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The Environment -major changes in last decade Hussam Adeni

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Presentation on theme: "The Environment -major changes in last decade Hussam Adeni"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Environment -major changes in last decade Hussam Adeni

2 Major changes in last decade - for the environment New Accords and Protocols Automobile Industry – Radical changes Environment restrictions Hussam Adeni

3 5 Major changes in the last decade Montreal Accord Euro IV and Euro V fuels Engine configurations Stringent API specifications Kyoto Protocol Hussam Adeni

4 5 Major changes in the last decade Montreal Accord Largely for refrigerants Euro IV and Euro V fuels Sulphur reduction in fuels Engine configurations Fuel injection mechanism Higher operating speeds and pressure Hussam Adeni

5 5 Major changes in the last decade Stringent API specifications API CJ-4 specifications Kyoto Protocols Green House Gas (GHG) emissions Hussam Adeni

6 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/96 Treaty structured around halogenated hydro carbons known to play a role in Ozone depletion Treaty deals with phase-out Management Plan for 1.Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 2.Carbon Tetra chloride (CCl 4), 3.Hydrochloroflourocarbons (HCFCs) Hussam Adeni

7 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/6 Treaty structured around widely used halogenated hydrocarbons now known to play a role in Ozone depletion Targets HCFCs, CFCs, CCl 4 used as 1.Refrigerants, 2.Solvents, 3.Blowing agents for plastic/foam manufacture 4.Fire extinguisher. Hussam Adeni

8 1. Montreal Accord – 1995/6 Update Largely implemented across the world R – 134 A successfully identified as alternative refrigerant. Widely used today in Air conditioners used in automobiles, in house and office ACs and in industries. Montreal compliant solvents and fire extinguishers have been developed & are in use today in many applications Hussam Adeni

9 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Role of fuels Three major function in an IC engine Energy source to drive engine Coolant for injector It is the lubricant for fuel pump & injectors In addition, fuels should be compatible with gaskets and seals in the system Good compatibility --> expansion or marginal swelling. As a result, there will no leakage of fuels, gas & oil Hussam Adeni

10 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Environmental demands Under the Clean Air Act – –Sulphur in fuels to be reduced 15 ppm Most developing countries: Sulphur in fuels approx ppm till the early 90s Many have now implemented 50 ppm sulphur in all fuels. Developed countries have progressively moved to 10 ppm Sulphur in Fuels Hussam Adeni

11 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Diesel Hussam Adeni Diesel Euro I 1993 Euro II 1996 Euro III 2000 Euro IV 2005 Euro V 2009 Poly aromatics - Vol%,Max N/A 11 Sulphur ppm, Max (10)* 19 Cetane number - Min49 51 ºC, kg/m² Distillation 15º C Reduction of Sulphur results in reduction of aromatics, this robs the fuel of its lubricity. Damaging fuel injectors, whose replacement cost $ 100 each, there are 8 nos in an engine. Dosing with Fuel additives, a quick remedy

12 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels - Gasoline - Petrol Hussam Adeni Gasoline Euro I 1993 Euro II 1996 Euro III 2000 Euro IV 2005 Euro V 2009 Aromatics - Vol%, MaxNo limit 4235 Olefins - Vol %, MaxNo limit 18 Benzene - Vol%, Max55111 Oxygen - Vol%, Ma Sulphur – ppm,Max (10)* 10 RON - Min91 RVP - kPa Lead - g/Lt, Max0.013 None

13 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Hydro treatment- Sulphur removal Sulphur in fuels is removed at the refinery by stripping Process of stripping of sulphur is called Hydrotreatment Hussam Adeni

14 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Pitfalls of - Sulphur removal Unfortunately - sulphur reduction also removes Natural lubricity compounds Natural conductivity properties It changes combustion properties Biocide property of sulphur Hussam Adeni

15 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication – loss of lubricity No protective barrier between metal surfaces Could lead to damage of vital engine components Some vital components are Fuel pump Fuel injectors Valves & ports Hussam Adeni

16 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication – ASTM and lubricity In 2005, ASTM had put in a lubricity specification ASTM D 975 for middle distillates ASTM D 6079 is widely used for other fuels Wear scar value is 520 microns or less OEMs in Europe suggested 420 or less Fully synthetic esters widely accepted component in fuel additives Hussam Adeni

