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Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides

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1 Multifamily Energy Efficiency Web Training 80 Slides

2 Intent of Web Training Provide an overview of energy efficient and cost-effective design strategies for multifamily new construction buildings Benefits of energy efficiency in multifamily new construction buildings Building energy code applicable to low-rise and high-rise buildings Energy efficiency design concepts Information on financial incentives, and List of resources for energy efficiency It should take approximately one hour to review the contents of this training. This is not a comprehensive training, but will provide you with links to additional resources where you can learn more about multifamily energy efficiency.

3 Overview of Content Introduction: The Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings Unique Aspects of Multifamily Building Construction Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings Energy Efficiency Measure Selection Envelope Heating Cooling Water Heating Lighting Appliances

4 Overview of Content How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code Using an Integrated Approach How to do Cost-Benefit and Payback Analyses Case Study Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures Summary Resources

5 Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings
Introduction Value of Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings

6 Why Energy Efficiency? …to list a few
Energy efficiency saves money, energy, and resources… making homes more affordable, comfortable, and attractive to residents. It increases: Comfort Energy Savings Property Value Maintenance Savings Tenant Payment Security …to list a few A minimally compliant Title 24 building is the worst building you can legally build in California!

7 CA Residential New Construction
Multifamily is making its way back into new construction Overall home-building is down, but the proportion of multifamily to single family units permitted in California is growing* 45% of new California homes permitted between January and September 2008 were multifamily* * U.S. Census Bureau

8 Multifamily Trends and Projections
The California Department of Finance projects there will be over 44 million people in 2020 (almost 5 million more than California’s current population) More people equates to more demand for housing

9 Unique Aspects of MF Buildings
MF buildings come in high-rise and low-rise varieties Building design, equipment selection, construction practices, and code regulations vary by building type MF buildings often include nonresidential areas Common spaces: Corridors, entry ways, laundry facilities, leasing offices, recreational rooms, etc. Energy measures must be analyzed separately if more then 20% of the total floor area is common space (i.e. one energy model for the residential area, another for the non-residential are) Mixed Use Projects Also follow the above 20% rule if more than 20% nonresidential floor area. Live Work Projects Typically heated and/or cooled like a residence and using domestic water heating systems, so abide to residential standards Lighting in designated workspaces, however, must comply with the nonresidential prescriptive lighting requirements. MF High Rise – 4+ stories Residential DHW and lighting code requirements Non residential HVAC and envelope measures MF Low Rise - 3 or fewer stories All residential code requirements

10 Unique Aspects of MF Buildings
Split Incentives Developers have less financial incentive to invest in energy efficiency when they don’t benefit from utility bill savings Energy efficiency measures typically benefit the tenants Depending on whether the energy using systems are centralized or individually metered… the cost of the energy use is borne by the space occupants or the building owner/management. Energy use schedules vary It’s difficult to predict when many tenants will be occupying the building. Domestic Hot Water (DHW): The energy used to heat water is typically a higher percentage of the overall energy due to increased occupant density and reduced building envelope areas.

11 Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency
You’re probably asking yourself: Does energy efficiency really add value to a building? As energy costs continue to sharply rise, where will people want to live? Owners: can you afford not to build an energy efficient building? Designers: can you afford not to design energy efficient buildings?

12 First cost is important to consider,
but the life-cycle cost is an even more valuable metric …

13 Cost Benefits of Energy Efficiency
So … what are the costs of energy efficiency? Incremental first costs Risk (design or installation errors) Delays (procurement or design) Maintenance (knowledge) Financing

14 Offsetting Additional Costs
What’s out there to help offset those costs? City & Local Support State and Federal Tax Credits Increased Basis Threshold Residential Utility Incentive Programs New Construction Policy programs Energy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowance (EEBUA) schedules Green Building Programs LEED New Homes BIG Green Points Enterprise Green Communities NAHB Green Builder Smart Design Lead to potential lower number of call backs Lower construction costs

