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Germs ( Microbes ) Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi What is a germ? The term 'germ' actually refers to any micro organism, especially those micro organisms.

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Presentation on theme: "Germs ( Microbes ) Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi What is a germ? The term 'germ' actually refers to any micro organism, especially those micro organisms."— Presentation transcript:


2 Germs ( Microbes ) Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi What is a germ? The term 'germ' actually refers to any micro organism, especially those micro organisms that cause disease. Included in this category are certain viruses, bacteria, and fungi. What is the difference between these three types of microbes? Which ones cause which diseases, and should they be treated differently? Because viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause many well-known diseases, it is common to confuse them, but they are as different. A look at the size, structure, reproduction, hosts, and diseases caused by each will shed some light on the important differences between these germs What is a virus? Viruses are very tiny, simple organisms. they can only be seen with a special, very powerful microscope called an "electron microscope," and they are so simple that they are technically not even considered "alive." A virus is not able to metabolise, grow, or reproduce on its own, but must take over a host cell that provides these functions. The structure of a virus is extremely simple and is not sufficient for the independent life of the microbe. What are bacteria? Bacteria are very different from viruses. First l, bacteria are much larger in size. The largest virus is only as big as the very smallest bacterium (singular for bacteria). But bacteria are still microscopic and cannot be seen with the naked eye. They are so small that the sizes of bacteria are measured in micrometers (10,000 micrometers = 1 centimetre). By comparison, the head of a pin is about 1000 micrometers wide. Though more complex than a virus, the structure of a bacterium is still relatively simple. What is a fungus? Fungi (plural for fungus) are different from both viruses and bacteria in many ways. They are larger, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll (the substance that makes plants green and converts sunlight into energy). Since fungi do not have chlorophyll to make food, they have to absorb food from whatever they are growing on. Fungi can be very helpful – brewing beer, making bread rise, decomposing trash – but they can also be harmful if they steal nutrients from another living organism. When most people think of fungi they picture the mushrooms that we eat. True, mushrooms are important fungi, but there are other forms such as molds and yeasts. *See appendix for detailed list

3 Viral Shapes NameBasic ShapeExample (electron micrograph) Helical Icosahedral Complex Tobacco mosaic virus Herpes simplex Germs ( Microbes ) Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi

4 Bacterial Shapes NameBasic ShapeExample (electron micrograph) Coccus (sphere) Bacillus (rod) Spirillum (spiral) Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella typhi Campylobacter jejuni Germs ( Microbes ) Viruses, Bacteria, and Fungi

5 Germs – Causing Common Diseases or Infections in Various Animal Species ViralBacterialFungal Humans Influenza (flu)Legionnaire's diseaseAthlete's foot MeaslesWhooping coughCandidiasis (thrush) Rhinovirus (cold)Strep throat– Dogs ParvovirusLyme diseaseBlastomycosis DistemperLeptospirosisMalassezia (yeast infection) HepatitisBrucellosisHistoplasmosis Cats Feline leukemiaMycoplasma haemofelis, formerly Haemobartonella Coccidioidomycosis PanleukopeniaPlague– Fish LymphocystisTuberculosisCotton wool disease Spring Viremia of Carp (SVC)VibriosisEgg fungus Birds Newcastle diseasePsittacosisAspergillosis Psittacine Beak & FeatherCampylobacter infectionsCandidiasis Which diseases are which?

6 AQUA SP & AQUA SP-PRO Introduction AQUA SP BLUE: developed from three different ionised enzymes, which combined and mixed together to forms a stable and non toxic carbon bond, the product may be used for different applications,and in different format such as solution,gel or tablet. In a solution format the product has the abilities ( At a ratio of 1: ) to purify any water from bacterias, different fungus and disease to the extent of achieving drinkable water, without the presence of toxins or any side effects. This water after treatment, is harmless to humans, animals and plants. AQUA SP BLUE is suitable for replacing antibiotics or antibacterial medications, which are to a certain extent are toxic. Furthermore, in a closed environments where the solution used as a spray, the same effect of destroying bacterias accrues. AQUA SP-PRO: Is a derivative of AQUA SP-BLUE except with the addition of natural co-enzymes, which enables it to inhabit and destroy a broad spectrum of different pathogens, protozoons, bacterias, fungi and viruses. Main Applications for AQUA SP BLUE - 1.Water treatment ( microbiological - purifying water) for industrial and home use – safe, pure water for staff in any commercial, industrial or institutional setting. 2.Bottled water market – disinfections of source water without added chemicals for equipment and plant cleaning. 3.Keeping areas sterilized via air-conditioners – or spray : Hospital, Airline air sanitation – to minimise the spread of air-borne viral and bacterial diseases. 4.Prevention and Medication against - Malaria, Cholera, TB, Bilharzias, Diphtheria and any bacteria related disease 5.Agent against fungi, algae etc 6.Food processing plants – equipment and plant cleaning water, disinfected and chemical free. 7.Breweries and distilleries - disinfections of source water without added chemicals to prevent the contamination of yeast cultures, cleaning of plant and equipment. 8.Pharmaceutical / Cosmetics industries – provision of disinfected process water, cleaning of plant and equipment. 9.Aquaculture – added to water to disinfect against bacteria and fungi increasing the health of the stock without the addition of chemicals.

