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Hi! My name is Nathan! I will be your instructor for the Computer Merit Badge!

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Presentation on theme: "Hi! My name is Nathan! I will be your instructor for the Computer Merit Badge!"— Presentation transcript:




4 Hi! My name is Nathan!

5 I will be your instructor for the Computer Merit Badge!

6 For those of you who are wondering what to do????

7 Please have a seat and we will get started!!!

8 Those who dont want to listen during this class, YOU will have to deal with BUZZ!!!

9 Oh BUZZ!!! Where are you BUZZ???? Here BUZZ!!!!

10 Nathan, dont bother me, Im eating!!!

11 Scouts, I get real mean and ugly if disturbed while eating!

12 SO, you best behave or, YOU will be my next meal!

13 Remember, YOU dont want me to call for BUZZ!!! RIGHT!!!!!

14 I want to personally welcome you to: The Brazoz Valley District Computer Merit Badge class.

15 Are you ready to hike the information highway and learn about computers??

16 As you can see, I have come prepared for this adventure! Have YOU?

17 Do you have a pen or pencil to write with? Please get it out now?

18 When you are ready, raise your hand and keep it raised until everyone has their hand raised!

19 Is everyone ready? Good!!! Mr. Fleming please click the mouse to continue!

20 We are about to begin an exciting adventure!

21 First, I would like to make some introductions!

22 Again, my name is Nathan. I am your instructor for this merit badge!

23 I would like to introduce you to my very able bodied assistant!

24 Oops! Wrong Assistant!!

25 Scouts this is Mr. Fleming.

26 If Mr. Fleming had not volunteered his time, I would not be able to teach this merit badge!

27 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Your Welcome Nathan!

28 Lets Begin!

29 Mr. Fleming would you please hand out the work book for this merit badge.

30 Mr. Fleming please click the mouse to continue! Does everyone have a work book? If not raise your hand!

31 Scouts, at this time please write your name, Troop #, class #, todays date and phone # on the front of the work book.

32 Mr. Fleming please click the mouse to continue! Raise your hand when you are done!

33 Scouts, if you do not fill out the front page of the work book and you do not turn the work book into Mr. Fleming, GUESS WHAT?

34 You, WILL NOT, get credit for taking this merit badge!

35 Do you understand? IF NOT, raise your hand and ask your questions NOW! Mr. Fleming please click the mouse, to continue.

36 Mr. Fleming would you please show our Scouts the computer parts you have brought along with you!

37 Please explain what each part is and the function it has within the computer! Mr. Fleming please click the mouse when done.

38 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now would you please go through the History of Computers!

39 History of Computers

40 The first true calculating machine was the __________, which was in use before 400 BC and is still used in some countries. Abacus

41 In 1617, a Scottish mathematician named John Napier developed a set of calculating rods made of bone or ivory, nicknamed ______________. Napiers Bones

42 Charles Babbage, a nineteenth-century English mathematician, designed plans for a _________ _________. His machine consisted of four parts: an input device, a memory (which he called a store), a processor (he called it a mill), and an output device. Although he never built the machine, Babbage developed many of the principles upon which modern computers were developed. Difference Engine

43 The first major development in computing hardware came when, after the results of the 1880 U.S. Census had taken seven years to tabulate, the Census Bureau held a contest to see if anyone could invent a faster method.

44 The winner was Herman Hollerith, who invented the __________ ________ and formed the company that later became the giant International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation. Punched Card

45 In 1910, James Powers, an employee of the Census Bureau, improved on the system; his new company became a major part of the early computer manufacturer Remington Rand which, in turn, added the Sperry and Univac companies and ultimately became _________. Unisys

46 The punched-card system was the most widely used method for reading information into early programmable computers, which did not arrive on the scene until World War II. This was not because nobody had thought of them, but rather because the early ones were very _________ --- only the Department of Defense, then called the War Department, had enough money to pay for them. Expensive

47 Several machines were built at about the same time. The most famous was the __________ at Harvard University and the ________ and ________ at the University of Pennsylvania. EDVACENIAC Mark I

48 These early machines were one-of-a-kind, and each had its peculiarities. The first machine to be mass-produced and sold was the ________, designed by Dr. J. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly (who had built ENIAC and EDVAC) in UNIVAC

49 IBM started selling systems two years later. Soon the computer industry became known as ___ ___ ___ ______ ______; other companies came and went rapidly. IBM and the seven dwarfs

50 The first-generation computers were huge and expensive. Their central processors were made of _________ ______. By modern standards, they were quite slow. Huge air conditioners were required to keep them from burning themselves up. If an air conditioner failed, the computer had to be shut down instantly. Neither the computers nor the air conditioners were very reliable. Only a few of the first-generation computers were sold. Vacuum Tubes

51 These early computers used several electromechanical parts. One was a _____, a mechanical switch that is activated (switched on or off) by an electrical device called a __________. Solenoid Relay

52 On one occasion, a relay failed. When the engineer took it apart, he found a dead insect jammed between the switch contacts. This was the source of the term ____ to designate a problem with a computer component --- either hardware or software. Bug

