39The first true calculating machine was the __________, which was in use before 400 BC and is still used in some countries.Abacus
40In 1617, a Scottish mathematician named John Napier developed a set of calculating rods made of bone or ivory, nicknamed ______________.Napier’s Bones
41Charles Babbage, a nineteenth-century English mathematician, designed plans for a _________ _________. His machine consisted of four parts: an input device, a memory (which he called a “store”), a processor (he called it a “mill”), and an output device. Although he never built the machine, Babbage developed many of the principles upon which modern computers were developed.Difference Engine
42The first major development in computing hardware came when, after the results of the 1880 U.S. Census had taken seven years to tabulate, the Census Bureau held a contest to see if anyone could invent a faster method.
43The winner was Herman Hollerith, who invented the __________ ________ and formed the company that later became the giant International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation.Punched Card
44In 1910, James Powers, an employee of the Census Bureau, improved on the system; his new company became a major part of the early computer manufacturer Remington Rand which, in turn, added the Sperry and Univac companies and ultimately became _________.Unisys
45The punched-card system was the most widely used method for reading information into early programmable computers, which did not arrive on the scene until World War II. This was not because nobody had thought of them, but rather because the early ones were very _________ --- only the Department of Defense, then called the War Department, had enough money to pay for them.Expensive
46Several machines were built at about the same time Several machines were built at about the same time. The most famous was the __________ at Harvard University and the ________ and ________ at the University of Pennsylvania.Mark IENIACEDVAC
47These early machines were one-of-a-kind, and each had it’s peculiarities. The first machine to be mass-produced and sold was the ________, designed by Dr. J. Presper Eckert and Dr. John Mauchly (who had built ENIAC and EDVAC) in 1951.UNIVAC
48IBM and the seven dwarfs IBM started selling systems two years later. Soon the computer industry became known as “___ ___ ___ ______ ______”; other companies came and went rapidly.IBM and the seven dwarfs
49The first-generation computers were huge and expensive The first-generation computers were huge and expensive. Their central processors were made of _________ ______. By modern standards, they were quite slow. Huge air conditioners were required to keep them from burning themselves up. If an air conditioner failed, the computer had to be shut down instantly. Neither the computers nor the air conditioners were very reliable. Only a few of the first-generation computers were sold.Vacuum Tubes
50These early computers used several electromechanical parts These early computers used several electromechanical parts. One was a _____, a mechanical switch that is activated (switched on or off) by an electrical device called a __________.RelaySolenoid
51On one occasion, a relay failed On one occasion, a relay failed. When the engineer took it apart, he found a dead insect jammed between the switch contacts. This was the source of the term ____ to designate a problem with a computer component --- either hardware or software.Bug
52Several Major technical developments followed, each resulting in a new generation of computers. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley invented the __________ while working at Bell Laboratories in 1947.Transistor
53Transistors, which replaced _______ _____, made the second generation of computers smaller, faster, and more reliable. Many of these systems were sold to business, industry, and science.Vacuum Tubes
54In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments developed the first ________ ________. _________ _________ combine a number of individual transistors into a single unit.Integrated CircuitIntegrated Circuits
55In 1971, engineers at Intel Corporation designed the first _______________. A _______________ puts all the circuits needed for a computer onto a single chip. This development made the _________ computer possible.Micro-processorMicro-processorPersonal
56A number of companies, including _________ ________, ______ ______, and _____________, were producing ________ computers by 1977.Apple ComputerRadio ShackCommodorePersonal
57Introduced in 1981, the ____ personal computer rapidly became a major success. Many other companies began making personal computers and the software to run them.IBM
58This competition has forced down prices and made personal computers even more powerful than the largest computers built only a decade ago.New software programs are continually being produced to take advantage of this increased power, and to expand the way in which we use computers.
59Now, would you please go through the “Types of Computers”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through the “Types of Computers”!
61Special-purpose General-purpose There are two basic categories of computers,___________ __________and____________ _________.Special-purposeGeneral-purpose
62Special-purpose___________ __________ computers are preprogrammed to perform a specific task, such as injecting fuel in an automobile engine, keeping time in a digital watch, or programming a videocassette recorder.
63General-purpose___________ __________ computers can be adapted to perform any number of functions. Most computers you have read about are __________ ________ computers.General-purpose
64Supercomputers Mainframes Minicomputers Microcomputers Computers come in four main sizes;________________________,________________________.SupercomputersMainframesMinicomputersMicrocomputers
65Supercomputers______________ are the largest and fastest. They are used for large projects such as national or global weather forecasting, satellite tracking, etc.
66Mainframe______________ computers are very powerful and can be as large as an entire room.
67They are used, for example, by banks to keep track of millions of checks and deposits, by airlines to schedule thousands of flights and make seat reservations, and by governments to keep track of their citizens. Mainframes usually have terminals connected to them. A terminal consists of a monitor and keyboard that allow a person to enter information and retrieve it from the computer.