7 AQUA SP Water Purification Sludge Treatment Disaster Relief Hospital Disinfection A. INSTITUTIONALB. INDUSTRIALC. FARMINGD. CONSUMER F. TEST RESULTS E. ENIRONMENT & HEALTH Bottle Cleaning Food proc spray Food display cabinets Aircon Power plant algae protect Pool Care Restaurant Cleaning Water Cooling Tower BuildingAutomotives ShipsAirplanes Fish Farming Chicken Farm Disinfection Cut Flowers Fresh Juice Sterilisation Medication Cosmetics Hand Cleaning Back-packer Kit Washing powder Biharziaus Maleria AQUA SP River Cattle Dip

8 A. INSTITUTIONAL - Water Purification



11 A. INSTITUTIONAL - Effluent Sludge Plant

12 B. INDUSTRIAL – Food process – Deepen Process Anti-bacterium for frozen Chicken & Fish

13 B. INDUSTRIAL – Aircon Aqua sp – Aerosol The product Aqua sp Aerosol complies with accordance to the World Health Organisation report ( WHO/ pcs /95.51) and their guide and policy, as described in WHO 1000 bulletin, 2000, 78 (8) to suite the international airlines users requirements. The product is tested against different types of bacteria and specifically against Airborne bacterias like; Streptococcus ( cause of Pneumonia ), and Mycobacterium ( cause of Tuberculosis ). Aqua sp aerosol concept, can be used for different other commercial applications as a disinfector like :hospitals, schools, rooms, community halls, supermarkets,etc…

14 B. INDUSTRIAL – Aircon/Airplane


16 B. INDUSTRIAL – Aircon/ Ships All cruise ships generate the following types of waste: "Gray water" from sinks, showers, laundries and galleys Sewage or "black water" from toilets Oily bilge water Hazardous wastes (including perchloroethylene from drycleaning, photo-processing wastes, paint waste, solvents, print shop wastes, fluorescent light bulbs, and batteries) Solid wastes (plastic, paper, wood, cardboard, food waste, cans, and glass) Air pollution from the ship's diesel engines A 3,000-passenger cruise ship (considered an average size, some carry 5,000 or more passengers) generates the following amounts of waste on a typical one-week voyage: 1 million gallons of "gray water" 210,000 gallons of sewage 25,000 gallons of oily bilge water Over 100 gallons of hazardous or toxic waste 50 tons of garbage and solid waste Diesel exhaust emissions equivalent to thousands of automobiles In addition, these ships take in large quantities of ballast water, which is seawater pumped into the hulls of ships to ensure stability. This water is typically taken in at one port and then discharged at the ship's destination, which can introduce invasive species and serious diseases into U.S. waters. A typical release of ballast water amounts to 1,000 metric tons.

17 A. INDUSTRIAL – Aircon/Ships Aqua sp – treatment for water ballast During the past week I understood the significant, and volume related for Aqua sp potential usage / sales for this Specific and particular industry, to summarize: There are over 35,000 different cargo / tanks and super tanks ships operating world wide.( see attachment 16 kb) 1.There are over 15,000 different cruise ships, with weekly average sewage water to be discharge of 1000 tons tons to ballast. 2.We only can help both (above) with Aqua powder against bacterium, algae and virus. ( see attached -149 kb – stage 3 ) 3.Aqua sp powder can do the job, as a powder (see calculation bellow) and for that, a specific dosage unit needed. 4.Open and see NAISA 07 summery, USA federal doc. ( 33kb) My theoretical calculation based on: Aqua sp achievements on sewage waste bacteriums, sweet water and salts water In different use of ratios, for the average volume see attachment (26kb). 1.) Sewage 1000 tons = 1000,000 Lt, Aqua usage at a ratio 1:2000 respectively = 500lt or 500x25 grams =12, 5 Kg of powder. This what a cruise ship need per week. 2.) Ballast water 1000 tons, Aqua usage at a ratio 1:4000 respectively = 250 lt or 250x25 grams = Kg powder. This what a cruise ship need per week. This quantity of 6.25kg per 1000 tons discharged ballast water can be applied for any cargo ship.

18 A. INDUSTRIAL – Aircon/Ships

19 C. FARMING – Cut Flowers Aqua sp – AQGAR – Natural pruning seal for plants: 0.5 Kg– 5 Kg- 20 Kg The product: Used as post pruning sealer, to accelerate healing and drying. AQGAR is a composition of, natural enzymes and herbs extracts which minimizes sap loss during the healings. AQGAR properties are, anti bacterial, anti fungal and stops pests. AQGAR is an environmental friendly product, it is not toxic and non flammable. AQGAR, designed for the organic growers industry including all the fruit trees And more specifically for the winery, whereby the grape sensitivity to chemicals can change the: taste, aroma and the color of the final product. How to use: 1. Use hand gloves - 2. Use a suitable size brush – 3. After cutting the plant, then brush and cover all areas with AQGAR - 4. After use, close the container seal properly. Warning: Keep out of reach of infants. Do not consume the mix. Contact with eyes should be avoided. Shelf life and storage: Product is viable for 2 years if sealed and 1 year once the container is opened. Store in a cool place.