53 Several Major technical developments followed, each resulting in a new generation of computers. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invented the __________ while working at Bell Laboratories in Transistor

54 Transistors, which replaced _______ _____, made the second generation of computers smaller, faster, and more reliable. Many of these systems were sold to business, industry, and science. Vacuum Tubes

55 In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments developed the first ________ ________. _________ _________ combine a number of individual transistors into a single unit. Integrated Circuit Integrated Circuits

56 In 1971, engineers at Intel Corporation designed the first _______________. A _______________ puts all the circuits needed for a computer onto a single chip. This development made the _________ computer possible. Micro-processor Personal

57 A number of companies, including _________ ________, ______ ______, and _____________, were producing ________ computers by Personal Radio Shack Commodore Apple Computer

58 Introduced in 1981, the ____ personal computer rapidly became a major success. Many other companies began making personal computers and the software to run them. IBM

59 This competition has forced down prices and made personal computers even more powerful than the largest computers built only a decade ago. New software programs are continually being produced to take advantage of this increased power, and to expand the way in which we use computers.

60 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through the Types of Computers!

61 Types of Computers

62 There are two basic categories of computers, ___________ __________ and ____________ _________. Special-purpose General-purpose

63 ___________ __________ computers are preprogrammed to perform a specific task, such as injecting fuel in an automobile engine, keeping time in a digital watch, or programming a videocassette recorder. Special-purpose

64 ___________ __________ computers can be adapted to perform any number of functions. Most computers you have read about are __________ ________ computers. General-purpose

65 MinicomputersMicrocomputers MainframesSupercomputers Computers come in four main sizes; ________________________, ________________________.

66 ______________ are the largest and fastest. They are used for large projects such as national or global weather forecasting, satellite tracking, etc. Supercomputers

67 ______________ computers are very powerful and can be as large as an entire room. Mainframe

68 They are used, for example, by banks to keep track of millions of checks and deposits, by airlines to schedule thousands of flights and make seat reservations, and by governments to keep track of their citizens. Mainframes usually have terminals connected to them. A terminal consists of a monitor and keyboard that allow a person to enter information and retrieve it from the computer.

69 ______________ are smaller and are sometimes used in medium-size companies to run their manufacturing plants or keep track of inventories. They also have terminals attached to them. Minicomputers

70 ______________ or personal computers are the smallest computers, designed to be used by individuals for writing, illustrating, budgeting, playing games, and communicating with other computers. Microcomputers

71 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through the Parts of a Computers!

72 Parts of a Computer

73 Every computer, whether a large, multi-user system or a desktop personal computer, is composed of the same elements: ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________. Central Processor Input Devices Storage Units Output Devices


75 The most important part of a computer is the _______________________ _____, or brain, of the computer. This is the part that processes information - storing information that is put into the computer, making changes to it, and creating output. Central Processing Unit (CPU)

76 The CPU may be a single chip made of __________ that has thousands or millions of tiny ________ built into it. The speed of the computer is measured by how fast the CPU executes specific instructions, and is expressed in: ___________________________________. MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) Silicon Circuits

77 The CPU is only a little larger than a postage stamp. Sometimes a computer also has a ______________, like a second brain that works with the CPU on certain kinds of tasks. A math ______________, for example, helps a CPU do mathematical calculations even faster. Co-processor

78 The CPU in a personal computer is usually located on the main circuit board, or ________________, of the computer. Mother Board

79 Also on the mother board is ____________. There are two kinds of _____________. ROM _______________________ and RAM ________________________. Memory Read Only Memory Random Access Memory

80 ROM is __________ memory that tells the computer in what order to process information. It makes sure that the computer follows a ____________________ approach to calculating, displaying information to the monitor, and so on. Permanent Step-by-Step

81 RAM is __________ memory that keeps track of the information put into the computer and the specific commands given to the computer. It can only remember this information while the computer is turned on. If you turn off the computer, it _________ everything in RAM. Temporary Forgets

82 In addition to memory, you often find a ______________________, a ______________________, and ________________ on the motherboard. Graphics Controller Disk Controller Ports

83 A __________________ tells the monitor how to display information on the screen. Graphics Controller

84 A __________________ tells a floppy disk or hard disk how to store information for later use. Disk Controller

85 ______________ are connectors that allow you to attach any number of things – such as a monitor, printer, modem, mouse, or keyboard – to the computer. Ports

86 INPUT DEVICES: The ______________ is used to type letters and numbers into the computer and to move things around on the screen. Most keyboards use the standard _________ (the order of the letters, reading from the left, on the top row) layout of keys, which was designed during the nineteenth century to slow typist down and to separate certain letter combinations to keep mechanical typewriters from ________. Keyboard Jamming QUERTY

87 INPUT DEVICES: A _____________ is another device used to input information into a computer. It has a moving ball with two wheels that sense the direction in which the mouse is being dragged across the desktop. By _________ at different parts of the screen, a mouse can select different features. It can also be used to draw pictures. Other pointing devices are trackballs, joysticks and pressure-sensitive tablets. Mouse Pointing