68Minicomputers______________ are smaller and are sometimes used in medium-size companies to run their manufacturing plants or keep track of inventories. They also have terminals attached to them.
69Microcomputers______________ or personal computers are the smallest computers, designed to be used by individuals for writing, illustrating, budgeting, playing games, and communicating with other computers.
70Now, would you please go through the “Parts of a Computers”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through the “Parts of a Computers”!
72___________________, and Every computer, whether a large, multi-user system or a desktop personal computer, is composed of the same elements:___________________,___________________, and___________________.Central ProcessorInput DevicesStorage UnitsOutput Devices
74Central Processing Unit (CPU) The most important part of a computer is the _______________________ _____, or “brain,” of the computer. This is the part that processes information - storing information that is put into the computer, making changes to it, and creating output.Central Processing Unit (CPU)
75MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) The CPU may be a single chip made of __________ that has thousands or millions of tiny ________ built into it. The speed of the computer is measured by how fast the CPU executes specific instructions, and is expressed in:___________________________________.SiliconCircuitsMIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second)
76The CPU is only a little larger than a postage stamp The CPU is only a little larger than a postage stamp. Sometimes a computer also has a ______________, like a second brain that works with the CPU on certain kinds of tasks. A math ______________, for example, helps a CPU do mathematical calculations even faster.Co-processorCo-processor
77The CPU in a personal computer is usually located on the main circuit board, or ________________, of the computer.Mother Board
78MemoryAlso on the mother board is ____________. There are two kinds of _____________. ROM _______________________ and RAM ________________________.MemoryRead Only MemoryRandom Access Memory
79PermanentROM is __________ memory that tells the computer in what order to process information. It makes sure that the computer follows a ____________________ approach to calculating, displaying information to the monitor, and so on.Step-by-Step
80TemporaryRAM is __________ memory that keeps track of the information put into the computer and the specific commands given to the computer. It can only remember this information while the computer is turned on. If you turn off the computer, it _________ everything in RAM.Forgets
81Graphics Controller Disk Controller Ports In addition to memory, you often find a______________________, a______________________, and________________ on the motherboard.Graphics ControllerDisk ControllerPorts
82Graphics ControllerA __________________ tells the monitor how to display information on the screen.
83A __________________ tells a floppy disk or hard disk how to store information for later use. Disk Controller
84Ports______________ are connectors that allow you to attach any number of things – such as a monitor, printer, modem, mouse, or keyboard – to the computer.
85INPUT DEVICES:The ______________ is used to type letters and numbers into the computer and to move things around on the screen. Most keyboards use the standard _________ (the order of the letters, reading from the left, on the top row) layout of keys, which was designed during the nineteenth century to slow typist down and to separate certain letter combinations to keep mechanical typewriters from ________.KeyboardQUERTYJamming
86INPUT DEVICES:A _____________ is another device used to input information into a computer. It has a moving ball with two wheels that sense the direction in which the mouse is being dragged across the desktop. By _________ at different parts of the screen, a mouse can select different features. It can also be used to draw pictures. Other pointing devices are trackballs, joysticks and pressure-sensitive tablets.MousePointing
87INPUT DEVICES:_________________ are used to convert sounds we can hear, such as voices or music, into a form that can be understood by the computer. Some computers are equipped with ______________ so that you can record directly onto your computer just as you would onto a tape recorder.Sound DigitizersMicrophones
88INPUT DEVICES:A ___________ is a device that converts written words or pictures into _______ form. Once it has been __________, an image can be read and changed by the computer. There are a number of different scanners.ScannerDigitalDigitized
89INPUT DEVICES:_______________ scanners are about the size of a chalkboard eraser. When you drag the scanner over a picture, it _________ the picture and converts it into a signal which is dent to the computer.Hand-Held“Reads”
90INPUT DEVICES:A _____________ scanner looks like a copy machine. A _____________ is placed face down on the scanner and a moving head inside the scanner __________ the image.FlatbedPhotograph“Reads”
91INPUT DEVICES:Another type of scanner uses a __________ video camera which takes a picture of the image or object.Digital
92INPUT DEVICES:A ___________ can be used to check conditions such as temperature, light and moisture. The _________ takes a reading and converts the information into a _______ format so that the computer can understand it. _________ are used in scientific laboratories to tack experiments, and in manufacturing to guide robots and their movements.SensorSensorDigitalSensors
93STORAGE DEVICES:Storage units do not require constant electric power because they can _______ information for later use. Most storage is either _____________ or ___________.StoreMagneticOptical
94STORAGE DEVICES:____________ memory works on the same principal as a cassette tape. ___________ storage is usually in the form of a ________ disk, a _______ disk, or a _______ drive. Exposure of the disk or tape to a _________ may erase everything.MagneticMagneticFloppyHardTapeMagnet
95STORAGE DEVICES:A _________ disk contains a circular piece of flexible (floppy) material coated with tiny particles that will hold a _________ charge.FloppyMagnetic
96STORAGE DEVICES:A device called a ______ can ______ the charge of the particle as a __________ or __________.DriveReadNegativePositive
97STORAGE DEVICES:A ________ can also change the charge of the particle by _________ to the disk. A floppy disk is used to load programs on the computer, and sometimes to transfer __________ to another computer. It is easily inserted and removed from the computer.DriveWritingInformation