15 Design Concepts and Practices for Energy Efficiency in Multifamily Buildings

16 Design Team Early team collaboration results in the most cost-effective solutions: Involve an energy consultant as early as possible in the design process Optimize building orientation, window areas and any other potential design restrictions BEFORE they are locked in by the entitlement process Title 24 can be started in schematic drawing phase E Consultant Engineers Architect Owner/Dev Financing Builder Goals/Objectives Maximize Efficiency Design & Program Minimize Cost Parameters/Options Energy Efficiency Design Options Marketing Strategies Financing Options Building Strategies Analysis Energy Simulation Alternatives Non-energy benefits Cost Analysis Final Decisions Construction Documents Obtain Permits Secure Funds Inform all contractors

17 Title 24 Basics Mandatory Measures
Lighting efficiency Shell insulation minimums Equipment efficiency minimums Appliance standards Prescriptive Packages offer a checklist of compliance measures Establishes Performance baseline Climate Zone dependant Performance Calculation allows trade-offs to meet the standard energy budget (baseline) Envelope: Orientation, Insulation, Windows, Assemblies HVAC: Heating and Cooling equipment and distribution DHW: Central and individual water heating equipment & distribution

18 Title 24 Basics 2005 code was 24.3% more stringent than 2001 for electricity use and 15.7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings* 2008 code is 19.7% more stringent than 2005 for electricity use and 7% for gas usage for new multifamily buildings* Lower prescriptive U-factors for windows Additional HERS measures Required ventilation in residential code Minimum prescriptive reflectivity of roof materials in specific CZ Opaque building elements have different default assumptions in non-res calculation methods Improved controls required for outdoor lighting * California Energy Commission’s Energy Impact Analysis for 2005 and 2008 Title 24, respectively. 18

19 Time Dependent Valuation (TDV)
TDV affects energy trade-offs in the performance approach by changing the way energy is ‘valued’ based on the time of use of that energy Before 2005, T24 energy use estimates had a constant value regardless of the time of use TDV assigns higher value for on-peak savings, lower value for off-peak savings Flat Energy Value used in prior standards Time Dependent Energy Value in 2008 Standards are ‘Peakier’ than the 2005 Standards With TDV value a kWh saved during a high-cost peak hour is valued more highly than a kWh saved during an off-peak hour Time of Day Energy value TDV Values Standards TDV Values Standards With flat energy value a kWh saved is valued the same for every hour of the day

20 Time Dependent Valuation (TDV)
TDV favors technologies that save more energy on-peak than off-peak (and dings harder for wasteful peak usage) Greater credit for: Higher EER air conditioners Lower SHGC glazing Better duct insulation (in unconditioned spaces) Daylighting controls for lighting Greater penalties for: West-facing glass Oversized, unshaded windows/skylights Generally neutral for: Economizers Envelope insulation High efficiency water heating This affects trade-off choices using the performance approach (computer simulation) 20

21 Third PartyVerification
21 Building department focus is Health and Life Safety, not energy efficiency Energy savings are not realized unless measures are installed properly HERS rater verifies measures for T-24 compliance Provide quality assurance, making certain that products are installed properly for maximum safety and efficiency Three C-HERS providers: CHEERS, CalCERTS, CBPCA Commissioning Does not give credit in T-24 performance or prescriptive, but a worthwhile option for you to consider Assures that equipment is working as designed

22 Third Party Verification
The following measures require HERS verification if claimed for minimal Title 24 code compliance (or ENERGY STAR compliance): New in 2008 code Low Leakage Air Handlers Refrigerant Charge Indicator Light Display Verified Cooling Coil Airflow Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Ice Storage Air Conditioners QII for Spray Polyurethane Foam PV Field Verification Protocol Continued from past years Reduced Duct Leakage (6%) Supply Duct Location Deeply Buried Ducts Duct Surface Area and R-value Air Handler Fan Watt Draw Refrigerant Charge High EER for A/C Maximum Cooling Capacity Building Envelope Sealing Quality Insulation Installation (QII)