88 INPUT DEVICES: _________________ are used to convert sounds we can hear, such as voices or music, into a form that can be understood by the computer. Some computers are equipped with ______________ so that you can record directly onto your computer just as you would onto a tape recorder. Sound Digitizers Microphones

89 INPUT DEVICES: A ___________ is a device that converts written words or pictures into _______ form. Once it has been __________, an image can be read and changed by the computer. There are a number of different scanners. Scanner Digital Digitized

90 INPUT DEVICES: _______________ scanners are about the size of a chalkboard eraser. When you drag the scanner over a picture, it _________ the picture and converts it into a signal which is dent to the computer. Hand-Held Reads

91 INPUT DEVICES: A _____________ scanner looks like a copy machine. A _____________ is placed face down on the scanner and a moving head inside the scanner __________ the image. Flatbed Photograph Reads

92 INPUT DEVICES: Another type of scanner uses a __________ video camera which takes a picture of the image or object. Digital

93 INPUT DEVICES: A ___________ can be used to check conditions such as temperature, light and moisture. The _________ takes a reading and converts the information into a _______ format so that the computer can understand it. _________ are used in scientific laboratories to tack experiments, and in manufacturing to guide robots and their movements. Sensor Digital Sensors

94 STORAGE DEVICES: Storage units do not require constant electric power because they can _______ information for later use. Most storage is either _____________ or ___________. Store Magnetic Optical

95 STORAGE DEVICES: ____________ memory works on the same principal as a cassette tape. ___________ storage is usually in the form of a ________ disk, a _______ disk, or a _______ drive. Exposure of the disk or tape to a _________ may erase everything. Magnetic Floppy HardTape Magnet

96 STORAGE DEVICES: A _________ disk contains a circular piece of flexible (floppy) material coated with tiny particles that will hold a _________ charge. Floppy Magnetic

97 STORAGE DEVICES: A device called a ______ can ______ the charge of the particle as a __________ or __________. DriveRead NegativePositive

98 STORAGE DEVICES: A ________ can also change the charge of the particle by _________ to the disk. A floppy disk is used to load programs on the computer, and sometimes to transfer __________ to another computer. It is easily inserted and removed from the computer. Drive Writing Information

99 STORAGE DEVICES: A _______ disk is made up of a series of stacked, rigid (hard), circular disks. Hard

100 STORAGE DEVICES: Because a number of disks can be stacked together and the information placed closer together, hard disks can store much more information than _________ disks. Floppy

101 STORAGE DEVICES: Hard disks are usually used to store _________ and ________ files. A moveable head, similar to a record arm, moves over the spinning disks to read the information contained on them. Hard disks can be either ______ or made as ___________ cartridges. Programs Large FixedRemovable

102 STORAGE DEVICES: Information on both floppy and hard disks are organized in _______ --concentric circles almost like grooves on a phonograph record --and ________, shaped like pieces of a pie. To find a specific item on the disk, the computer can go to the ______ and _______ that contains it, and then scan until it finds what it wants. Because it does not have to search the entire disk, the computer finds the information faster. Tracks Track Sectors Sector

103 STORAGE DEVICES: A _______ drive uses a cartridge with a long piece of magnetic tape wound inside it. The cartridge head _______ or _______ the information on the tape as the tape passes over it. Most ______ drives are used only for making copies of the information stored on the computer in case it is lost or damaged. This is because ______ drives are very slow at __________ specific information Tape ReadsWrites Tape Accessing

104 STORAGE DEVICES: CD-ROM ________________________________ is an example of _________ storage. As a compact-disc player for a stereo, information is stored using a ______ rather than ____________. A _______ burns tiny pits into the surface of the disc. The laser can later read these valleys as bits of information (Compact-Disc Read-Only Memory) Optical Laser MagneticallyLaser

105 STORAGE DEVICES: Most ________ drives are WORM _______________________ devices, which means information stored on them can be read many times but cannot be erased and rewritten. Some ________ disks, however, can be erased and reused. ________ storage devices can hold very large amounts of information and the disks are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and distribute. (Write Once Read Many) Optical

106 STORAGE DEVICES: The following table compares the typical storage capability of different media.

107 STORAGE DEVICES: High Density Diskette Hard Drive CD-ROM 1.4 megabytes – 720 typed pages 80 megabytes – 40,000 typed pages 540 megabytes – 270,000 typed pages

108 OUTPUT DEVICES: The __________ is like a TV set that allows you to see the output of the computer. Monitor

109 OUTPUT DEVICES: A ___________ displays information by using _________. A ________ is a single dot on the screen. Groups of ________ form text or pictures on the screen. Monitor PixelsPixel Pixels


111 OUTPUT DEVICES: A monitor can have different ____________ depending upon how many ________ can be displayed upon the screen. The more ______ it can show, the higher its ___________ and the sharper the picture. Resolutions Pixels

