6Autotroph /A producer makes its own food, and is the basis for the food chain & food web.Examples:All plants, algae, and some types of bacteria
7Phytoplankton Microscopic ocean PRODUCERS. At the base of ocean food webs.Use sunlight to make food, and also produce huge amounts of oxygen, which goes into the troposphere.
8The SUN provides the energy for all the food chains on Earth. Producers use the sun’s energy to make their own food in the process of photosynthesis.Producers are at the beginning of every food chain & food web.
11ZooplanktonTiny animals which eat phytoplankton (and other zooplankton), and are in turn, eaten by small fish, and then larger fish.Paraeuchaeta norvegica, a carnivorous copepod commonly found in fjords and North Atlantic waters
14An organism that hunts and eats other organisms for its food. PredatorPredatorAn organism that hunts and eats other organisms for its food.
15An organism that is hunted and eaten by other organisms for food PreyPreyAn organism that is hunted and eaten by other organisms for food
16ParasiteOrganism that lives in or on a host organism, doing it harm (but usually not killing it).A tapeworm lives in the intestines of its host organism.
17HostAn organism that is used by another organism (parasite) for nutrients, shelter, or transport.The host organism is harmed by this relationship.Example: tick (parasite) on dog (host)
18Biosphere “Bio” = “life” “Sphere” = ball-like structure The biosphere is the part of Earth that supports life
19EcosystemAll of the living and nonliving things that interact in an area.
20A nonliving part of an ecosystem Abiotic FactorsSunlightAirLandLiving SpaceWaterSoil /sandA nonliving part of an ecosystem
21A living part of an ecosystem. Biotic FactorsA living part of an ecosystem.
22Biodiversity (Diversity) The number of different species of plants and animals in an area.
23HabitatPlace an organism lives. Where it finds shelter and food, and spends its life.A habitat can be a hole in a cactus or the underside of a fern leaf in rainforest. Or a habitat can be a large area of savanna.
24NicheAn organism’s particular role in an ecosystem, or how it “makes its living”.
25CompetitionOccurs when many organisms within an ecosystem want to use the same resources and there aren’t enough to go around
28Population Part of Earth that supports life. All biotic and abiotic factors in a community.All the populations in a specific area.All organisms of the same species in an area.One organism of a species.
29CommunityAll populations living in the same area.
32MutualismSymbiotic relationship in which both organisms involved benefit.In this example, the cleaner shrimp gets a meal by eating the parasites off of the queen angelfish, and the angelfish gets rid of parasites.
33LichenOrganism made of a photosynthetic alga (or cyanobacteria) and a fungus that live in a close association with each other.
34Invasive SpeciesAn invasive species, also known as an exotic or nuisance species, is an organism or plant that is introduced into a new environment, where it is not nativeIn less than a decade, the Indo-Pacific lionfish has become widely established along the Southeast U.S. and Caribbean. Lionfish are presently invading the Gulf of Mexico and South America.Lionfish occupy the same trophic position as economically important species (e.g., snapper and grouper) and may hamper stock rebuilding efforts and coral reef conservation measures.Pacific Lionfish
35Invasive Species - more examples Feral Pigs (Hogs) -- Feral pigs cause disturbance of vegetation and soil as a result of their rooting habits. The disturbed area may cause a shift in plant succession on the immediate site. Feral pigs also compete, to some degree, with several species of wildlife for certain foods. They reproduce quickly and have no natural predators.Zebra Mussels -- have caused alarming declines in populations of fish, birds and native mussel species, and can disrupt a city's entire water supply system by clogging the insides of pipelines. Zebra mussels also damage boat hulls, plug water systems used in boat motors, air conditioners and heads and cause navigation buoys to sink.
36Ecological Succession Annual Perennial Shrubs Softwood HardwoodPlants Plants and Trees - Pines TreesGrassesTimeNatural process by which one community of organisms slowly replaces another in a certain area
37Pioneer Species First organisms to live in an area. Lichens growing on a rockMossFirst organisms to live in an area.Usually very small organisms, such as mosses and lichens.
38Limiting FactorEnvironmental factor that limits population sizes in a particular ecosystemExamples:water,sunlight,food,living space
39Climax CommunityMature large organisms (trees) that are established when the community reaches a stable point where very few plants can colonize.