23 Energy Efficiency Measure Selection

24 Energy Efficiency Measures
Apply your understanding of individual measures to an integrated design approach The goal is to have a good ‘package’ of measures that are cost-effective in the long run and minimize first costs as much as possible Site Considerations Building Envelope Options HVAC Equipment Water Heating System Lighting Appliances Operations & Maintenance Climate Solar Access Orientation These are used in Title 24 performance compliance calculations Insulation Radiant barrier Cool roof Attic venting Windows and glazing Shading of building and windows (vegetation, overhangs, etc) Infiltration/leakage Quality insulation Space heating and cooling Correct sizing and distribution Central or individual Storage or tankless Distribution controls Location Pipe and tank insulation Hardwired high efficacy lighting fixtures (CFLs, LEDs, etc) Lighting controls (dimmers, occupancy sensors, photometric sensors) ENERGY STAR® dishwashers, refrigerators, clothes washers and natural gas clothes dryers Leave a guide on how to maintain and operate a high performance building

25 California’s Climate Zones
There are 16 in California The best package of measures will vary by building design and climate zone Each building is unique, so there is no single “silver bullet” solution for every buildings Coastal Climate Zones: 1-7 Inland Climate Zones: 8-16

26 Envelope: Site Considerations
With careful design, the building envelope can control loads that affect residential building heating and cooling energy use Keep out summer heat Allow heat penetration from the sun in the winter Buildings interact with site influences such as sun and wind through Shape and shade Building Orientation Inter-building shading to minimize afternoon solar heat gain Plant deciduous trees on the south side Material properties Solar transmittance of windows Air infiltration properties of building envelope Reflectivity and emissivity of outer surfaces Short faces of building East-West reduce heat gain when the sun is at low angles in mornings and afternoons Long faces of building facing North-South allow heat gain when the winter sun is lower in the sky Shade with summer leaves and allow sun penetration when bare in winter

27 Envelope: Windows and Ventilation
Cross Ventilation Inlet without outlet - Breeze will not really enter space Inlet and outlet - Cross ventilation occurs. Stack effect improves flow Stack Effect: Window or roof opening for the outlet in a higher position than the opening for the inlet Warm air rises and exhausts Resulting low pressure draws air in through lower openings Windows Use appropriate shading devices Minimize SHGC and U-factors Select based on NFRC* performance values Dual glazing – also provides acoustic insulation Better windows can result in reduction of heating and cooling equipment size – saving first costs * NFRC = National Fenestration Ratings Council * SHGC = Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

28 Envelope: Windows and Ventilation
What do window ratings mean? SHGC: Fraction of solar radiation thru window (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) If SHGC=0.53, 53% of solar heat gain transmitted Look for SHGC of 0.35, or less VLT: Amount of visible light transmitted If VLT=0.75, 75% of visible light transmitted Look for VLT of 0.50 or more U-factor: Rate of heat loss: Low-emittance (Low-E) coatings are deposited on a window to suppress radiative heat flow (reduce U-factor) Look for U-factor of 0.40 or less Air Leakage: Rate of Infiltration

29 Envelope: Insulation Basics
Insulation resists the flow of heat Measured by R-value (R = Resistance) Types: Fibrous Insulation: Blankets, Batts, Loose-fill Spray Foam Rigid Foam Panels Insulated Concrete Forms (ICF) Structural Insulated Panels (SIPS) Better insulation can help reduce HVAC equipment size by reducing heating and cooling loads Source: Source: Source: Source: Source: Source:

30 Envelope: Insulation Basics
Insulation is cost effective when installed correctly: In continuous contact with air barrier No gaps No compressions No voids Standard Practice: Poor installation Gaps and voids Not in contact with air barrier (drywall) Compression

31 Envelope: Insulation Basics
Due to poor installation practices: Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless… A quality insulation installation (QII) inspection is conducted by a HERS rater and passes the following points: Fully lofted and filled framing cavities (no compression) Full contact with air barrier Rim joists insulated Batts butt-fit or split around wiring and plumbing Wall cavities caulked or foamed for air-tight seal Pre-insulation of hard-to-access wall stud cavities Knee walls and skylight shafts insulated to min. R-19 Insulation over all recessed lighting fixtures