20 C. FARMING – Cut Flowers

21 D. CONSUMER – hand Cleaner


23 E. ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH - River Sketch – Use for AquaSP for rivers and runningstreams We can supply the materials and the related technology, for effective Aqua sp usage in different formats Powder and or liquid. The engendering works and the related calculations, should be done for each application or desired, by the Applicants.

24 E. ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH - Bilharziasis 1. INTRODUCTION Schistosomiasis or Bilharziasis is a widespread disease caused by the infestation of the human body by flukes commonly called blood flukes, of the genus Schistosoma. In many tropical and subtropical countries these flukes cause serious diseases; they rarely produce disease in temperate countries, even though they are widespread. It is estimated that 150 to 200 million people throughout the world are afflicted with diseases caused by blood flukes. Blood flukes spend most of their life cycle in two hosts: the adult stage is spent in a mammal, usually humans, and the immature stages are spent in certain snails. Eggs discharged from the host hatch into larval forms in fresh water; from the water, the larvae, called miracidia, invade the snail that acts as an intermediate host. The larval form of the parasite undergoes partial maturation in the snail, and then escapes back into the water as mature larvae called cercariae. At this stage they penetrate the skin of the host from the water and then migrate through the blood vessels to specific capillaries as maturation completes. There they remain and lay eggs. 2. EFFECTS OF BLOOD FLUKES IN HUMANS Three species of blood fluke produce serious diseases. These are S. haematobium, S. mansoni, and S. japonicum, found in the Tropics and in the Orient. About eight other species are known to produce irritations of the skin, commonly called swimmer's itch, of bathers in the lakes of the north- central United States, especially Michigan and Wisconsin, and of Canada, especially Manitoba. Only those species that produce serious disease are described here. The Egyptian blood fluke, S. haematobium, was first described by the German doctor Theodor Bilharz in The adult male is about 1.5 cm (about 0.6 in) long; the adult female is slightly longer and is much thinner than the male. The cercariae of the Egyptian blood fluke pierce the skin or mucous membranes when a human bathes in infested water. Eventually the flukes reach the venules and capillaries of the bladder. They mate and deposit eggs that, acting as foreign proteins, give rise to a severe inflammatory reaction in the walls of the bladder and find their way to the interior of the bladder; during their course, haemorrhages are produced, causing bloody urine and pain during urination. Eggs can be found in the urine on microscopic examination. The rectal blood fluke, S. mansoni, and the Japanese blood fluke, S. japonicum, concentrate in the blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Some are carried up the portal veins to the liver where they cause inflammation and scarring, with enlargement of liver and spleen. Because of obstruction to blood flow through the liver, distension of veins ensues, particularly in the oesophagus (oesophageal varices). These veins often rupture, causing serious haemorrhage. 3. TREATMENT Untreated schistosomiasis often results in death. The first line of attack is preventive, including proper sanitation and extermination of snails. Until 1982, none of the various drugs used to treat people with the disease was completely effective and all had severe side effects. Then an unusual new drug, praziquantel, became widely available. Praziquantel taken orally, in a single dose or in several doses on the same day, is highly effective against S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium, without

25 E. ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH - Maleria 1. INTRODUCTION Malaria is a disease of human beings and also birds, monkeys and other primates, lizards, and rodents, caused by infection by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and characterized by chills and intermittent fever. The causative organisms of human malaria are transmitted by the bite of about 60 species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. The disease may occur in subtropical and tropical regions in almost all parts of the world as well as in other areas of differing temperatures. With the advent of control programmes based on the use of residual insecticides, the distribution of malaria has changed rapidly. Since 1950, malaria has been eliminated from almost all of Europe and from large areas in Central and South America. It remains a major problem in parts of Africa and in south-eastern Asia. About 100 million cases of human malaria develop each year; about 1 per cent of these are fatal. Like many other tropical diseases, malaria is a major cause of illness and death in the developing world. Rapid population growth, migration, poor sanitation, and overcrowding have helped the disease to spread. The opening up of previously uninhabited areas and urbanization has brought mosquitoes into contact with people settling these areas. 2. MALARIA IN HUMANS Human malaria occurs in four forms, each caused by a different species of parasite. In each, the symptoms are usually chills, fever, and sweating. In untreated cases, these attacks recur periodically. The mildest form of malaria is benign tertian malaria, caused by Plasmodium vivax, in which the fever may occur every second day after the initial attack (which may occur within two weeks after infection). Jungle fever, malignant tertian malaria, or aestivo-autumnal malaria, caused by P. falciparum, is responsible for most of the deaths from malaria. The organisms in this form of the disease often block the blood vessels of the brain, producing coma, delirium, and finally death. Quartan malaria, caused by P. malariae, has a longer incubation period than either tertian malaria or jungle fever; the first attack does not appear until 18 to 40 days after infection. The attacks recur every third day. The fourth and rarest form of the disease, caused by P. ovale, is similar to benign tertian malaria. During the incubation period of malaria, the protozoa grow within cells in the liver; a few days before the first attack, the organisms invade the red blood cells, which they destroy in the course of their development, producing the typical febrile attack.