98STORAGE DEVICES:A _______ disk is made up of a series of stacked, rigid (hard), circular disks.Hard
99STORAGE DEVICES:Because a number of disks can be stacked together and the information placed closer together, hard disks can store much more information than _________ disks.Floppy
100STORAGE DEVICES:Hard disks are usually used to store _________ and ________ files. A moveable head, similar to a record arm, moves over the spinning disks to read the information contained on them. Hard disks can be either ______ or made as ___________ cartridges.ProgramsLargeFixedRemovable
101STORAGE DEVICES:Information on both floppy and hard disks are organized in _______ --concentric circles almost like grooves on a phonograph record --and ________, shaped like pieces of a pie. To find a specific item on the disk, the computer can go to the ______ and _______ that contains it, and then scan until it finds what it wants. Because it does not have to search the entire disk, the computer finds the information faster.TracksSectorsTrackSector
102STORAGE DEVICES:A _______ drive uses a cartridge with a long piece of magnetic tape wound inside it. The cartridge head _______ or _______ the information on the tape as the tape passes over it. Most ______ drives are used only for making copies of the information stored on the computer in case it is lost or damaged. This is because ______ drives are very slow at __________ specific informationTapeReadsWritesTapeTapeAccessing
103(Compact-Disc Read-Only Memory) STORAGE DEVICES:CD-ROM ________________________________ is an example of _________ storage. As a compact-disc player for a stereo, information is stored using a ______ rather than ____________. A _______ burns tiny pits into the surface of the disc. The laser can later read these valleys as bits of information(Compact-Disc Read-Only Memory)OpticalLaserMagneticallyLaser
104STORAGE DEVICES:Most ________ drives are WORM _______________________ devices, which means information stored on them can be read many times but cannot be erased and rewritten. Some ________ disks, however, can be erased and reused. ________ storage devices can hold very large amounts of information and the disks are relatively inexpensive to manufacture and distribute.Optical(Write Once Read Many)OpticalOptical
105STORAGE DEVICES:The following table compares the typical storage capability of different media.
110OUTPUT DEVICES:A monitor can have different ____________ depending upon how many ________ can be displayed upon the screen. The more ______ it can show, the higher its ___________ and the sharper the picture.ResolutionsPixelsPixelsResolutions
111OUTPUT DEVICES:A monitor described as having 640 x 480 ___________ can display 640 ______ across and 480 _______ up and down, a total of 307,200 ______ at one time. Monitors can display information in _____ and _____ (Monochrome), shades of ______ or ______.ResolutionPixelsPixelsPixelsBlackWhiteGreyColor
112OUTPUT DEVICES:A _____________ is made up of a series of ________ that take sound stored in ______ form computers understand and convert it to ________ form which you can hear. A ______________ is one kind of _______ ________ converter.Sound CardCircuitsDigitalAnalogSound CardDigitalAnalog
113OUTPUT DEVICES:Once the ________ is converted, it is sent to a _________ either inside the computer or attached to it, which generates the _______ you hear. _______ _______ usually allow you to input ________ into the computer as well as play them.SoundSpeakerSoundSound CardsSound
114OUTPUT DEVICES:A _________ allows you to print out information on paper. The quality of a ________ is determined by how detailed a print it can produce. A high-quality _______ can produce up to 300 DPI ____________. This means a solid one-inch printed square would consist of 90,000 tiny dots (300 across and 300 down).PrinterPrinterPrinter(dots per inch)
115OUTPUT DEVICES:There are several different technologies used to print an image, including;_______________,_______________, and_______________.Laser PrintersInk-Jet PrintersThermal PrintersImpact PrintersPlotters
116OUTPUT DEVICES:A _________ printer works like a copy machine. A _________ traces the image’s ____ pattern onto a _____________ drum. As the drum rotates, another drum leaves __________ particles on the charged area. A wire pulls the _______ off the drum and deposits it onto the paper. Another roller then heats the _______ and presses it permanently to the paper.LaserLaserPhotosensitiveDotTonerTonerToner
118OUTPUT DEVICES:_________ printers use ___________ that is shot like a jet through tiny nozzles in the print head. The _____ is forced through the nozzles as the head moves across the page, leaving a series of tiny ____ dots, which dry to form an image.Ink-JetLiquid InkInkInk
119OUTPUT DEVICES: Thermal Toner Ink Dot Thermal Waxed Dots __________ printers use specially coated paper like a fax-machine paper to print information. Instead of applying ____ or ________ to the page, a print head heats up a ____ on the paper, causing the paper to turn dark. Another type of _________ printer uses rolls of different colored ________ paper that are melted into individual ____ on the paper. Combinations of four colors black, blue, red and yellow produce a broad range of color.ThermalTonerInkDotThermalWaxedDots
120OUTPUT DEVICES:_________ printers uses a series of _____ aligned in a rectangle call a ___________. For example, there might be a total of 24 _____ arranged 4 pins across and 6 ____ down. Letters and pictures are formed when the _____ strike a ________ that leaves ____ on the pages whenever there is a ____ to be printed. The head of the printer then moves over slightly to print the _____ in the next matrix.ImpactPinsDot MatrixPinsPinsPinsRibbonInkDotDots
121OUTPUT DEVICES:__________ are used primarily for engineering and architectural drawings. A series of _____ is controlled by moving arms to actually draw individual _____ on the paper.PlottersPensLines
122OUTPUT DEVICES:A ________, short for modulator demodulator, is a device which allow you to communicate with other computers over a ____________ line. _________ convert information from a form that a computer understands to a form that can travel over a _____________ line. Once information gets to the computer on the other end of the line, it is converted by another _______ back into a form that it can understand.ModemTelephoneModemsTelephoneModem
123Now, would you please go through “Understanding Data”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “Understanding Data”!