32 Envelope: Insulation Basics
Due to poor installation practices: Insulation R-value is devalued by 13% when using the performance approach for T-24 compliance, unless… The Thermal Bypass Checklist and QII are requirements for the ENERGY STAR for Homes label The checklist requires inspection of the following to ensure the building envelope is thermally efficient: Overall air barrier and thermal barrier alignment Walls Adjoining Exterior Walls or Unconditioned Spaces Floors between Conditioned and Exterior Spaces Shafts Attic/Ceiling Interface Common Walls Between Dwelling Units

33 Envelope: Radiant Barrier
Radiant barrier is most effective in cooling-dominated zones because it reflects heat from the sun, preventing it from penetrating the attic space Benefits Can reduce attic heat by up to 30% and block up to 97% of radiant heat gain Reduced heat gain in duct work Does not carry heating penalty of cool roofs No additional labor costs (new construction) Types Single-sided foil stapled to roof joists (retrofit) Foil-faced roof sheathing (new construction) Installation Must be adjacent to air gap Must face down (to avoid dust accumulation)

34 Heating and Cooling Federal Appliance Standards
System Type Split DX Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning/ Heat Pump Hydronic Fan Coil/ Furnace Cooling Efficiency Metric Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER)/ Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) SEER/EER N/A Heating Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF)/ Coefficient of Performance (COP) HSPF/COP Energy Factor (EF) Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) Advantages Occupies little interior space Can cool multiple rooms/large areas No ductwork Efficient in individual rooms Can combine with DHW system Ducted or ductless Disadvantages Need adjacent or roof space Occupies wall space Seen on bldg exterior Additional plumbing required Not packaged with A/C Federal Appliance Standards SEER 13 Federal Standards in effect since Jan 23, 2006 (National Appliance Efficiency Conservation Act) Title 24 does not govern equipment efficiency of federally mandated equipment

35 HVAC Equipment Sizing Properly sized equipment can reduce energy usage by as much as 35% Energy loss due to improper sizing can be greater than savings from higher efficiency equipment Tools for proper sizing The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA): Guidelines for sizing HVAC equipment & ACCA Manual J Residential Load Calculation The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE ): Handbooks Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA): Residential Comfort Manual

36 Tools for HVAC Selection
Directory of ARI (Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute) Verified HVAC Equipment California Energy Commission Certified Equipment Directory ENERGY STAR® Savings Calculator

37 SEER vs. EER Minimum air conditioner efficiency is based on SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) because of Federal Standards SEER is the only performance indicator allowed on manufacturer labels SEER test conducted at 82º F: Southeast US; warm, humid climates EER (Energy Efficiency Ratio) is the full load efficiency at specific operating conditions EER test conducted at 95º F: California conditions; hot, dry climate Helps reduce peak loads Credit granted for higher EER in 2008 Title 24 Manufacturers not required to report EER Requires HERS inspection to obtain Title 24 credit

38 HVAC: HERS Compliance Measures
High Efficiency Air Conditioner Air Handler Watt Draw Minimum Cooling Capacity Duct Sealing and Testing Low Leakage Air Handlers Refrigerant Charge Measurement or Refrigerant Charge Indicator Light Display Duct Location (within conditioned space) Blower Door Test (Envelope infiltration) Verified Cooling Coil Airflow Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Ice Storage Air Conditioners Higher SEER Higher EER High efficiency fan & duct system with low wattage fan “Right sized” cooling system criteria Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Reduce duct leakage to 6% No more than 12 lineal feet of supply duct is outside the conditioned space 12’ includes the air handler and plenum length

39 Ducts Reduce distribution losses by:
Placing ducts within conditioned space Conduct tight duct test Increase duct insulation Correctly size ducts Run duct as straight as possible Unsealed duct systems can leak 20-40% of their conditioned air Tight ducts are <6% R-4.2, 6 or 8 duct insulation prescriptively required depending on climate zone An exception is allowed if more efficient windows and/or HVAC systems are provided (except CZ 15)

40 Water Heating Types Water heating energy represents a significant portion of the overall energy budget in multifamily buildings Water Heating System Considerations: Storage or Tankless/Instantaneous Gas or Electric Central or Individual Indirect or Direct Integrated with space heating system?