26 3. TREATMENT Since 1638 malaria has been treated with an extract from the bark of the cinchona tree, known as quinine, which is somewhat toxic and suppresses the growth of protozoa in the bloodstream. In 1930, German chemists synthesized Atabrine (quinacrine hydrochloride), which was at the time more effective than quinine and less toxic. Chloroquine, which became available at the end of World War II, was found capable of preventing and curing jungle fever completely, and to be much more effective in suppressing the other forms of malaria than Atabrine or quinine. It also had a much lower toxicity than any of the earlier drugs and was effective in less frequent doses. However, recently strains of P. falciparum, the organism causing jungle fever, have shown resistance to chloroquine and other synthetic anti-malarial drugs. These strains are encountered especially in Vietnam, and also in the Malay Peninsula, Africa, and South America. Quinine is also becoming less effective against P. falciparum strains. In addition to the occurrence of strains of drug-resistant parasites, the fact that some vector mosquitoes (anophelines) have become resistant to insecticides such as DDT has led to an upsurge of malaria in certain tropical countries. As a result, malaria has increased among American and Western European travellers to Asia and Central America and in refugees from these areas (in 1997 there were 12,328 cases of malaria in the European Union compared with 2,882 in 1981). People travelling to areas where malaria is prevalent or emerging may be prescribed anti-malarial drugs as prophylaxis (prevention). Advice on appropriate therapies, which may change, is available from centres such as the Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. Prophylactics are often continued for several weeks after return. Mefloquine has been shown to be effective against chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria, both as treatment and as a prophylactic. However, this drug is presently being closely monitored for adverse side effects. A combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine is used for malaria prophylaxis in chloroquine-resistant areas. Proguanil is used only for prophylaxis. Currently, work is progressing on the development of a malaria vaccine. Several vaccine candidates are now undergoing clinical trials for safety and effectiveness in human volunteers, having already proven successful in animals, and scientists are now working on a vaccine for general distribution. Research is being conducted into developing a new series of drugs based on artemisinin, which is used by Chinese herbalists to treat fever. The compound has proved effective against the P. falciparum organism but it is as yet difficult to synthesize. E. ENVIRONMENT & HEALTH - Maleria







33 UK. Tests 07 /12/ 2009 results for: Aqua sp / H2o Equalizer and tablets Aqua sp liquid diluted with water at the ratio of 1:1000, respectively against two different bacteria – Salmonella and E- Coli. At the same time the tests conducted against the same bacteria and Prop ionic acid used (currently used as a treatment in UK) for comparison. Both tests results proved again the superiority of our products 100% success, on two different time as claimed,the Aqua liquid, ( which is much cheaper in price achieved 100% kill in 24 hours – for commercial usages ) and the tablets results within immediate as 100% kill rate – for personal drinking water, and other usages ). The use of prop ionic acid was "failed" and not satisfactory.

34 UK. Tests 07 /12/ 2009 results for: Aqua sp / H2o Equalizer and tablets

35 "In the U.S., chlorine is added to public drinking water supplies as a public health measure to kill harmful bacteria in the water. The added chlorine reacts with naturally-occurring organic matter in the raw water (chiefly humic and fulvic acids), creating a host of chlorinated chemicals as by-products. Health agencies, including the federal EPA [Environmental Protection Agency] simply ignore most of these by- products and know almost nothing about them. Instead, they focus on four by-products, allowing these four to act as surrogates for all the others. The four that EPA pays attention to are chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, and chlorodibromomethane. Together, these four are called "trihalomethanes" or THMs." CHLORINE

36 CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER CAN EXCEED POOL WATER LIMITS PHILADELPHIA, Pa., Feb 1, 1999 / PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum limit for chlorine in drinking water that is 33% higher than chlorine used in pool water. Pool chemical suppliers instruct pool owners to limit the chlorine level to between milligrams per liter (mg/l). On February 16, the new maximum of 4.0 mg/l chlorine in drinking water will become effective nationwide. The given justification for 4.0 mg/l chlorine in drinking water is that, under federal law, water companies must ensure a minimum of 0.02 mg/l to customers living at the end of, sometimes, very lengthy water mains. This means that customers living at the front end of the pipe will be drinking water with higher levels of chlorine. (Note: Water treatment facilities that use alternative disinfectant processes to chlorination may be exempt from the 0.02 mg/l chlorine minimum). On the adverse health effects of chlorinated water, the EPA says, "…studies show an association between bladder and rectal cancer and chlorination byproducts in drinking water….Reports from the older literature stated that chronic exposure to concentrations of chlorine of around 5 ppm {ppm = mg/l}caused respiratory complaints, corrosion of the teeth, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis." There is a disturbing lack of comprehensive test data on the health effects of chlorine. The EPA says that "Limited information is available on the chronic effects of chlorine in humans." And, "…no information is available on the developmental or reproductive effects of chlorine in humans or animals via inhalation exposure or on the carcinogenic effects of chlorine in humans from inhalation exposure." Chlorine is inhaled during activities such as, baths, showers, washing dishes, laundry, and watering lawns. Peter Montegue, of the Environmental Research Foundation, reported in May 1998, that recent studies by researchers, including the California Department of Health and the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, indicate that miscarriages and birth defects, including spina bifida, may be caused by adding chlorine to drinking water. Many European cities and some Canadian cities have abandoned chlorination in favor of ozone technology to disinfect water. According to The American Water Works Association (AWWA), ozone is being used or considered for use at drinking water facilities because it is a powerful oxidant that disinfects without increasing the disinfection by-products that chlorine produces. CHLORINE