125Data are collections of information: ___________,___________, or___________.NumbersTextPicturesSound
126Each piece of data stored in the modern computer is made of _____ or ______, interpreted by the computer as 1 or 0 – on or off – depending on whether a simple ______ is on or off.BitsDigitsCircuit
127Binary DigitBitA single _____________ is called a _____; eight _____ usually make a ______. Memory capacity is usually counted in multiples of ______ -- thousands _________, millions ____________, or billions of bytes ____________.BitsByteBytesKilobytesMegabytesGigabytes
128Because computers use only 0 and 1, the _________ number system, they need more places to describe numbers. Numbers are usually written as _______. Think of a ____ as a series of eight light switches. Each switch has only two positions: ____ or ____.BinaryBytesByteOnOff
129The table below shows how numbers 0 through 0 are represented as _______ of information: BytesNumberBinary Byte123456789
130IntegersThis system works well for _________ or ________ numbers. However, more complex numbers, or ______ numbers, use a different system requiring more ______ of information. _____ numbers are stored using a system resembling scientific notation which uses a floating decimal point. For example, the number 12, could be stored as x 10 to the minus 2 power. Because _____ numbers require more _____ of information and are processed slightly differently, many computers use special co-processors called FPUs _________________.WholeRealBytesRealRealBytesFloating Point Units
131American Standard Code for Information Interchange Text_____ is stored using a special code corresponding to the numbers between 0 and The code called ASCIIThe computer represents each character as an eight-digit ________ number, or _____ of information.American Standard Code for Information InterchangeBinaryByte
132The table below show how some of these characters are represented. ASCII CodeBinary Number$36149A65
133Pictures_________ are stored as a series of small dots called _______. A video controller for your monitor might provide for example, 640 x 480 ______. This means that each horizontal row contains 640 ______, and there are 480 of these rows stacked vertically.PixelsPixelsPixels
135Black & WhiteIf your monitor is ________ ________, each ______ requires only one _____ of information, telling it to display 1 (black) or 0 (white).PixelByte
136GrayscaleIf the monitor is __________, it designates up to 256 different shades of _____ between black and white for each ______.GrayPixel
137Color_______ monitors use three separate ________ ________ -- Red, Green, and Blue. Each color beam ______ the screen and electronically paints each ______ with a certain amount of color, which when combined with the others produces the desired final color.Electronic BeamsScansPixel
138PixelEight _____ of information per _____ will produce 256 different colors on the screen. Sixteen ____ will produce 32,767 different colors and 24 ____ will produce 16.7 million different colors – the maximum number of colors the human eye can see, sometimes referred to as ______ _____.BitsBitsBitsTrue Color
139SoundVibrations________ is made up of __________, which travel through the air by passing from one __________ to the next. These __________ are called _______ -- if you could see them they would look like the _______ at the beach.MoleculeVibrationsWavesWaves
140AmplitudeWaveThe height, or ___________, of the ______ determines how loud the sound is.
141How ______ the ______ are together determines the ______________, or pitch – how high or low the sound is to your ear.CloseWavesFrequency
143SamplingSound is stored in a computer by _________ a sound ______ at specific time intervals and then assigning a value to the __________ of the sound on the _______. When sound is played back, the computer rebuilds the shape of the ______ and sends that information to a _________ that vibrates the _____, recreating the original sound ______ that you can hear.WaveAmplitudeWaveWaveSpeakerAirWave
144Now, would you please go through “Computer Software”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “Computer Software”!