41 Water Heating: Central Systems
Important Elements of Energy Efficient Central Water Heating Systems High efficiency hot water source Recirculation loop designed for efficiency Recirculation loop controls Well insulated hot water piping and storage tank Efficient fixtures and appliances that reduce hot water consumption Large boilers with indirect storage tanks last longer than smaller water heaters and can often be repaired rather than replaced. The federal minimum standard for large gas boilers is 80% thermal efficiency Simple atmospheric boilers can reach a maximum of about 82% thermal efficiency Condensing boilers can attain thermal efficiencies up to 98% by capturing the sensible and latent heat from the flue gases. Central hot water systems designed with continuous recirculation systems are simple and keep tenant complaints to a minimum, but are extremely inefficient. Significant energy savings can be achieved with a well designed “structured plumbing” recirculation loop and advanced boiler modulation and/or demand controls Timer Controls shut off the recirculation pump at time when the hot water draw is expected to be minimal Temperature Controls shut off the recirculation pump when the return water reaches a temperature threshold Demand Controls are more advanced than the basic timer and temperature controls, charging the loop with hot water in response to demand Temperature Modulation Controls save energy by reducing the temperature of the tank water in times of low demand

42 Water Heating: Central Systems
Trade-Offs of Central DHW systems Hot Water Sub-Metering Conservation vs. Efficiency Tenants have incentive to conserve water and energy when they pay the utility bill Utility Submeter Applications manufactures only CA approved hot water sub-meter Boiler Performance & Maintenance Condensing or not, boilers require annual tune-ups Specialty service and corrosion resistant parts cause higher maintenance costs Efficiency varies with operating condition temperatures

43 Water Heating: Solar Hot Water
Title 24 does give credit for solar hot water heating (solar PV does not) Solar hot water is one of the easiest methods of achieving high levels of energy efficiency Alternative to high-efficiency boilers Particularly complimentary to central systems T-24 consultant uses a savings fraction calculator, and solar designer determines size of the actual system Solar fraction = the percentage of total hot water heating that the solar system will deliver Image Sources:

44 Lighting Lighting Terminology Lamp = Light Bulb
Lumen = A unit of Visible Light Luminaire = Light Fixture Efficacy = Efficiency of Lighting Product (Lumens/watt)

45 Lighting Tri-Phosphor Fluorescent
Same technology as color television There is only one “full spectrum” lamp Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFL) Can be used throughout the home Availability and selection increasing LED (Light Emitting Diode) Approx 20 lumens per watt Can be installed: Under counters Hallways, staircases Still limited by production Lighting Controls Dimmers Occupancy Photosensors Timers Motion Sensors 45

46 Lighting All Title 24 lighting requirements are mandatory
Not part of prescriptive package Not part of residential energy performance calculation budget Primarily impacts dwelling units The Standards apply only to permanently installed luminaires 46

47 Lighting T-24 Residential Lighting Standards Kitchens
50% of total wattage must be high efficicacy Low efficicacy luminaires must be switched separately Bathrooms, garages, laundry rooms, closets, and utility rooms High efficacy OR Controlled by a manual-on occupant sensor All other residential spaces High efficacy OR Controlled by a dimmer switch or manual-on occupancy sensor TABLE 150-C High Efficacy Luminaire Requirements Lamp Power Rating Minimum Lamp Efficacy 5 watts or less 30 lumens per watt over 5 and to 15 watts 40 lumens per watt over 15 watts to 40 watts 50 lumens per watt over 40 watts 60 lumens per watt 47

48 Appliances Look for the ENERGY STAR® label on all appliances
Refrigerators Choose refrigerators 20+% more efficient than federal standards Top freezer models are more efficient than side-by-side models Refrigerators under 25 cubic feet are sufficient Dishwashers Look for models that save water AND energy Energy Factor (EF) of at least 0.65 “no heat dry” option can save additional energy Clothes Washers High Modified Energy Factor (MEF) - dryer and water heating energy Low Water Factor (WF) - gallons needed per cubic foot of laundry Front loading washers are generally more efficient than top loading Clothes Dryers Dryness sensor for automatic shut-off when clothes are dry Discount for bulk purchases at