112 OUTPUT DEVICES: A monitor described as having 640 x 480 ___________ can display 640 ______ across and 480 _______ up and down, a total of 307,200 ______ at one time. Monitors can display information in _____ and _____ (Monochrome), shades of ______ or ______. ResolutionPixels BlackWhite GreyColor

113 OUTPUT DEVICES: A _____________ is made up of a series of ________ that take sound stored in ______ form computers understand and convert it to ________ form which you can hear. A ______________ is one kind of _______ ________ converter. Sound Card CircuitsDigital Analog

114 OUTPUT DEVICES: Once the ________ is converted, it is sent to a _________ either inside the computer or attached to it, which generates the _______ you hear. _______ _______ usually allow you to input ________ into the computer as well as play them. Sound Cards Sound Speaker

115 OUTPUT DEVICES: A _________ allows you to print out information on paper. The quality of a ________ is determined by how detailed a print it can produce. A high-quality _______ can produce up to 300 DPI ____________. This means a solid one-inch printed square would consist of 90,000 tiny dots (300 across and 300 down). Printer (dots per inch)

116 OUTPUT DEVICES: There are several different technologies used to print an image, including; _______________, _______________, and _______________. Laser Printers Ink-Jet Printers Thermal Printers Impact Printers Plotters

117 OUTPUT DEVICES: A _________ printer works like a copy machine. A _________ traces the images ____ pattern onto a _____________ drum. As the drum rotates, another drum leaves __________ particles on the charged area. A wire pulls the _______ off the drum and deposits it onto the paper. Another roller then heats the _______ and presses it permanently to the paper. Laser Toner Dot Photosensitive Laser Toner


119 _________ printers use ___________ that is shot like a jet through tiny nozzles in the print head. The _____ is forced through the nozzles as the head moves across the page, leaving a series of tiny ____ dots, which dry to form an image. Ink-JetLiquid Ink Ink

120 OUTPUT DEVICES: __________ printers use specially coated paper like a fax-machine paper to print information. Instead of applying ____ or ________ to the page, a print head heats up a ____ on the paper, causing the paper to turn dark. Another type of _________ printer uses rolls of different colored ________ paper that are melted into individual ____ on the paper. Combinations of four colors black, blue, red and yellow produce a broad range of color. Thermal Ink Toner Dot Thermal Waxed Dots

121 OUTPUT DEVICES: _________ printers uses a series of _____ aligned in a rectangle call a ___________. For example, there might be a total of 24 _____ arranged 4 pins across and 6 ____ down. Letters and pictures are formed when the _____ strike a ________ that leaves ____ on the pages whenever there is a ____ to be printed. The head of the printer then moves over slightly to print the _____ in the next matrix. ImpactPins RibbonInk Dot Dots Dot Matrix

122 OUTPUT DEVICES: __________ are used primarily for engineering and architectural drawings. A series of _____ is controlled by moving arms to actually draw individual _____ on the paper. Plotters Pens Lines

123 OUTPUT DEVICES: A ________, short for modulator demodulator, is a device which allow you to communicate with other computers over a ____________ line. _________ convert information from a form that a computer understands to a form that can travel over a _____________ line. Once information gets to the computer on the other end of the line, it is converted by another _______ back into a form that it can understand. Modem ModemsTelephone

124 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Understanding Data!

125 Understanding Data

126 Data are collections of information: ___________, ___________, or ___________. Numbers Text Pictures Sound

127 Each piece of data stored in the modern computer is made of _____ or ______, interpreted by the computer as 1 or 0 – on or off – depending on whether a simple ______ is on or off. BitsDigits Circuit

128 A single _____________ is called a _____; eight _____ usually make a ______. Memory capacity is usually counted in multiples of ______ -- thousands _________, millions ____________, or billions of bytes ____________. Gigabytes Binary DigitBit BitsByte BytesKilobytes Megabytes

129 Because computers use only 0 and 1, the _________ number system, they need more places to describe numbers. Numbers are usually written as _______. Think of a ____ as a series of eight light switches. Each switch has only two positions: ____ or ____. Off Binary BytesByte On

130 The table below shows how numbers 0 through 0 are represented as _______ of information: NumberBinary Byte Bytes

131 This system works well for _________ or ________ numbers. However, more complex numbers, or ______ numbers, use a different system requiring more ______ of information. _____ numbers are stored using a system resembling scientific notation which uses a floating decimal point. For example, the number 12, could be stored as x 10 to the minus 2 power. Because _____ numbers require more _____ of information and are processed slightly differently, many computers use special co-processors called FPUs _________________. Floating Point Units Integers Whole Real Bytes

132 _____ is stored using a special code corresponding to the numbers between 0 and 255. The code called ASCII The computer represents each character as an eight-digit ________ number, or _____ of information. American Standard Code for Information Interchange Text BinaryByte

133 The table below show how some of these characters are represented. CharacterASCII CodeBinary Number $ A

134 _________ are stored as a series of small dots called _______. A video controller for your monitor might provide for example, 640 x 480 ______. This means that each horizontal row contains 640 ______, and there are 480 of these rows stacked vertically. Pictures Pixels