37 The U.S. General Accounting Office reports that there are serious deficiencies in water treatment plants in 75% of the states. More than 120 million people (about 50% of the population) may get unsafe water according to a study conducted by the Natural Resources Defense Council. U.S. Health Officials estimate 900,000 people each year become ill - and possibly 900 die - from waterborne disease. The General Accounting Office estimates 66% of Safe Drinking Water Act violations arent reported. The contamination of water is directly related to the degree of contamination of our environment. Rainwater flushes airborne pollution from the skies, and then washes over the land before running into the, rivers, aquifers, and lakes that supply our drinking water. Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The chemical element chlorine is a corrosive, poisonous, greenish-yellow gas that has a suffocating odor and is 2 1/2 times heavier than air. Chlorine belongs to the group of elements called halogens. The halogens combine with metals to form compounds called halides. Chlorine is manufactured commercially by running an electric current through salt water. This process produces free chlorine, hydrogen, and sodium hydroxide. Chlorine is changed to its liquid form by compressing the gas, the resulting liquid is then shipped. Liquid chlorine is mixed into drinking water and swimming pools to destroy bacteria. Until recently, concerns about drinking water focused on eliminating pathogens. The chlorine used to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. Chlorination of drinking water was a major factor in the reduction in the mortality rates associated with waterborne pathogen. The use of chlorine was believed to be safe. This view is evident in an article, which appeared on the back page of the New York Times. The report stated that with the use of chlorine, "Any municipal water supply can be made as pure as mountain spring water. Chlorination destroys all animal and microbial life, leaving no trace of itself afterwards". This statement reflected opinion accepted until recent years when halogenated organic compounds, such as chloroform, were identified in chlorinated drinking water supplies. Recent surveys show that these compounds are common in water supplies throughout the United States. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER

38 These concerns about cancer risks associated with chemical contamination from chlorination by-products have resulted in numerous epidemiological studies. These studies generally support the notion that by-products of chlorination are associated with increased cancer risks. Chlorine is used to combat microbial contamination, but it can react with organic matter in the water and form dangerous, carcinogenic Trihalomethanes. According to Dr. Joseph M. Price, MD, in Moseby's Medical Dictionary, "Chlorine is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times. It is an insidious poison". In a 1992 study that made front-page headlines, and was reported on in the July issue of the American Journal of Public Health researchers at the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee found that people who regularly drink tap water containing high levels of chlorine by-products have a greater risk of developing bladder and rectal cancers than people who drink unchlorinated water. The study estimates that about 9 percent of all bladder cancer and 18 percent of all rectal cancer cases are associated with long-term consumption of these by-products. This amounts to over 20,000 new cases each year. Morris, with epidemiologist Thomas C. Chalmers and his colleagues at Harvard, used a new technique called meta-analysis to combine the results from the 10 best studies, yielding the new findings. They report that people drinking chlorinated water over long periods have a 21% increase in the risk of contracting bladder cancer and a 38% increase in the risk of rectal cancer. "I am quite convinced, based on this study, that there is an association between cancer and chlorinated water.", says Robert D. Morris of the Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee, who directed the new study. About 90% of the population is drinking water which may contain hundreds of these Disinfection By-products (DBPs), also known as Trihalomethanes. The Environmental Protection Agency lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level for Disinfection By-products but it will be years before the new standard goes into effect. In his book, Coronaries/Cholesterol/Chlorine, Joseph M. Price, MD presents startling evidence that Trihalomethanes, are the "prime causative agents of arteriosclerosis and its inevitable result, the heart attack or stroke." These Trihalomethanes are created when the chlorine that is added to the municipal water supply reacts with organic matter such as leaves, twigs, or chemicals from agricultural runoff. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER

39 In its proposal for revamping the Clean Water Act, the Environmental Protection Agency has recommended examining chlorine's impact on health and the environment (SN: 1/22/94, p.59). The agency's proposed $2 million, one-year chlorine study would look at the effects of the use of chlorine and chlorine compounds in the manufacture of paper, solvents, and plastics and in disinfecting waste water and drinking water, says EPA' James F. Pendergast. Contaminants may enter water supplies at many points before reaching the tap. The carcinogens in drinking water at the point of use may result from contamination of source water, arise from the treatment processes, or enter as the water is transported to the consumer. Varied carcinogens may contaminate the source water, but they usually exist in drinking water at low concentrations. However, chemicals that enter drinking water during water treatment are limited in number, but appear in drinking water supplies with greater frequency than most source water contaminants. Under conditions of average temperature, humidity, and activity, the human body loses and, therefore, must replace about 2.3 liters of water each day. Two-thirds of this consumption is in the form of water or some other beverage. Concerns about the health risks or taste of drinking water may cause those who consume tap water to shift to bottled water, or other beverages. These beverages may include sweetened soft drinks and alcoholic beverages, which can pose health risks greater than those associated with drinking water. To stop chlorination of drinking water to eliminate the elevated cancer risks from chlorination by-products would be foolhardy. Nonetheless, the data provide strong evidence to support expanded efforts in research and development of alternatives to chlorination for the disinfection of drinking water. Chlorination is particularly effective in preventing recontamination during distribution. Alternatives must provide a similar level of protection. Perhaps the most viable alternative is point of use water treatment units. The weight of the evidence suggests that chlorination by-products pose substantial cancer risks that should be reduced. Dr. Herbert Schwartz of Cumberland County College in Vineman, N.J. says: "Chlorine has so many dangers it should be banned. Putting chlorine in the water supply is like starting a time bomb. Cancer, heart trouble, premature senility, both mental and physical, are conditions attributable to chlorine treated water supplies. It is making us grow old before our time by producing symptoms of aging such as hardening of the arteries." Summary and Prevention Strategies

