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Welcome to Environmental systems! 08/26/2013 Sign In Grab one of each of the following and put your name on it: 1. file folder 2. student information card.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Environmental systems! 08/26/2013 Sign In Grab one of each of the following and put your name on it: 1. file folder 2. student information card."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome to Environmental systems! 08/26/2013 Sign In Grab one of each of the following and put your name on it: 1. file folder 2. student information card (fill it out completely) 3. popsicle stick 4. scratch sheet of paperfold into a tent and write your name on it just like the example on the board and place it in front of you. You will place this name tent in front of your for two weeks until schedule changes are complete. Materials list THESE ARE DUE WEDNESDAY Take 5-10 minutes to fill out this information

2 ES Warm Up Aug 26 th, 2013 Grab a white board and a dry erase marker from the back of the class and answer the following questions: 1. What do you think environmental systems is about? 2. What would you like to learn in environmental systems? 3. Look at the objects around the room. Where do all the resources come from for these objects? Try to name as many as you can think of. Now I need a volunteer to write the students answers on the board.

3 Answers to Warm Up Aug 26 th, 2013 1. What do you think environmental systems is about? Environmental Systems explores the nature of science and the natural world. Students examine environmental issues and learn to make informed decisions using scientific problem solving. Specific topics include ecological interactions, matter and energy flow in ecosystems, biodiversity, characteristics and growth of populations, evolution, succession, biogeochemical cycles, soil and land resources, agriculture, waste management, and characteristics of terrestrial biomes. UT@Austin K-12 Ed 2. What would you like to learn in environmental systems? Answers will vary 3. Look at the objects around the room. Where do all the resources come from for these objects? Try to name as many as you can think of. Gypsum for wall board, plastic from petroleum, iron, nickle and zinc for the various metal objects, pressed particle board from wood, calcium carbonate, copper and silicon in electronic equipment. Put your student information sheet inside your folder and turn it into the box with your period number on it Place your popsicle stick in the proper receptacle NEATLY Place the white boards and dry erase markers back where you found them

4 Warm Up Aug 27 th, 2013 Please collect your name tents from the appropriate box and place it on the table in front of you. Go get a white board and dry erase marker What is environmental systems? If you cant remember, take 2 minutes to talk with a partner about it.

5 AUG 27 th MRS. cHAGRA Website: www.ideaprompter.comwww.ideaprompter.com Now we will go around the room and introduce ourselves. On your white board, draw that represents you or something that is important to you. Name Something interesting What you want to do after high school

6 ES Warm Up AUG 28 th 1. Please get your name tent and place it in front of you. 2. Get a white board per two people. 3. Name at least 3 things that can be recycled. 1. Can you think of any more than that? You will get a sticker for each one over 3 4. What is composting? 1. If you dont know, take a minute to talk to a partner. 5. How is electricity made? 1. If you dont know, take a minute to talk to a partner. 6. What is global climate change? 1. If you dont know, take a minute to talk to a partner.

7 ES Warm Up answers AUG 28 th 1. Name at least 3 things that can be recycled. 1. Cardboard, paper, aluminum, plastic, magazines, paper board, batteries, glass bottles, giving anything to goodwill 2. What is composting? 1. Composting is nature's process of recycling decomposed organic materials into a rich soil known as compost. Anything that was once living will decompose. Basically, backyard composting is an acceleration of the same process nature uses. By composting your organic waste you are returning nutrients back into the soil in order for the cycle of life to continue. Finished compost looks like soil–dark brown, crumbly and smells like a forest floor.

8 ES Warm Up answers AUG 28 th 3. How is electricity made? 1. A generator manufactures electricity. In a generator, something causes the shaft and armature to spin. An electric current is generated. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20Vb6hlLQSg 4. What is global climate change? 3. The Earth is getting warmer because people are adding heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere, mainly by burning fossil fuels. These gases are called greenhouse gases. Warmer temperatures are causing other changes around the world, such as melting glaciers and stronger storms. http://www.epa.gov/climatestudents/

9 ES Agenda AUG 28 th Recycling! We recycle in this classroom. If you bring in an aluminum can or a plastic bottle, you MUST RINSE IT OUT AND PLACE IN THE APPROPRIATE RECYCLING CONTAINER. I will check the trash cans daily. If I see an aluminum can or plastic bottle in the trash, the entire class will stay behind until it is rinsed and placed in the proper receptacle. 1. What does a successful classroom look like to you? Brainstorm with your partner. I need a (new!) volunteer to write on the board.