136 If your monitor is ________ ________, each ______ requires only one _____ of information, telling it to display 1 (black) or 0 (white). Black & White PixelByte

137 If the monitor is __________, it designates up to 256 different shades of _____ between black and white for each ______. Grayscale Gray Pixel

138 _______ monitors use three separate ________ ________ -- Red, Green, and Blue. Each color beam ______ the screen and electronically paints each ______ with a certain amount of color, which when combined with the others produces the desired final color. Color Electronic Beams Scans Pixel

139 Eight _____ of information per _____ will produce 256 different colors on the screen. Sixteen ____ will produce 32,767 different colors and 24 ____ will produce 16.7 million different colors – the maximum number of colors the human eye can see, sometimes referred to as ______ _____. Bits Pixel Bits True Color Bits

140 ________ is made up of __________, which travel through the air by passing from one __________ to the next. These __________ are called _______ -- if you could see them they would look like the _______ at the beach. SoundVibrations Molecule Waves Vibrations

141 The height, or ___________, of the ______ determines how loud the sound is. AmplitudeWave

142 How ______ the ______ are together determines the ______________, or pitch – how high or low the sound is to your ear. CloseWaves Frequency

143 Sound Wave

144 Sound is stored in a computer by _________ a sound ______ at specific time intervals and then assigning a value to the __________ of the sound on the _______. When sound is played back, the computer rebuilds the shape of the ______ and sends that information to a _________ that vibrates the _____, recreating the original sound ______ that you can hear. Sampling Wave Speaker Air Amplitude

145 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Computer Software!

146 Computer Software

147 ______________, a set of instructions organized into a __________ is what makes ___________ work. A ___________ tells the computer specifically what to do. Software Program HardwareProgram

148 There are three main categories of programs: ______________________, ______________________, and ______________________. Operating Systems Application Programs Programming Languages

149 ___________________ control the basic operations of the computer Operating Systems

150 Operating system software is the set of ___________ that control all of the computers basic operations-- ________, __________, _______, _________, and ______ ___________. This software can best be thought of as a traffic police officer, sending instructions to the place in the computer where they will be carried out. Programs Input OutputFileMemory Task Management

151 There are two styles of operating systems, ______________ and ______________. Text Based Graphical

152 Text based systems require that you type each command __________ as specified, which means you must ___________ a number of ___________ and their _________. MS-DOS, a popular system that operates on IBM-compatible personal computers, is a good example of a text-based ___________ ____________. Exactly Memorize Commands Formats Operating System

153 Graphically based, or GUI (________ ______ ________), systems present you with _______ or ______, form which you select commands. These are obviously easier to learn, since you need only __________ each command rather than ________ it. Graphical User Interface MenusIcons Recognize Recall

154 Examples of graphical operating systems include the __________ _________ ______, used with the Apple Macintosh computers; __________, a graphical shell that works with MS-DOS; and ______, a system that runs on a number of different personal and minicomputers. Macintosh Operating System Windows Unix

155 ___________________ allow you to do a specific job with the computer, such as write a letter or draw a picture. Application Programs

156 What type of program made this? Database Manager

157 _________ ___________, or DBMs, are used for __________, ________, and __________ track of a set of information called a __________. Database Managers OrganizingStoring Keeping Database

158 The data are organized in lines called _________, with each _________ consisting of a number of ________. The same set of ________, with different contents in each _______, is stored for each ________. RecordsRecord Fields Field Fields Record

159 For example, a troop attendance database could be set up with a _______ for each Scout in the Troop. Each _______ would consist of _______ for the Scouts name, patrol, rank, and for each Troop meeting, campout, or other event. Record Fields

160 An entry of _________ or ________ could be made in the appropriate ______ of each Scouts ________ after each activity. The Scoutmaster could then easily print out a roster of Scouts who attended a particular event. PresentAbsent Field Record

161 He could also us the DBM program to ____________ the ___________ of activities attended by each Scout. A good DBM can perform complicated _______ and _________ of the _________, and produce neatly printed __________, with bar ________ and pie ________. Calculate Percentage SortsSearchesDatabase Reports GraphsCharts

162 What type of program made this? Spreadsheet

163 ____________ are similar to database managers with several important differences. A ____________ program handles _________ of _________, __________ row and column __________, ________, and ___________. If you change a ________ in the ______, the program immediately ___________ the totals. Spreadsheets Spreadsheet TablesNumbers Calculating Subtotals TotalsPercentages NumberTable Recalculates

164 Like the DBM, the spreadsheet can produce _____ or ________ output. It can quickly show what happens to your budget if, for example, you decide to ________ a certain ______, or to ________ every item by a ________ percentage. TextGraphic IncreaseItemReduce Fixed

165 _______ ___________ provide a series of tools that make ________ easier. Once _______ are entered into the computer, they can easily be ____________ and _________. Word Processors Writing Words RearrangedCorrected

166 Like other programs, _______ __________ allow you to change the _____ and ______ (together called the ______) of the _______, make ___________ versions of documents without completely __________ them, check your ___________, and produce neat _________ output. Some even ______ your _________. Word Processors SizeStyle FontLetters Different Retyping Spelling PrintedCheck Grammar