40 Chlorine has been hailed as the saviour against cholera and various other water-borne diseases; and rightfully so. Its disinfectant qualities and economy of production have allowed communities and whole cities to grow and prosper by providing disease-free tap water to homes and industry. Some people have grown-up on tap water, and believe the taste of chlorine signifies purity and safety. Well, not necessarily so. Chlorine is, essentially, bleach. And what comes out of most municipally delivered faucets is, quite actually, a mild bleach solution. Is it healthy to drink bleach? Does your body require any certain amount of chlorine to remain healthy? Feel free to consult a physician on that somewhat rhetorical question. Consider some well-known attributes of chlorine. Let's say, "the dark side" of the saviour. A PhD chemist friend put it this way: "If I were assigned to go into a lab and produce a menu of known carcinogens (cancer-causing agents), the first thing I would do would be to grab-up a cylinder of chlorine and start bubbling it through some water that contains naturally occuring organic acids (humic and fumic acids -- as are found in all natural bodies of water like rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.)." Note the "chloro" part in the following: trichlorophosphate (TCP) and the trihalomethane group (THMs) which includes chloroform. You may recognize these known bad guys by the legally imposed requirement of your municipality to periodically make report to the public (newspaper) on the levels of these known or highly suspected carcinogens in the tap water being produced. There are others, but those are popularly known. And they're all chlorine by-products. Another problem directly related to chlorine disinfection are the aesthetic properties imparted when chlorine is combined with organic compounds that are natural to open bodies of water (surface water). This regards the "taste and odor" problems many municipalities experience during certain times of the year (especially in four-season latitudes) which draw their water supply from surface water. Surface water includes ponds, lakes, reservoirs, rivers, etc., as opposed to underground sources (wells, aquifers). Bubble chlorine through humic and fumic acids common to surface water supplies and you produce the "fishy" or "musty" odors and tastes so common in the spring and fall, when the lake "turns-over." Summary and Prevention Strategies

41 The good news is, you don't have to drink it anymore. The most practical and efficient method for removing chlorine, chlorine by-products, and taste and odor problems, is to filter it with granular activated carbon (GAC) or other suitable chemical-removing filter media, such as KDF. The municipalities are stuck. Environmental and public safety laws require most to maintain a chlorine residual throughout the entire water main delivery system. This is to retain some disinfecting properties in the event of groundwater infiltration and other contaminations. Barking at your local water company or water department about the taste and odor will accomplish nothing. Chances are, they're doing their best, and meeting the laws. The most practical solution to the problem is to take it back out at the "point of use" (POU) -- your own home or office. Steve Harrison, President Environmental Systems Distributing Sunday, 20 February, 2000 The Electronic Telegraph London, England Summary and Prevention Strategies

42 An independent study into the use of chlorine-treated drinking water has been ordered by the Government because of fears that it may cause spina bifida and stillbirths. Scientists from Imperial College, London University, will carry out the research after doctors in Norway, Canada and the United States reported higher levels of birth defects in areas where chlorine is used, compared with drinking water treated by alternative methods. All of Britain's water companies chlorinate their supplies. The only people who have non-chlorinated water are those with their own bore holes or wells. A Norwegian study of 141,000 births over three years found a 14 per cent increased risk of birth defects in areas with chlorinated water. Scientists have already found an association between chlorine and an increased risk of bowel, kidney and bladder cancer, but it is the first time that a link has been found with higher levels of spina bifida. Last night the Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus Association said it was "concerned" by the findings and would be discussing them with medical advisers before considering making representations to the Government. British water industry experts have not dismissed the findings but said that the safety benefits of purification outweigh the risks of birth defects. Dr Per Magnus, who carried out the Norwegian research, said: "This is an important finding because we know there are chemicals released by the action of chlorine on organic particles at treatment works. We have observed mutations in these chemicals which seem to tie up with mutations that are found in babies. We were in a unique position in Norway to make these observations because in some areas our water comes from the mountains and doesn't require cleaning with chlorine." The Norwegian government has ordered more research. Concerned families there have been filtering tap water. A popular method has been to place sachets of coral sand, dredged from fjords, into water before it is drunk, removing all traces of chlorine in tap water in 15 minutes. In Canada, at Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, researchers found that high levels of trihalomethanes, a by-product of chlorine in drinking water, significantly increased the risk of stillbirth. CHLORINE