10 ES Warm Up AUG 29 th 1. Please pull out your name tent and place it in front of you. 2. What does Lab Safety mean to you? 3. Have you had or have known of anyone that had a laboratory accident? 4. Can you name at least 3 proper procedures for laboratory safety? 5. Can you see any safety equipment located around the room? What is it and what is it for? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DWRGSaaKXV4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_Bj7ZGwk-4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6NEdcZY2WY http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C561PCq5E1g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xJG0ir9nDtc

11 ES Agenda AUG 29 th 1. We will go over the laboratory safety guidelines. You will take a quiz. You will also take this form home to your parents for a signature. This is for a grade and is due tomorrow.

12 ES Warm Up and agenda AUG 30 th 1. Please get your name tent and your lab test and place it in front of you. 2. Get a white board and dry erase marker from the back of the room. 3. I have all the lab safety rule #s on the board. Please pick one and write your name next to it. 4. Write the rule in YOUR OWN WORDS on the white board and we will all share them with the entire class.

13 ES Warm Up and agenda Sept 3 rd, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. Take out your journal. We will go through a ppt. on how to keep a proper journal. If you did not bring a journal, take notes on a piece of paper and add it to your journal at a later time. As you are taking notes, I will come by and give you a grade for either having your journal or not. 100% if you have it today, 75% for bringing it late.

14 ES Warm Up sept 4 th, 2013 Place your name tent on the table in front of you. Answer the following in COMPLETE SENTENCES: 1. Write down the proper procedure for writing warm ups in your journals. 2. Why are there specific procedures for keeping a lab notebook? 3. Name one famous scientist that we studied yesterday.

15 ES Agenda sept 4 th, 2013 You will take notes on how to read an MSDS sheet. You will use your notes to complete a handout on ACETONE! http://www.usmra.com/repository/category/ha zardous_chemicals/How_to_read_MSDS_and_lab els.pdf

16 ES Warm Up sept 5 th, 2013 Place your name tent on the table in front of you. On the next available page in your journal, write down the following questions. Leave enough room between each question to answer the questions. 1. What is a GMO? A GMO is… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jAP6ZtfP9ZQ 2. What is a CAFO? A CAFO is… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AOVn7_drjk E 3. What is Escherichia coli? Escherichia coli is… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3ps_Kw4EX7 A

17 ES Agenda sept 5 th, 2013 We will go over the chemical label quiz and syllabus. Answer everything in COMPLETE sentences. There will be minus 5 points for each answer NOT in COMPLETE sentences. We will TRADE AND GRADE: Write Graded by: Your NAME I will also grade these quizzes. If you do not properly mark off questions when wrong, I will subtract 10 points from your quiz.

18 ES Warm Up sept 6 th, 2013 Pick up a hand out. Place your name tent in front of you. Please answer the following in complete sentences in your journals, under the last warm up. If you have your syllabus with you, you can use it. 1. According to the syllabus we went over yesterday, what is the consequence for the first infraction? 2. What is the consequence for the 2 nd infraction? 3. What is the consequence for the 3 rd infraction?

19 ES Agenda sept 6 th, 2013 Please read the article and complete the corresponding hand out.

20 ES Warm Up sept 9 th, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. Please answer the following in complete sentences in your journals. Start on a new page on the left side of your journal. Answer the following in COMPLETE SENTENCES for full credit. Put the day and date at the top. 1. Why is the sky blue? 2. How to magnets work? 3. How old is the Earth?

21 ES Warm Up sept 9 th, 2013 Answer the following in COMPLETE SENTENCES for full credit. 1. Why is the sky blue? The sky is blue because blue light has a short wavelength and can get through the atmosphere more easily than longer wavelengths and as a result are scattered more widely as they pass through the atmosphere. 1. How to magnets work? Magnets have a bunch of electrons flowing all around it in the same direction, this causes it to attract objects that have unpaired electrons. 1. How old is the Earth? Earth is 4.54 billion years old.

