculation loop and advanced boiler modulation and/or demand controlsTimer Controls shut off the recirculation pump at time when the hot water draw is expected to be minimalTemperature Controls shut off the recirculation pump when the return water reaches a temperature thresholdDemand Controls are more advanced than the basic timer and temperature controls, charging the loop with hot water in response to demandTemperature Modulation Controls save energy by reducing the temperature of the tank water in times of low demand
42 Water Heating: Central Systems Trade-Offs of Central DHW systemsHot Water Sub-MeteringConservation vs. EfficiencyTenants have incentive to conserve water and energy when they pay the utility billUtility Submeter Applications manufactures only CA approved hot water sub-meterBoiler Performance & MaintenanceCondensing or not, boilers require annual tune-upsSpecialty service and corrosion resistant parts cause higher maintenance costsEfficiency varies with operating condition temperatures
43 Water Heating: Solar Hot Water Title 24 does give credit for solar hot water heating (solar PV does not)Solar hot water is one of the easiest methods of achieving high levels of energy efficiencyAlternative to high-efficiency boilersParticularly complimentary to central systemsT-24 consultant uses a savings fraction calculator, and solar designer determines size of the actual systemSolar fraction = the percentage of total hot water heating that the solar system will deliverImage Sources:
44 Lighting Lighting Terminology Lamp = Light Bulb Lumen = A unit of Visible LightLuminaire = Light FixtureEfficacy = Efficiency of Lighting Product (Lumens/watt)
45 Lighting Tri-Phosphor Fluorescent Same technology as color televisionThere is only one “full spectrum” lampCompact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFL)Can be used throughout the homeAvailability and selection increasingLED (Light Emitting Diode)Approx 20 lumens per wattCan be installed:Under countersHallways, staircasesStill limited by productionLighting ControlsDimmersOccupancyPhotosensorsTimersMotion Sensors45
46 Lighting All Title 24 lighting requirements are mandatory Not part of prescriptive packageNot part of residential energy performance calculation budgetPrimarily impacts dwelling unitsThe Standards apply only to permanently installed luminaires46
47 Lighting T-24 Residential Lighting Standards Kitchens 50% of total wattage must be high efficicacyLow efficicacy luminaires must be switched separatelyBathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, closets, and utility roomsHigh efficacy OR Controlled by a manual-on occupant sensorAll other residential spacesHigh efficacy OR Controlled by a dimmer switch or manual-on occupancy sensorTABLE 150-C High Efficacy Luminaire RequirementsLamp Power RatingMinimum Lamp Efficacy5 watts or less30 lumens per wattover 5 and to 15 watts40 lumens per wattover 15 watts to 40 watts50 lumens per wattover 40 watts60 lumens per watt47
48 Appliances Look for the ENERGY STAR® label on all appliances RefrigeratorsChoose refrigerators 20+% more efficient than federal standardsTop freezer models are more efficient than side-by-side modelsRefrigerators under 25 cubic feet are sufficientDishwashersLook for models that save water AND energyEnergy Factor (EF) of at least 0.65“no heat dry” option can save additional energyClothes WashersHigh Modified Energy Factor (MEF) - dryer and water heating energyLow Water Factor (WF) - gallons needed per cubic foot of laundryFront loading washers are generally more efficient than top loadingClothes DryersDryness sensor for automatic shut-off when clothes are dryDiscount for bulk purchases at
49 How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code using Integrated Approach
50 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 What measures are needed in 2008 standards to get a ~15% compliance margin?Measures vary by building typeHigh rise versus low riseCentral versus distributed systemsAmount of building self shadingBuilding geometryMeasures vary by climate zoneFocus on measures affecting largest energy usePeak demand related measures firstThe “average” answer has little use. There is no “magic bullet” solution for all buildings and climate zones
51 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 Building simulation software can evaluate the effectiveness of multiple measures and compare those results with alternate combinationsAdding insulation will reduce cooling and heating loadsCombining a radiant barrier with a lower level of insulation may reduce cooling loads more affectively than maximizing insulation aloneThe goal of the integrated design process is to seek the most cost-effective combination of energy efficient measuresBalance first costs and energy savings
52 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildings
53 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24 The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildingsSome measure will have more impact inland than coastalWindow SHGCCooling EERSome measures will have more impact in coastal climate zonesDHW System Efficiency
55 Cost Benefit Analysis Process Identify cost-effective energy efficiency measuresFind utility rates and multiply by kWh and Therm savingsSpecify EE measures in building energy simulation softwareFind incremental cost estimate for each measure (DEER database)*Use simulation software output for kWH and Therm savingsDivide estimated annual utility savings by incremental measure costs to get the number of year paybackIf the cost-benefit numbers aren’t satisfactory, change the mix of measures and begin again*
56 Example: Upgrade Detail OriginalSpecificationEnergy EfficiencyUpgradeCostImplicationSavingsper yearPaybackPeriodCeilingAtticR-38R-30 + RadiantBarrier$7,000$151/UnitOr$6,0701.6 years(after $6,000 utility incentive)WallWood frame,2x4, R-13Wood frame,2x4, R-13N/AFenestrationDual pane,Alum. frameLow-e2,Vinyl frame$3,900SpaceHeatingRoom heatpump(6.6 HSPF)Room heat pump(downsized)(2.841 COP)($1,163)SpaceCoolingRoom heatpump (10 EER)Room heat pump(downsized) (11.26 EER)IncludedWaterHeatingCentral Boiler,recirc. Loopw/aquastat controlCentral Boiler,recirc. loopw/demandpump control$0.00$2,160immediateNote: Costs are illustrative and not definitive. Example is also illustrative; combination of measures will vary by building and location.