49 How to Achieve at Least 15% Better than Code using Integrated Approach

50 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24
What measures are needed in 2008 standards to get a ~15% compliance margin? Measures vary by building type High rise versus low rise Central versus distributed systems Amount of building self shading Building geometry Measures vary by climate zone Focus on measures affecting largest energy use Peak demand related measures first The “average” answer has little use. There is no “magic bullet” solution for all buildings and climate zones

51 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24
Building simulation software can evaluate the effectiveness of multiple measures and compare those results with alternate combinations Adding insulation will reduce cooling and heating loads Combining a radiant barrier with a lower level of insulation may reduce cooling loads more affectively than maximizing insulation alone The goal of the integrated design process is to seek the most cost-effective combination of energy efficient measures Balance first costs and energy savings

52 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24
The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildings

53 Achieving 15% Better Than T-24
The same measure or combination of measures can result in widely divergent energy savings for different buildings Some measure will have more impact inland than coastal Window SHGC Cooling EER Some measures will have more impact in coastal climate zones DHW System Efficiency

54 How to do Cost-Benefit & Payback Analysis

55 Cost Benefit Analysis Process
Identify cost-effective energy efficiency measures Find utility rates and multiply by kWh and Therm savings Specify EE measures in building energy simulation software Find incremental cost estimate for each measure (DEER database)* Use simulation software output for kWH and Therm savings Divide estimated annual utility savings by incremental measure costs to get the number of year payback If the cost-benefit numbers aren’t satisfactory, change the mix of measures and begin again *

56 Example: Upgrade Detail
Original Specification Energy Efficiency Upgrade Cost Implication Savings per year Payback Period Ceiling Attic R-38 R-30 + Radiant Barrier $7,000 $151/ Unit Or $6,070 1.6 years (after $6,000 utility incentive) Wall Wood frame, 2x4, R-13 Wood frame, 2x4, R-13 N/A Fenestration Dual pane, Alum. frame Low-e2, Vinyl frame $3,900 Space Heating Room heat pump (6.6 HSPF) Room heat pump (downsized) (2.841 COP) ($1,163) Space Cooling Room heat pump (10 EER) Room heat pump (downsized) (11.26 EER) Included Water Heating Central Boiler, recirc. Loop w/aquastat control Central Boiler, recirc. loop w/demand pump control $0.00 $2,160 immediate Note: Costs are illustrative and not definitive. Example is also illustrative; combination of measures will vary by building and location.

57 Case Study

58 Case Study – Project Details
Project name: Cottonwood Creek Apartments Owner: BRIDGE Housing Corporation Architect: KTGY Group Location: Suisun City, California California Climate Zone: 12 Dwelling Units: 94 Percent better than 2005 California Residential Building Code: 17.6% Cottonwood Creek Apartments received design assistance, cash incentives, and training opportunities through their participation in the CMFNH program, funded by Pacific Gas & Electric.

59 Case Study – EE Measures Installed
Overall site layout increased energy efficiency by: Maximizing daylighting Strategic landscaping to minimize solar gain in the summers and encourage it in the winter

60 Case Study – EE Measures Installed
Materials and mechanical systems materials contributing to energy efficiency included: Radiant barrier roof sheathing Low E² thermally efficient windows Third-party HERS-rated HVAC equipment to ensure maximum performance of the system Raised heel trusses for increased insulation A high-performing building envelope complete with Quality Insulation Installation Ducts in conditioned spaces, tested and verified for leakage

61 Case Study – EE Measures Installed
In addition BRIDGE also incorporated high efficiency ENERGY STAR® appliances and lighting: Refrigerators, dishwashers, and front-loading washers and dryers Fluorescent lighting, light-emitting diode (LED) exit signs, and motion sensor lights in the community building.

62 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis
As a result of the advanced planning and clear goals BRIDGE exceeded Title 24 by over 17% without significant impact on the cost of the project. Estimated $85,000 spent on incremental energy efficiency upgrades ($0.71 per square foot). CMFNH incentives received = $38,540, reducing net cost of EE measures to $0.39 per square foot Total hard costs for the project ≈ $143/sqft

63 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis
Cost of energy efficiency upgrades only ≈ 0.27% of hard costs!