167 Spelling ___________ and _________ checkers are not ___________. If you ________ a word in such a way as to make _________ word, the ________________ will not find it. Grammar FoolproofMisspell Another Spell-checker

168 What type of program made this? Desktop Publishing

169 _______ ___________ programs allow you to incorporate _______, __________, and __________ and place them on a _______. They include special _____ for __________ text, __________ pictures so they can be printed on different types of _________, and _________ color. You can design a __________, a _________, or even a ________ on a __________ _____________ program. Desktop Publishing WordsPictures DrawingsPage Tools Formatting Converting Printers Adding NewsletterPoster BookDesktop Publishing

170 _________ and ________ programs allow you to make __________ and __________ on the computer. Some programs draw in two dimensions and are known as either _______ or ______ programs. GraphicsDesign PicturesDrawings PaintDraw

171 Other programs allow you to draw in ____ and ______ dimensions and create sophisticated _________. These programs are know as CAD or _________________ ________, programs. Two Three Models Computer-Aided Design

172 Three-dimensional CAD programs can be used to create ___________, or outlines, of _________, and _______ ________, which can show ________, _______, and _______. CAD programs a used by ___________ engineers to design entire ____________ down to each individual ______. Wire-frames ObjectsSolid Models TextureLightShadows Automotive Automotives Part

173 What type of program allowed Nathan to be your instructor? Animation

174 ___________ programs allow you to combine ______, ________, _______, and ________ on screen for _____________, __________, or _________ presentations. Animation TextGraphicsSound VideoEntertainment EducationBusiness

175 These programs often provide a series of tools to produce both _____________ (drawing a line that an object will follow) or _____________ animation (a series of successive drawings that appear to move when played back, similar to television ___________). Path-based Cell-based Cartoons

176 _________ programs provide the tools to _________, ______, __________, ________, ______, and _______ back ________. You can record you _______, _______, or other ________ by converting them into _________ format and then ________ them on the computer. Sound RecordEditRearrangeProcess mixPlaySound VoiceMusic Sounds DigitalStoring

177 The computer can then _______ them back to ________ format for playback. Music is usually ___________ using a special code called MIDI __________________________________. Convert Analog Recorded (Musical Instrumental Digital Interface

178 This code allows a _________ instrument to create _________ instructions when it is _________ that can be understood by the __________. The _________ then tells another MIDI ____________ to play back the same ______. Musical Played Computer Instrument Notes

179 Special ________________ music ________ can _____ a number of different MIDI instruments together to produce a complete ________ band. Multi-channelSoftware Mix Digital

180 What type of program allowed this modem to communicate with another computer? Communications

181 _______________ programs allow computers to _______ to each other. Standard _______________ software allows to act like, or ________, a _________ so that it can talk to ____________ or _______________. Communications Talk Communications EmulateTerminal Mainframes Minicomputers

182 This software also allows _________ to talk to each other on a local ___________. You can ______ and _______ messages, share ___________, and even share __________. Computers Network Send Receive Files Programs

183 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Programming Languages!

184 Programming Languages

185 ___________________ are used to write other programs. Program Languages

186 A ____________ _________ converts ____________ typed by a programmer into a _______ the computer can understand. The computer then performs the ______ and _________ them back into _______ and _________ the programmer can understand. Programming Language Instructions Format Tasks ConvertsWords Numbers

187 What type of code is this? Machine Code

188 Early programs were written in __________ code, or __________ code. ____________ code is a set of __________ specific to that particular ___________. ____________ code instructions are written in __________ language, i.e., 0s and 1s. Machine Low-level MachineInstructions Computer Machine Binary

189 Later, _____________ programming languages that could be converted into ___________ _____ were developed. This made programming easier, since _________ could be written in a more ________________ language and then __________ and ____________ into a ___________ code. High-level Machine Code Programs English-like CompiledTranslated Machine

190 Programs written in _______________ language are usually referred to as ________ code. A ___________ program would convert this __________ code into __________ code, also called _______ code. Once a program was __________, it could not be changed. Higher-level Source Compiler SourceMachine Object Compiled

191 The __________ code had to be changed and the program __________ into a new _______ code. Another method of converting ________ code into _________ code is called ___________, in which an ___________ program converts each instruction as it is sent to the CPU into __________ code. Source Recompiled Object Source Machine Translation Interpreter Machine

192 Examples of ____________ programming languages are: ____________, ____________, and _______. High-level COBOL FORTRAN BASIC Pascal C

193 COBOL stands for _________ __________ ___________ __________ and was popular for ________________ programming on ___________ computers. FORTRAN stands for ________ _________ and is used primarily for ___________ and _____________ programming. CommonBusiness OrientedLanguage Business-oriented Larger FormulaTranslation Scientific Engineering

194 BASIC, short for __________ ____ _______ ___________ __________ _______, is an ___________ language often used to program ________________. Pascal is named after the French mathematician _______ ________. It was originally designed as a teaching tool but is now a ________________ programming language. BeginnersAll-purpose SymbolicInstructionCode All-purpose Microcomputers Blaise Pascal General-purpose