17 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal Natural conductivity properties Conductivity is decreased Static charge may build up while fuel is being pumped Probably danger of ignition from static electricity Essential that fuels are dosed with special conductivity additives Hussam Adeni

18 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal It changes combustion properties Hydro treatment may reduce Cetane in diesel to the 40s Modern Diesel engines are computer controlled and deliver optimal combustion in the range of 45 to 51. Cetane boosting additives now essential for peak performance Hussam Adeni

19 2. Euro IV and Euro V fuels Implication - Sulphur removal Biocide property of sulphur Widely used today as antiseptic Used in many drugs and medicines Sulphur controls fungal growth in fuel tanks. Fuels now need to be treated with biocides to prevent fungal growth in fuel storage tanks Hussam Adeni

20 3. Engine configuration - Radical changes Three major function in an IC engine Energy source to drive engine Coolant for injector It is the lubricant for fuel pump & injectors In addition, fuels should be compatible with gaskets and seals in the system Good compatibility --> expansion or marginal swelling. As a result there will be no leakage of fuels, gas & oil Hussam Adeni

21 3. Engine configuration - Radical changes Evolution of fuel/injector/exhaust mechanism Naturally aspirated (NA) Turbo charged Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) Direct injection (DI) Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) Hussam Adeni

22 3. Engine configuration Radical changes - psi Dramatic increase in Operating pressures –Early diesel engines – 600 psi – Current CRDI – 30,000 psi Hussam Adeni

23 3. Engine configuration Radical changes – Cat. converter Engine manufacturers proposed reduction of treat level of Zinc- Phosphate and Calcium sulphonates – Engine manufacturers sought extension of life for catalytic converters – Research showed interference to life of catalytic converters from additives in lubes – ZDDP – Anti wear – Over based Calcium – Detergency Hussam Adeni

24 4. API CJ-4 requirements History of Lube additives Since 1975 triboapplications utilized solid boundary additive in the carrier oil acting as a barrier of molecules between moving parts with the following: 1.ZDDP (Zinc Di Thiophosphates) 2.Phosphorous 3.Sulphur 4.Calcium sulphonates Hussam Adeni

25 4. API CJ-4 requirements Used oil disposal issues These additives had the disadvantage of being: Highly toxic – difficult to dispose Sacrificial – Deplete on use Inert – Do not react with metal alloys Become acidic – due to oxidation and water Also corrosive – furthering micro-pitting Hussam Adeni

26 4. API CJ-4 requirements API CJ-4 demands Lube manufacturers use up to 1% ZDDP Zinc-Phosphate levels at 1% are for all practical purposes negligible Treats of 1% ZDDP packages likely to have little impact on reducing wear Hussam Adeni

27 4. API CJ-4 requirements Alternative EP additives consisting of Graphite, Molybdenum have come into prominence Graphite & Molybdenum have little lubricating value as they are not reactive Under heavy pressure will press out Will lead to metal to metal contact Research is going on for alternative compounds for use as anti wear additives Hussam Adeni

28 5. Kyoto Protocol Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) Major constituent of GHG identified Major sources for GHG emitters identified Incentive for reduction of GHG Hussam Adeni

29 5. Kyoto Protocol Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) Country wise and industry wise data collated. Reduction targets – broadly agreed upon Major constituent of GHG identified Carbon dioxide – CO 2 Nitrogen Oxides - NO x Major sources for GHG emitters identified Incentive for reduction of GHG Hussam Adeni

30 5. Kyoto Protocol Proposed reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) Country wise and industry wise data collated. Reduction targets – broadly agreed upon Major constituent of GHG identified Carbon dioxide – CO 2 Nitrogen Oxides – NO x Hussam Adeni

31 5. Kyoto Protocol Major sources for GHG emitters identified Aviation Industry Power Plants Auto Industry Hussam Adeni

32 5. Kyoto Protocol Incentive for reduction of GHG To users who register, document and reduce GHG emissions ISO initiated to document reduction Tradable Carbon Credits to offset bulk GHG emitters Bulk users in Auto related industry likely to be major beneficiary Hussam Adeni

33 Hussam Adeni Thank you


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