43 Dr John Marshall, of the Pure Water Association, a pressure group which has been campaigning for safer drinking water, said: "It shows we should be paying more attention to the chemicals we put in drinking water and be looking for other alternatives to chlorination. A number of safe, non-toxic options exist, such as treating water with the gas ozone or ultra violet." Chlorine is in the same chemical group as fluoride, which has been linked with cancer and osteoporosis. There is also a connection between fluoride and increased blood pressure and an increase in problems with the thyroid gland. John Fawell, a leading specialist on water quality, and an independent industry consultant, said the British Government and water companies were taking the danger of birth defects seriously. He said: "The people who have done this work in Norway and the United States are reputable researchers and the Government and water companies have commissioned their own research from London University. Chlorine, Human Health, and the Environment: A Greenpeace Report 1993 An emerging body of evidence suggests that contamination of the environment with chlorine-based synthetic chemicals may be an important factor in the epidemic of breast cancer taking place across the world. These chemicals-called organochlorines-are building up absolutely everywhere on the planet-in the air and water, in the food chain, in the tissues of wildlife, and in our own bodies. Universal organochlorine contamination has already been implicated in regional and global disease epidemics in people and wildlife, including impaired reproduction, development, immune function and behavior. The new evidence that now links these chemicals to breast cancer reinforces the fact that organochlorines pose a serious threat to human health and the environment and should be phased out. CHLORINE

44 The evidence indicates that carcinogenic and hormonally-active chemicals in the environment may play a significant role in breast cancer. Among the suspects are the organochlorines, a class of industrial chemicals made from chlorine and carbon-based organic matter. Although these chemicals were first produced around the turn of the century, production did not reach a large scale until the decades following World War II. Now, the chemical industry produces about 40 million tons of chlorine annually. Organochlorines include such highly persistent and toxic substances as dioxin, DDT, PCBs, the ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), plus thousands of lesser known chemicals. Almost 80 percent of all chlorine is used in the chemical industry to produce PVC (vinyl) and other plastics, pesticides, industrial solvents and other chemicals; use of chlorine bleach in the pulp and paper industry is another important use, while much smaller amounts are used to disinfect wastewater and drinking water. Incinerators that burn chlorine-containing trash and hazardous wastes are an additional source of organochlorine discharges to the environment. Many organochlorines persist in the environment for decades or even centuries. Many also accumulate in the tissues of living things, multiplying in concentration as they move up the food chain. Over the decades, they have built to higher and higher levels in the ecosystem, in the food chain, and in the bodies of wildlife and people. Industrial organochlorines can now be found in ecosystems absolutely everywhere on the planet-in the deep oceans, in Arctic polar bears, in Antarctica. Organochlorines also now contaminate the bodies of all people: 177 organochlorines have been found in the tissues and fluids of people in North America, including a wide range of pesticides, solvents, chemical by-products, and other compounds. Hundreds more organochlorines are known to be present but have not yet been individually identified. Organochlorines tend to be very toxic, often in tiny doses. Effects include reproductive and developmental impairment, hormonal disruptions, genetic mutations, cancer, birth defects, immune suppression, neurological and behavioral toxicity, and damage to the liver, kidneys, skin. A growing body of evidence indicates that organochlorine pollution is already severe enough to be a major hazard to the health of people and wildlife. Organochlorines have been linked to large-scale hormonal disruptions, population declines, infertility and other reproductive problems, birth defects, impaired development, neurological and behavioral alteration, immune suppression and some types of cancer among people and wildlife. Organochlorines are not the only widespread, toxic, or carcinogenic pollutants in the environment. Nor are they the only ones that may contribute to breast cancer. Organochlorines are a priority for phase-out, however, for two reasons. First, they tend to dominate officials lists of priority pollutants, typically making up half or more of chemicals of concern, precisely because they tend to be so persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic, and widespread. Second, organochlorines are preventable: alternatives are available now for all major uses of chlorine. This report focuses on organochlorines not because they are the only cause of breast cancer, but because they may be an important one and they are highly preventable. Organochlorines: Priority Poisons

45 Several lines of evidence suggest that organochlorines contribute to breast cancer among the general population. Experimental evidence. Hundreds of organochlorines have been shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals and/or humans. Of the thousands that have not yet been tested, at least some are likely to turn out to be carcinogenic, as well. At least 16 organochlorines or groups of organochlorines have been found specifically to cause mammary cancers in laboratory animals, despite the fact that only a few have been tested for this effect. Some are pesticides-such as DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, and chlordane-that have already been restricted but remain common environmental contaminants and are still used in other nations. But other organochlorines identified as mammary carcinogens are still in common use, including the following: Atrazine: one of the most widely-used herbicides in North America and Europe and an extremely common contaminant of groundwater and surface water; Vinyl chloride, ethylene dichloride, and vinyledene chloride: feedstocks for the common plastics polyvinyl chloride (PVC, or vinyl) and polyvinylidene chloride (Saran wrap); Methylene chloride: a common solvent and paint-stripper; Dichlorobenzidines, dichloropropane and trichloro-propane: intermediates used in the chemical industry to produce dyes and other chemicals. Most organochlorines have not been tested for a link to breast cancer; it is likely that some of these, particularly those that are structurally or toxicologically similar to those already identified as mammary carcinogens, will turn out to cause the same effect. Biological mechanisms. Recent research into the behavior of organochlorines in the body shows how these chemicals could contribute to breast cancer in people. Organochlorines have been shown to cause genetic mutations, suppress the immune system, and disrupt the bodys natural controls on cell growth and replication. Breast cancer in women with high exposures. Women exposed to higher-than-normal levels of synthetic chemicals-including organochlorines- have been found to have significantly elevated rates of breast cancer. These groups include women chemical industry workers exposed to dioxin, women living near hazardous waste sites, women chemists, and women workers exposed to chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvents. Organochlorines and Breast Cancer