195 C is a very popular _____________ language because it was designed to work on a number of different ___________. A program written in C for one type of ___________ can easily be converted to work on a different ______ and ______ of computer. Programming Computers Computer SizeType

196 Recently, _____________ languages such as ______ have become popular. _________ programming is done by putting together _______, or ________, of commonly used commands such as instructions on how to _______, how to ______ information to a disk, etc., into __________ programs. Object-oriented C++ Object GroupsModules Print Save Complete

197 _________ programming saves ______ because the programmer is able to _____ parts of programs that have already been _________ by others. Programming this way is more like putting together _______ of a puzzle than trying to ________ each ___________ piece. ObjectTime Reuse Developed Pieces DesignIndividual

198 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Communications!

199 Communications

200 What is this? How does it help computers communicate? Modem

201 Computers can ____________ with other computers if they are ________ together, have the appropriate ____________, and understand the ________, or _________, each uses to _____________. Computers can be linked in the same building over a LAN ____________ ________ using telephone-type ________ or special _________. Communicate Linked Software RulesProtocol Communicate Local-Area NetworkWiring Cables

202 Computers can communicate over _____________ _________ using special ________ lines designed for transmitting __________ information. A _____________ _________ might span the entire country. Computers can _____________ anywhere in the world if they have a _______ and ______ to standard ______________ telephone lines. Wide-AreaNetwork Phone Digital Wide-AreaNetwork Communicate ModemAccess Long-Distance

203 Computers _______ and __________ information in _________. Special ________ at the ___________ and _____ of each ________ tell the communicating computers whether the correct information was _______ and __________. SendReceive Blocks SignalsBeginning EndBlock Sent Received

204 Computers communicate at different ______, measured in the _____________ or _______, rate. For example, early modems __________ data a 300 ________. Common modem communication ________ have increased from _______ to _______ baud. Speeds Bits-per-secondBaud Transferred Baud Speeds

205 ____________ computers allows users to _______ and _________ messages ____________, thorough __________ _______ and to share __________ and _______. Sending electronic mail usually involves the following steps: Networking SendReceive ElectronicallyElectronic MailPrograms Files

206 1)The person wishing to _____ a message connects to a electronic mail __________ using a ________. 2) He or she ________ the message to a ____ computer using a special network _______ for the person _________ the message. 3) The ____ computer stores the _________. Send Service Modem Uploads Host Address Receiving HostMessage

207 4) When the person to whom the message was _______ logs onto the ______ computer, the _____ computer indicates that ______ is _________. 5) The __________ is _____________ form the _____ computer to the ___________ computer to be ______. Sent Host Mail Waiting Message Downloaded HostReceivers Read

208 LANs are usually set up in one of _______ basic ________ or ______________: ___________________, ___________________, and ___________________. These different types of networks have different __________ in terms of _______, ____________, and other ____________. Three ShapesConfigurations Star Network Bus Network Token-ring Network AdvantagesSpeed CapacityCapabilities

209 In a ______ network, each computer is linked through a central __________, like the spokes of a bicycle wheel connecting to a central _____. A ______ network, has a main _______ similar to a _________, with ______, or __________, for each computer. Star Controller Hub BusCable HighwayExits Branches

210 A ____________ network connects each ____________ to the _______ in a large ________. Token-ring ComputerNext Circle

211 By using a _______ and a __________ line, you can connect you computer to a BBS, or ________________ __________. BBSs allow a _________ of computers users to ________ information ___________ and even have ____________, or ________, on-line. ModemTelephone Bulletin-boardService Number ShareSimultaneously DiscussionsForums

212 Besides the many local, ________ BBSs, there are a number of ____________ BBSs, such as ______________, ___________ and ___________ __________, which provide all kinds of ____________, from electronic ________________ to the latest sports _______ and company _______ Prices. Most _____________ services charge an _______ connect ____ to use the system. Private Commercial CompuServeProdigy AmericaOnline Information encyclopedias ScoresStock Commercial HourlyFee

213 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Computers At Work!

214 Computers At Work

215 The computer industry itself is huge and offers many job opportunities in sales and manufacturing. Electrical ____________ design hardware. Electronics ______________ build and repair them. Technically competent people with creative minds are in demand for __________ and __________ new applications software. Engineers Technicians Designing Writing

216 Universities have computer science departments. Each large computer system, such as those in Business, industry, science, and health care, requires a _______ _______ to keep it running. Many of these large systems hire ____________ to develop and improve applications software. System Manger Programmers

217 There are also many computer-related jobs that are not specifically in the computer industry. For example, ______ _________ and ______ _______ _______ use computers to produce special film sequences for movies and television commercials. Films will eventually be shot using _______ cameras and edited completely _________. Graphic Designers Special Effects Creators Digital Digitally

218 ___________ ________ who guide commercial airplanes in and out of airports use sophisticated computer systems to help them do their jobs. _________ companies now record and edit albums and compact discs digitally using computer equipment. _________ are using animation programs to produce simulations or reenactments of crimes to help persuade juries as to what happened in their case. Air-Traffic Controllers Record Lawyers

219 Large ___ __________ use computers to analyze geographic data in search for places to drill new oil wells. ________ are using computers to receive images such as X rays and CAT scans from patients who cant come into their offices for diagnosis. Oil Companies Doctors

220 __________ _______ robots are used extensively in assembly-line manufacturing, where they provide precise control of sophisticated equipment. Computer-Driven

221 These robots must be designed, built, and programmed. Most jobs in the future will require some basic __________ skills. Computer

222 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Now, would you please go through Copyrights and Software Piracy!