64 Case Study - Cost Benefit Analysis
Cottonwood Creek Apartments is expected to save… 27, kWh every year through good design + 12, kWh savings from appliances This one project will be saving enough energy every year to power roughly six California single-family homes.

65 Case Study – Payback Cost of EE upgrade $85,000 Utility incentives - $38,540 Net Cost of EE Measures $48,455 Annual energy savings (kWh) 39, Utility Cost (per kWh) x $ 0.14 Annual utility cost savings $5, Payback Period = 48,455/5,582 = 8.7 years

66 Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency

67 Non-Energy Benefits of Energy Efficiency
Beyond energy savings, energy efficiency benefits include: Marketability Buyers and tenants value homes that are easy and inexpensive to maintain As well as socially and environmentally responsible Comfort Measures to reduce energy use also produce more comfortable living conditions Public recognition Awards are given by numerous associations for achievement in energy efficiency. Receipt of such awards may give your business credibility and prestige

68 Beyond EE – Green Measures
Non toxic materials and finishes Low VOC Paints, carpet, cabinets Better indoor air quality Local and replenishable materials Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certified wood products Recycled materials Water conservation Landscaping Irrigation Indigenous plant species Plumbing & Appliances Dual flush toilets Low flow shower and sink fixtures

69 Beyond EE – Green Measures
Storm water control Green roofs Water capture Insulating and cool roof properties Permeable surfaces Prevent water run-off and stormwater pollution Greywater systems Onsite water recycling Location Proximity of transportation and amenities Low environmental impact

70 Financing for Energy Efficiency and Green Measures

71 Financing Energy Efficiency
Low Income Housing Tax Credits (LIHTCs) are awarded to new construction and rehabilitation projects on a competitive points basis 155 points required to be competitive in the 4% and 9% categories Maximum of eight points available for incorporating sustainable measures, including energy efficiency Of those 8 points, 6 are available for energy efficiency Exceed Title 24 by at least 10% - 4 points Energy Star rated fans, whole house fan, economizer cycle on HVAC system – 2 points

72 Financing Energy Efficiency
Additional discretionary threshold basis limits boost up to 5% of the project’s basis limit. Exceed Title 24 by 15% or more Distributive energy technologies Renewable energy sources Tankless water heaters High efficiency condensing boiler Solar thermal domestic hot water system

73 Financing Energy Efficiency
Federal Tax Credits for New Homes are available for site built homes, excluding rental properties and non-profits. $2,000 to builder for each home whose performance is calculated to exceed Heating and Cooling Use of Section 404 of 2004 Supplement of the IECC by 50%) The New Solar Homes Partnership offers rebates to reduce (buy-down) the initial cost of a photovoltaic system in new residential construction (single and multifamily). $2.50/watt for market-rate housing $3.50/watt for affordable housing projects Project must exceed Title 24 by at least 15%

74 Summary

75 Summary Points Title 24 defines the worst building allowed by law
Early team collaboration allows for integrated and cost-effective decisions Consider lifecycle cost, including non-energy benefits Local, statewide and federal financial incentives are available to offset incremental costs of energy efficiency upgrades Use a performance approach to find the best package of cost-effective measures for each unique project Third Party verification allows for performance credits and quality assurance E Consultant Engineers Architect Owner/Dev Financing Builder

76 Resources

77 Resources Program Information US EPA ENERGY STAR® Program
California Multifamily New Homes Program: PG&E California Advanced Homes Program: SCE, SDG&E, SoCalGas California Multifamily Energy Efficiency Programs

78 Resources General EE Resources Energy Design Resources
California Energy Commission California Association of Building Energy Consultants (CABEC) California Multifamily Housing Consortium Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing (PATH) US Green Building Council (USGBC)

79 Resources Verification and HERS rating
California Home Energy Efficiency Rating System CalCERTS CBPCA Resnet Building Commissioning Association

80 Resources Finance Energy-Efficient Mortgages
Solar and Wind Financial Incentives & Tax Credits Energy Efficiency-Based Utility Allowance California Housing Finance Agency (CalHFA) EnergyWi$e Construction Funding Directory

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