46 Tissue studies. Important new research has linked organochlorines to breast cancer risk among women from the general population-those with no unusual chemical exposures. Several studies have found a relationship between the levels of certain organochlorines in a womans blood, fat, or breast tissues and her risk of breast cancer. Women with the highest concentrations of certain organochlorine pesticides in their bodies have been found to have breast cancer risks 4 to 10 times higher than women with lower levels. If future research confirms that the effect of these chemicals is indeed that strong, organochlorines would be among the most important breast cancer risk factors ever identified. The case of Israel. In Israel, national policies to ban organochlorines appear to have helped reduce breast cancer rates. Until the mid-1970s, both breast cancer rates and contamination levels by several organochlorine pesticides were among the very highest in the world. Following an aggressive phase-out program of those chemicals, contamination levels dropped to the levels found in other countries, and breast cancer mortality quickly followed, dropping to a rate similar to that in other nations. This decline, which was distributed across age groups in a dose-response pattern, is especially notable, given the rapid increases in breast cancer that were taking place in other nations during the same period. Further, all other dietary and reproductive risk factors in Israel actually grew worse during the period in question. Related effects in people and wildlife. Emerging evidence implicates global organochlorine contamination in an array of other health effects among humans and wildlife. Current contaminants levels are in the range at which hormonal disruptions and other effects are known to occur. Exposure to these compounds has been linked to infertility, reproductive failure, developmental impairment, immune suppression, and possible other cancers-notably testicular cancer-among marine mammals, other species of fish and wildlife, and humans. If environmental levels of organochlorines are high enough to cause these effects, it is plausible that they are also high enough to cause breast cancer. Trends in breast cancer incidence rates are consistent with increasing contamination by organochlorines. Industrialized nations, with more severe pollution, also tend to have much higher breast cancer rates than less industrialized countries. Organochlorines and Breast Cancer

47 There is more than enough evidence to conclude that the class of organochlorines may pose serious hazards to health and the environment: members of this class tend to be toxic, persistent, and/or bioaccumulative and to produce even more dangerous organochlorine by-products at some point during their life-cycles. The Precautionary Principle-and common sense-thus requires that the burden of proof be reversed and that organochlorines be phased out. A phase-out of the production, use and discharge of these chemicals into the environment should begin immediately. It would take centuries to phase-out the thousands of organochlorines in commerce on a chemical-by-chemical basis. Further, organochlorines are never made in isolation but are always formed in complex mixtures of products and by-products, so there is no effective way to regulate them one- by-one. Phase-outs should focus not on individual chemicals but on the major industrial sectors and processes that use and produce these compounds. Chlorine-free alternatives are available now for all major uses of chlorine, including PVC and other chlorinated plastics, chlorinated bleaches, pesticides, solvents, disinfectants, and chemical intermediates. Several international bodies have already concluded that organochlorines should be phased-out as a class, including the International Joint Commission on the Great Lakes-a bi-national advisory body to the U.S. and Canadian governments-and the Paris Commission on Land Based Sources of Pollution to the North Atlantic, a ministerial convention of fifteen European nations. The IJC recommended that the U.S. and Canadian governments begin a scheduled phase-out of industrial processes that use chlorine and organochlorines begun in the U.S. and Canada. The parties to the Paris Commission agreed that discharges of organohalogens should be reduced with the aim of their elimination and that measures should be adopted to prohibit the use of organohalogens and substitute alternative processes and substances where those compounds are now produced and used. The emerging evidence on the relationship between organochlorine contamination and breast cancer provides compelling new support for these calls to phase-out chlorine and related chemicals. A public health policy that emphasizes disease prevention must lead to environmental policies that prohibit environmental discharges of disease-causing chemicals, particularly organochlorines. Recommendations: Phasing-Out Chlorine and Organochlorine

48 Summary: Health concerns of chlorine exposure not limited to humans, this includes the animals, and plants – on humans and animals, possible increased risk of miscarriage, birth defects, rectal and bladder cancer, respiratory complaints, corrosion of the teeth, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis. Recommendations: Phasing-Out Chlorine and Organochlorine

49 Empirical experiment utilising Aqua SP on Organically Grown and freshly picked Green Beans DAY 1 DAY 2 The experiment started on the 14th October when I washed one sample of beans in running municipal tap water for a period of 10 minutes giving the effect of equivalency with a chlorine bath. The other sample of beans were soaked for 5 minutes in a stainless steel sink containing 10 litres of municipal water and 1 Aqua SP Effervescent Water Purification Tablet.

50 Empirical experiment utilising Aqua SP on Organically Grown and freshly picked Green Beans DAY13 - UNTREATED DAY 13 - TREATED You will be able to clearly see that after two weeks left at an ambient temperature, the treated sample does not form any kind fungal growth and apart from loss of moisture remains in good and certainly edible condition.

51 Empirical experiment utilising Aqua SP on Organically Grown and freshly picked Green Beans DAY13 - UNTREATED DAY 13 - TREATED It can also be evidenced that the beans that were kept in a plastic bag and moist atmosphere during the two week period also remained free of fungal attack.

52 Empirical experiment utilising Aqua SP on Organically Grown and freshly picked Green Beans DAY15 - UNTREATED DAY 15 - TREATED

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