146Software______________, a set of instructions organized into a __________ is what makes ___________ work. A ___________ tells the computer specifically what to do.ProgramHardwareProgram
147Programming Languages There are three main categories of programs:______________________,______________________, and______________________.Operating SystemsApplication ProgramsProgramming Languages
148___________________ control the basic operations of the computer Operating Systems___________________ control the basic operations of the computer
149Operating system software is the set of ___________ that control all of the computer’s basic operations-- ________, __________, _______, _________, and ______ ___________. This software can best be thought of as a traffic police officer, sending instructions to the place in the computer where they will be carried out.ProgramsInputOutputFileMemoryTask Management
150There are two styles of operating systems, ______________ and______________.Text BasedGraphical
151Text based systems require that you type each command __________ as specified, which means you must ___________ a number of ___________ and their _________.MS-DOS, a popular system that operates on IBM-compatible personal computers, is a good example of a text-based ___________ ____________.ExactlyMemorizeCommandsFormatsOperatingSystem
152Graphical User Interface Graphically based, or GUI (________ ______ ________), systems present you with _______ or ______, form which you select commands. These are obviously easier to learn, since you need only __________ each command rather than ________ it.Graphical User InterfaceMenusIconsRecognizeRecall
153Macintosh Operating System Examples of graphical operating systems include the __________ _________ ______, used with the Apple Macintosh computers; __________, a graphical shell that works with MS-DOS; and ______, a system that runs on a number of different personal and minicomputers.Macintosh Operating SystemWindowsUnix
154Application Programs___________________ allow you to do a specific job with the computer, such as write a letter or draw a picture.
155What type of program made this? Database Manager
156Database Managers_________ ___________, or DBMs, are used for __________, ________, and __________ track of a set of information called a __________.OrganizingStoringKeepingDatabase
157The data are organized in lines called _________, with each _________ consisting of a number of ________. The same set of ________, with different contents in each _______, is stored for each ________.RecordsRecordFieldsFieldsFieldRecord
158For example, a troop attendance database could be set up with a _______ for each Scout in the Troop. Each _______ would consist of _______ for the Scout’s name, patrol, rank, and for each Troop meeting, campout, or other event.RecordRecordFields
159PresentAbsentAn entry of _________ or ________ could be made in the appropriate ______ of each Scout’s ________ after each activity.The Scoutmaster could then easily print out a roster of Scouts who attended a particular event.FieldRecord
160He could also us the DBM program to ____________ the ___________ of activities attended by each Scout.A good DBM can perform complicated _______ and _________ of the _________, and produce neatly printed __________, with bar ________ and pie ________.CalculatePercentageSortsSearchesDatabaseReportsGraphsCharts
162Spreadsheets____________ are similar to database managers with several important differences. A ____________ program handles _________ of _________, __________ row and column __________, ________, and ___________.If you change a ________ in the ______, the program immediately ___________ the totals.SpreadsheetTablesNumbersCalculatingSubtotalsTotalsPercentagesNumberTableRecalculates
163Like the DBM, the spreadsheet can produce _____ or ________ output. It can quickly show what happens to your budget if, for example, you decide to ________ a certain ______, or to ________ every item by a ________ percentage.TextGraphicIncreaseItemReduceFixed
164Word Processors_______ ___________ provide a series of tools that make ________ easier. Once _______ are entered into the computer, they can easily be ____________ and _________.WritingWordsRearrangedCorrected
165Word ProcessorsLike other programs, _______ __________ allow you to change the _____ and ______ (together called the ______) of the _______, make ___________ versions of documents without completely __________ them, check your ___________, and produce neat _________ output. Some even ______ your _________.SizeStyleFontLettersDifferentRetypingSpellingPrintedCheckGrammar
166SpellingGrammar___________ and _________ checkers are not ___________. If you ________ a word in such a way as to make _________ word, the ________________ will not find it.FoolproofMisspellAnotherSpell-checker
167What type of program made this? Desktop Publishing
168Desktop Publishing_______ ___________ programs allow you to incorporate _______, __________, and __________ and place them on a _______. They include special _____ for __________ text, __________ pictures so they can be printed on different types of _________, and _________ color.You can design a __________, a _________, or even a ________ on a __________ _____________ program.WordsPicturesDrawingsPageFormattingToolsConvertingPrintersAddingNewsletterPosterBookDesktopPublishing
169GraphicsDesign_________ and ________ programs allow you to make __________ and __________ on the computer.Some programs draw in two dimensions and are known as either _______ or ______ programs.PicturesDrawingsPaintDraw
170Computer-Aided Design TwoOther programs allow you to draw in ____ and ______ dimensions and create sophisticated _________.These programs are know as CAD or _________________ ________, programs.ThreeModelsComputer-Aided Design
171Three-dimensional CAD programs can be used to create ___________, or outlines, of _________, and _______ ________, which can show ________, _______, and _______.CAD programs a used by ___________ engineers to design entire ____________ down to each individual ______.Wire-framesObjectsSolid ModelsTextureLightShadowsAutomotiveAutomotivesPart
172What type of program allowed Nathan to be your instructor? Animation