223 Copyrights& Software Piracy

224 Most software is produced by __________. A ________ _______ is a company that produces and sells software. Producing good software requires a lot of work. The program must be designed, written, tested, supplemented with directions on how to use it, packaged and shipped to stores where is can be purchased. Most software is ___________, which means that it cannot be copied without special permission from the __________. Publishers Software Publisher Copyrighted Publisher

225 (Books, records, and movies are protected the same way.) Most publishers allow you to make _____ backup copy of the program in case something happens to the original. However, it is ________ to give copies of the software to your friends. If you do, you are committing a ________. The ___________, the ___________, the ___________ and the ________ all lose money if you copy the program. One Illegal CrimeProgrammer PublisherDistributor Store

226 They then have to charge higher prices or, in some cases, not make any more new software. Some software, called _________, is distributed in a slightly different way. ___________ is available form a number of places, such as electronic bulletin boards, and doesnt require you to ____ for it before you use it. The people who make _________ want you to try the program and see if you like it. If you want to keep it, they ask you to ____ for it by sending money to them. Shareware Pay Shareware Pay

227 Their name and address are usually provided at the beginning of the program. It is OK to give a friend a copy of a __________ program as long as they promise that if they decide to keep and use it, they will send _________ to the publisher. Some software is completely free. Called _______________ software, it is not copyrighted and can be used and copied. Shareware Payment Public-domain

228 Scouts, describe several ways in which you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and recreation.

229 Scouts, you had best be writing these ideas down, cause this will allow you to complete requirement 9 of the computer merit badge.

230 Again, Scouts, describe several ways in which you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and recreation.

231 Thank you Mr. Fleming! This completes the text book session of the Computer Merit Badge!

232 Scouts, if you have viewed the power point presentation from the beginning to the end, and filled out the workbook, you have completed the following merit badge requirements.

233 Requirement 1 Requirement 2 Requirement 3 Requirement 6 Requirement 7 Requirement 8 Requirement 9

234 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Would you please go over requirement 4!

235 Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) A) Use a database manager to create a troop roster, providing name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Sort the register by rank, by patrol, and alphabetically by name.

236 Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) B) Use a spreadsheet program to develop a weekend campout food budget for your patrol.

237 Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) C) Use a word processor to write a letter to parents of your troops Scouts, inviting them to a court or honor. Use the mail merge feature to make a personalized copy of the letter for each family.

238 Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) D) Use a computer graphics program to design and draw a campsite plan for your troop.

239 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Would you please go over requirement 5!

240 Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) A) Visit a business or industry that uses computers. Study what the computer accomplishes and be prepared to discuss what you observed.

241 Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) B) Use a computer attached to a local area network or equipped with a modem to connect to a computer network or bulletin- board service such as Prodigy, CompuServe, or America Online. Send a message to someone on the network or download a program or file from the network.

242 Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) C) Use a general-purpose programming language to write a program application of your choice, subject to approval by your counselor.

243 Scouts, as you can see you have some work ahead of you in order to complete the Computer Merit Badge, but with Mr. Flemings help this is the fun part!!

244 Mr. Fleming will be more than willing to arrange time during the remaining sessions, for this merit badge, so you can work on requirements 4 & 5.

245 Or, you may work on requirements 4 & 5 on your own, with the approval of Mr. Fleming.

246 Or, you can setup individual appointments with Mr. Fleming to work on requirements 4 & 5. The choice is yours!

247 I would like to thank each and everyone of you Scouts for allowing me to be your teacher,

248 and I want to give a very special thanks to Mr. Fleming for volunteering his time and for all his hard work in putting together this Computer Merit Badge class!!!!!!

249 Thank you Mr. Fleming! Your Welcome Nathan!

250 Well, I am off in search of another adventure, and I would like to leave you with the following thoughts!

251 Turn On Your Speakers, So You Can Listen To My Music!! Click Your Mouse And Enjoy!!

252 Make Yourself Comfortable!! Reflect On Your Day!!

253 May Each Sunrise, And Give You Peace!! May Your Smile Be Contagious, Find You With A Smile On Your Face!! And Brighten Someones Day!! May Gods Blessings Shine Upon Your Face,

254 Keep Smilin And Lookin Up!!! - (:o} Compliments Of: Dave Fleming

255 Scouts, can you list what computer components were used in the making of the presentation you just viewed!!


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