58 Case Study – Project Details Project name:Cottonwood Creek ApartmentsOwner:BRIDGE Housing CorporationArchitect:KTGY GroupLocation:Suisun City, CaliforniaCalifornia Climate Zone: 12Dwelling Units: 94Percent better than 2005 California Residential Building Code: 17.6%Cottonwood Creek Apartments received design assistance, cash incentives, and training opportunities through their participation in the CMFNH program, funded by Pacific Gas & Electric.
59 Case Study – EE Measures Installed Overall site layout increased energy efficiency by:Maximizing daylightingStrategic landscaping to minimize solar gain in the summers and encourage it in the winter
60 Case Study – EE Measures Installed Materials and mechanical systems materials contributing to energy efficiency included:Radiant barrier roof sheathingLow E² thermally efficient windowsThird-party HERS-rated HVAC equipment to ensure maximum performance of the systemRaised heel trusses for increased insulationA high-performing building envelope complete with Quality Insulation InstallationDucts in conditioned spaces, tested and verified for leakage
61 Case Study – EE Measures Installed In addition BRIDGE also incorporated high efficiency ENERGY STAR® appliances and lighting:Refrigerators, dishwashers, and front-loading washers and dryersFluorescent lighting, light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs, and motion sensor lights in the community building.
62 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis As a result of the advanced planning and clear goals BRIDGE exceeded Title 24 by over 17% without significant impact on the cost of the project.Estimated $85,000 spent on incremental energy efficiency upgrades ($0.71 per square foot).CMFNH incentives received = $38,540, reducing net cost of EE measures to $0.39 per square footTotal hard costs for the project ≈ $143/sqft
63 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cost of energy efficiency upgrades only ≈ 0.27% of hard costs!
64 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis Cottonwood Creek Apartments is expected to save…27, kWh every year through good design+ 12, kWh savings from appliancesThis one project will be saving enough energy every year to power roughly six California single-family homes.
65 Case Study – PaybackCost of EE upgrade $85,000 Utility incentives - $38,540 Net Cost of EE Measures $48,455 Annual energy savings (kWh) 39, Utility Cost (per kWh) x $ 0.14 Annual utility cost savings $5, Payback Period = 48,455/5,582 = 8.7 years
67 Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency Beyond energy savings, energy efficiency benefits include:MarketabilityBuyers and tenants value homes that are easy and inexpensive to maintainAs well as socially and environmentally responsibleComfortMeasures to reduce energy use also produce more comfortable living conditionsPublic recognitionAwards are given by numerous associations for achievement in energy efficiency.Receipt of such awards may give your business credibility and prestige
68 Beyond EE – Green Measures Non toxic materials and finishesLow VOC Paints, carpet, cabinetsBetter indoor air qualityLocal and replenishable materialsForest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified wood productsRecycled materialsWater conservationLandscapingIrrigationIndigenous plant speciesPlumbing & AppliancesDual flush toiletsLow flow shower and sink fixtures
69 Beyond EE – Green Measures Storm water controlGreen roofsWater captureInsulating and cool roof propertiesPermeable surfacesPrevent water run-off and stormwater pollutionGreywater systemsOnsite water recyclingLocationProximity of transportation and amenitiesLow environmental impact
70 Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures
71 Financing Energy Efficiency Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTCs) are awarded to new construction and rehabilitation projects on a competitive points basis155 points required to be competitive in the 4% and 9% categoriesMaximum of eight points available for incorporating sustainable measures, including energy efficiencyOf those 8 points, 6 are available for energy efficiencyExceed Title 24 by at least 10% - 4 pointsEnergy Star rated fans, whole house fan, economizer cycle on HVAC system – 2 points
72 Financing Energy Efficiency Additional discretionary threshold basis limits boost up to 5% of the project’s basis limit.Exceed Title 24 by 15% or moreDistributive energy technologiesRenewable energy sourcesTankless water heatersHigh efficiency condensing boilerSolar thermal domestic hot water system
73 Financing Energy Efficiency Federal Tax Credits for New Homes are available for site built homes, excluding rental properties and non-profits.$2,000 to builder for each home whose performance is calculated to exceed Heating and Cooling Use of Section 404 of 2004 Supplement of the IECC by 50%)The New Solar Homes Partnership offers rebates to reduce (buy-down) the initial cost of a photovoltaic system in new residential construction (single and multifamily).$2.50/watt for market-rate housing$3.50/watt for affordable housing projectsProject must exceed Title 24 by at least 15%
75 Summary Points Title 24 defines the worst building allowed by law Early team collaboration allows for integrated and cost-effective decisionsConsider lifecycle cost, including non-energy benefitsLocal, statewide and federal financial incentives are available to offset incremental costs of energy efficiency upgradesUse a performance approach to find the best package of cost-effective measures for each unique projectThird Party verification allows for performance credits and quality assuranceE ConsultantEngineersArchitectOwner/DevFinancingBuilder
77 Resources Program Information US EPA ENERGY STAR® Program California Multifamily New Homes Program: PG&ECalifornia Advanced Homes Program: SCE, SDG&E, SoCalGasCalifornia Multifamily Energy Efficiency Programs
78 Resources General EE Resources Energy Design Resources California Energy CommissionCalifornia Association of Building Energy Consultants (CABEC)California Multifamily Housing ConsortiumPartnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH)US Green Building Council (USGBC)
79 Resources Verification and HERS rating California Home Energy Efficiency Rating SystemCalCERTSCBPCAResnetBuilding Commissioning Association
80 Resources Finance Energy-Efficient Mortgages Solar and Wind Financial Incentives & Tax CreditsEnergy Efficiency-Based Utility AllowanceCalifornia Housing Finance Agency (CalHFA)EnergyWi$e Construction Funding Directory