173Animation___________ programs allow you to combine ______, ________, _______, and ________ on screen for _____________, __________, or _________ presentations.TextGraphicsSoundVideoEntertainmentEducationBusiness
174These programs often provide a series of tools to produce both _____________ (drawing a line that an object will follow) or _____________ animation (a series of successive drawings that appear to move when played back, similar to television ___________).Path-basedCell-basedCartoons
175Sound_________ programs provide the tools to _________, ______, __________, ________, ______, and _______ back ________.You can record you _______, _______, or other ________ by converting them into _________ format and then ________ them on the computer.RecordEditRearrangeProcessmixPlaySoundVoiceMusicSoundsDigitalStoring
176(Musical Instrumental Digital Interface ConvertThe computer can then _______ them back to ________ format for playback.Music is usually ___________ using a special code called MIDI __________________________________.AnalogRecorded(Musical Instrumental Digital Interface
177MusicalThis code allows a _________ instrument to create _________ instructions when it is _________ that can be understood by the __________.The _________ then tells another MIDI ____________ to play back the same ______.MusicalPlayedComputerComputerInstrumentNotes
178Multi-channelSoftwareSpecial ________________ music ________ can _____ a number of different MIDI instruments together to produce a complete ________ band.MixDigital
179What type of program allowed this modem to communicate with another computer? Communications
180_______________ programs allow computers to _______ to each other. Standard _______________ software allows to act like, or ________, a _________ so that it can talk to ____________ or _______________.CommunicationsTalkCommunicationsEmulateTerminalMainframesMinicomputers
181This software also allows _________ to talk to each other on a local ___________. You can ______ and _______ messages, share ___________, and even share __________.ComputersNetworkSendReceiveFilesPrograms
182Now, would you please go through “Programming Languages”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “Programming Languages”!
184___________________ are used to write other programs. Program Languages___________________ are used to write other programs.
185Programming LanguageA ____________ _________ converts ____________ typed by a programmer into a _______ the computer can understand.The computer then performs the ______ and _________ them back into _______ and _________ the programmer can understand.InstructionsFormatTasksConvertsWordsNumbers
187Early programs were written in __________ code, or __________ code. MachineEarly programs were written in __________ code, or __________ code.____________ code is a set of __________ specific to that particular ___________.____________ code instructions are written in __________ language, i.e., 0’s and 1’s.Low-levelMachineInstructionsComputerMachineBinary
188High-levelLater, _____________ programming languages that could be converted into ___________ _____ were developed.This made programming easier, since _________ could be written in a more ________________ language and then __________ and ____________ into a ___________ code.Machine CodeProgramsEnglish-likeCompiledTranslatedMachine
189Once a program was __________, it could not be changed. Higher-levelPrograms written in _______________ language are usually referred to as ________ code.A ___________ program would convert this __________ code into __________ code, also called _______ code.Once a program was __________, it could not be changed.SourceCompilerSourceMachineObjectCompiled
190The __________ code had to be changed and the program __________ into a new _______ code. Another method of converting ________ code into _________ code is called ___________, in which an ___________ program converts each instruction as it is sent to the CPU into __________ code.SourceRecompiledObjectSourceMachineTranslationInterpreterMachine
191Examples of ____________ programming languages are: High-levelExamples of ____________ programming languages are:____________,____________, and_______.COBOLFORTRANBASICPascalC
192CommonBusinessCOBOL stands for _________ __________ ___________ __________ and was popular for ________________ programming on ___________ computers.FORTRAN stands for ________ _________ and is used primarily for ___________ and _____________ programming.OrientedLanguageBusiness-orientedLargerFormulaTranslationScientificEngineering
193Beginner’sAll-purposeBASIC, short for __________ ____ _______ ___________ __________ _______, is an ___________ language often used to program ________________.Pascal is named after the French mathematician _______ ________. It was originally designed as a teaching tool but is now a ________________ programming language.SymbolicInstructionCodeAll-purposeMicrocomputersBlaise PascalGeneral-purpose
194ProgrammingC is a very popular _____________ language because it was designed to work on a number of different ___________.A program written in C for one type of ___________ can easily be converted to work on a different ______ and ______ of computer.ComputersComputerSizeType
195Recently, _____________ languages such as ______ have become popular. Object-orientedRecently, _____________ languages such as ______ have become popular._________ programming is done by putting together _______, or ________, of commonly used commands such as instructions on how to _______, how to ______ information to a disk, etc., into __________ programs.C++ObjectGroupsModulesPrintSaveComplete
196ObjectTime_________ programming saves ______ because the programmer is able to _____ parts of programs that have already been _________ by others.Programming this way is more like putting together _______ of a puzzle than trying to ________ each ___________ piece.ReuseDevelopedPiecesDesignIndividual
197Now, would you please go through “Communications”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “Communications”!
199How does it help computers communicate? What is this?ModemHow does it help computers communicate?
200CommunicateComputers can ____________ with other computers if they are ________ together, have the appropriate ____________, and understand the ________, or _________, each uses to _____________.Computers can be linked in the same building over a LAN ____________ ________ using telephone-type ________ or special _________.LinkedSoftwareRulesProtocolCommunicateLocal-AreaNetworkWiringCables
201A _____________ _________ might span the entire country. Computers can communicate over _____________ _________ using special ________ lines designed for transmitting __________ information.A _____________ _________ might span the entire country.Computers can _____________ anywhere in the world if they have a _______ and ______ to standard ______________ telephone lines.Wide-AreaNetworkPhoneDigitalWide-AreaNetworkCommunicateModemAccessLong-Distance
202Computers _______ and __________ information in _________. Special ________ at the ___________ and _____ of each ________ tell the communicating computers whether the correct information was _______ and __________.SendReceiveBlocksSignalsBeginningEndBlockSentReceived
203For example, early modems __________ data a 300 ________. Computers communicate at different ______, measured in the _____________ or _______, rate.For example, early modems __________ data a 300 ________.Common modem communication ________ have increased from _______ to _______ baud.SpeedsBits-per-secondBaudTransferredBaudSpeeds960012800
204Sending electronic mail usually involves the following steps: ____________ computers allows users to _______ and _________ messages ____________, thorough __________ _______ and to share __________ and _______.Sending electronic mail usually involves the following steps:NetworkingSendReceiveElectronicallyElectronicMailProgramsFiles
205The person wishing to _____ a message connects to a electronic mail __________ using a ________. 2) He or she ________ the message to a ____ computer using a special network _______ for the person _________ the message.3) The ____ computer stores the _________.SendServiceModemHostUploadsAddressReceivingHostMessage
2064) When the person to whom the message was _______ logs onto the ______ computer, the _____ computer indicates that ______ is _________.5) The __________ is _____________ form the _____ computer to the ___________ computer to be ______.HostSentHostMailWaitingMessageDownloadedHostReceiver’sRead
207___________________, and LAN’s are usually set up in one of _______ basic ________ or ______________:___________________,___________________, and___________________.These different types of networks have different __________ in terms of _______, ____________, and other ____________.ThreeShapesConfigurationsStar NetworkBus NetworkToken-ring NetworkAdvantagesSpeedCapacityCapabilities
208StarIn a ______ network, each computer is linked through a central __________, like the spokes of a bicycle wheel connecting to a central _____.A ______ network, has a main _______ similar to a _________, with ______, or __________, for each computer.ControllerHubBusCableHighwayExitsBranches
209A ____________ network connects each ____________ to the _______ in a large ________. Token-ringComputerNextCircle
210ModemTelephoneBy using a _______ and a __________ line, you can connect you computer to a BBS, or ________________ __________.BBS’s allow a _________ of computers users to ________ information ___________ and even have ____________, or ________, on-line.Bulletin-boardServiceNumberShareSimultaneouslyDiscussionsForums
211Besides the many local, ________ BBS’s, there are a number of ____________ BBS’s, such as ______________, ___________ and ___________ __________, which provide all kinds of ____________, from electronic ________________ to the latest sports _______ and company _______ Prices.Most _____________ services charge an _______ connect ____ to use the system.PrivateCommercialCompuServeProdigyAmericaOnlineInformationencyclopediasScoresStockCommercialHourlyFee
212Now, would you please go through “Computers Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “ComputersAt Work”!
214The computer industry itself is huge and offers many job opportunities in sales and manufacturing. Electrical ____________ design hardware. Electronics ______________ build and repair them. Technically competent people with creative minds are in demand for __________ and __________ new applications software.EngineersTechniciansDesigningWriting
215Universities have computer science departments Universities have computer science departments. Each large computer system, such as those in Business, industry, science, and health care, requires a _______ _______ to keep it running.Many of these large systems hire ____________ to develop and improve applications software.System MangerProgrammers
216Special Effects Creators There are also many computer-related jobs that are not specifically in the computer industry. For example, ______ _________ and ______ _______ _______ use computers to produce special film sequences for movies and television commercials. Films will eventually be shot using _______ cameras and edited completely _________.Graphic DesignersSpecial Effects CreatorsDigitalDigitally
217Air-Traffic Controllers ___________ ________ who guide commercial airplanes in and out of airports use sophisticated computer systems to help them do their jobs. _________ companies now record and edit albums and compact discs digitally using computer equipment. _________ are using animation programs to produce simulations or reenactments of crimes to help persuade juries as to what happened in their case.Air-Traffic ControllersRecordLawyers
218Oil CompaniesLarge ___ __________ use computers to analyze geographic data in search for places to drill new oil wells.________ are using computers to receive images such as X rays and CAT scans from patients who can’t come into their offices for diagnosis.Doctors
219__________ _______ robots are used extensively in assembly-line manufacturing, where they provide precise control of sophisticated equipment.Computer-Driven
220These robots must be designed, built, and programmed These robots must be designed, built, and programmed. Most jobs in the future will require some basic __________ skills.Computer
221Now, would you please go through “Copyrights and Software Piracy”! Thank youMr. Fleming!Now, would you please go through “Copyrights and Software Piracy”!
223Most software is produced by __________ Most software is produced by __________. A ________ _______ is a company that produces and sells software. Producing good software requires a lot of work. The program must be designed, written, tested, supplemented with directions on how to use it, packaged and shipped to stores where is can be purchased. Most software is ___________, which means that it cannot be copied without special permission from the __________.PublishersSoftware PublisherCopyrightedPublisher
224(Books, records, and movies are protected the same way (Books, records, and movies are protected the same way.) Most publishers allow you to make _____ backup copy of the program in case something happens to the original. However, it is ________ to give copies of the software to your friends. If you do, you are committing a ________. The ___________, the ___________, the ___________ and the ________ all lose money if you copy the program.OneIllegalCrimeProgrammerPublisherDistributorStore
225They then have to charge higher prices or, in some cases, not make any more new software. Some software, called _________, is distributed in a slightly different way. ___________ is available form a number of places, such as electronic bulletin boards, and doesn’t require you to ____ for it before you use it. The people who make _________ want you to try the program and see if you like it. If you want to keep it, they ask you to ____ for it by sending money to them.SharewareSharewarePaySharewarePay
226Their name and address are usually provided at the beginning of the program. It is OK to give a friend a copy of a __________ program as long as they promise that if they decide to keep and use it, they will send _________ to the publisher.Some software is completely free. Called _______________ software, it is not copyrighted and can be used and copied.SharewarePaymentPublic-domain
227Scouts, describe several ways in which you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and recreation.
228Scouts, you had best be writing these ideas down, cause this will allow you to complete requirement 9 of the computer merit badge.
229Again, Scouts, describe several ways in which you and your family could use a personal computer other than for games and recreation.
230This completes the text book session of the Computer Merit Badge! Thank youMr. Fleming!This completes the text book session of the Computer Merit Badge!
231Scouts, if you have viewed the power point presentation from the beginning to the end, and filled out the workbook, you have completed the following merit badge requirements.
233Would you please go over requirement 4! Thank youMr. Fleming!Would you please go over requirement 4!
234Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) A) Use a database manager to create a troop roster, providing name, rank, patrol, and telephone number of each Scout. Sort the register by rank, by patrol, and alphabetically by name.
235Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) B) Use a spreadsheet program to develop a weekend campout food budget for your patrol.
236Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) C) Use a word processor to write a letter to parents of your troop’s Scouts, inviting them to a court or honor. Use the mail merge feature to make a personalized copy of the letter for each family.
237Requirement 4 (Do THREE of the following) D) Use a computer graphics program to design and draw a campsite plan for your troop.
238Would you please go over requirement 5! Thank youMr. Fleming!Would you please go over requirement 5!
239Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) A) Visit a business or industry that uses computers. Study what the computer accomplishes and be prepared to discuss what you observed.
240Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) B) Use a computer attached to a local area network or equipped with a modem to connect to a computer network or bulletin-board service such as Prodigy, CompuServe, or America Online. Send a message to someone on the network or download a program or file from the network.
241Requirement 5 (Do TWO) of the following) C) Use a general-purpose programming language to write a program application of your choice, subject to approval by your counselor.
242Merit Badge, but with Mr. Fleming’s help this is the fun part!! Scouts, as you can see you have some work ahead of you in order to complete the ComputerMerit Badge, but with Mr. Fleming’s help this is the fun part!!
243Mr. Fleming will be more than willing to arrange time during the remaining sessions, for this merit badge, so you can work on requirements 4 & 5.
244Or, you may work on requirements 4 & 5 on your own, with the approval of Mr. Fleming.
245Or, you can setup individual appointments with Mr Or, you can setup individual appointments with Mr. Fleming to work on requirements 4 & 5.The choice is yours!
246I would like to thank each and everyone of you Scouts for allowing me to be your teacher,
247and I want to give a very special thanks to Mr and I want to give a very special thanks to Mr. Fleming for volunteering his time and for all his hard work in putting together this Computer Merit Badge class!!!!!!
249Well, I am off in search of another adventure, and I would like to leave you with the following thoughts!
250So You Can Listen To My Music!! Turn On Your Speakers,So You Can Listen To My Music!!Click Your MouseAnd Enjoy!!
251Make Yourself Comfortable!! Reflect On Your Day!!
252Find You With A Smile On Your Face!! May Each Sunrise,Find You With A Smile On Your Face!!May Your Smile Be Contagious,And Brighten Someone’s Day!!May God’s Blessings Shine Upon Your Face,And Give You Peace!!
253Compliments Of: Dave Fleming Keep Smilin’AndLookin’ Up!!! - (:o}Compliments Of: Dave Fleming
254Scouts, can you list what computer components were used in the making of the presentation you just viewed!!