22 ES Agenda sept 9 th, 2013 We will go over class and lab expectations. You will take notes. This is a direct teach. I expect you to be in active listening mode as well as taking notes. http://www.theonion.com/video/in-the-know- are-tests-biased-against-students-who,17966/ The following is why you shouldnt text in class http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OINa46HeW g8

23 ES Warm Up sept 10 th, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. Pick up a class set of questions. Answer the following in COMPLETE SENTENCES for full credit. Put the day and date at the top. 1. Name three student expectations from yesterday. 2. Name a consequence for not participating in a lab or horseplay during a lab. 3. What is a consequence for sleeping?

24 ES Agenda sept 10 th, 2013 Please answer the questions on the worksheet provided using chapter one in the book. This is a class set. You will write the answers to the questions in COMPLETE SENTENCES IN YOUR JOURNALS. This is independent work. This is due at the end of the period.

25 ES Warm Up sept 11 th, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. Please answer the following questions in your journals: 1. Scientific information is often misused in advertising and political debate. This misuse includes all of the following EXCEPT: a) Selective use of data b) Distorted logic c) Allowing room for uncertainty 2. Science begins with a) Answers to questions about the natural world b) Measurements of various quantities c) Observations and questions about those observations 3. When doing an experiment, which one does a good scientist NOT DO a) Honesty, data collection, and a scientific question. b) Creativity, honesty, and observation. c) Partial answers, quickness, and finishing early.

26 ES Agenda sept 11 th, 2013 IF YOU ARE FINISHED WITH THE QUESTIONS FROM YESTERDAY, YOU CAN PARTICIPATE IN LAB 1, GROUP 1 AFTER YOU HAVE ANSWERED THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. IF YOU HAVE NOT FINISHED YOU WILL REMAIN IN YOUR SEATS UNTIL YOU ARE FINISHED ON THE QUESTIONS FROM YESTERDAY AND THE QUESTIONS BELOW. THEN YOU CAN DO THE LAB. Using the handout I have provided you, answer the following questions in your journals: 1.Name three types of measurements. 2.What system do scientists use for measurements? 3.What is one tool that we use to measure volume? Draw a picture of it with water in it and include a meniscus. 4.What is one tool that we use to measure mass? Draw a picture of it with the three balances showing a measurement. 5.What three objects will you be using to measure volume? 6.What three objects will you be using to measure mass? 7.What will using to measure distance? 8.To measure length, you will measure a penny, a paper clip and a book. You will measure each item with a meter stick and a ruler. AS SOON AS YOU HAVE FINISHED ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS ABOVE, PLEASE RAISE YOUR HAND, I WILL STAMP YOUR WORK, THEN YOU CAN GET STARTED ON THE LAB.

27 ES Warm Up sept 12 th, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. 1. According to the pre-lab from yesterday, what will we be measuring today? 2. According to the pre-lab from yesterday, what tools will we be using today? Name three.

28 ES warm up sept 13 th, 2013 Answer the following questions: 1. If given the choice between tap water and bottled water, what would you choose? Why? 2. Are their standards or testing for tap water or bottled water or both? 3. Do you think there should be? 4. Name two chemicals that are in tap water that probably are not in bottled water.

29 ES agenda Sept 13 th, 2013 Place your name tent in front of you. Pick up the handouts from yesterday. 1. Finish doing the lab stations from yesterday. 2. As soon as your done, you can finish the questions from WEDNESDAY.

30 09/16/2012 warm up and agenda Monday Answer the following questions in your journals: 1. What is the difference between precise and accurate? 2. Did every person get the exact same measurements? Why or why not? 3. Which station had the largest discrepancies in measurements? Why? 4. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzfS1Z4Aec0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzfS1Z4Aec0 AFTER THE TEST Demonstrate proper data collection techniques: Please make your data look like it is displayed below. DATA TABLE: Paper Clip Measurements Person MeasuringMeasurement with ruler Measurement with meter stick person 15 mm4.5 mm person 25.1 mm4.8 mm person 35.2 mm4.5 mm Averages5.1 mm4.6 mm

31 09/17/2013 warm up Tuesday 1. Viewing Earth from outer space forces us to conclude that a. there is intelligent life on Earth b. Earth and its resources are finite c. Earth is made of three main layers 2. What is the original source of all energy used by living organisms? a. Plantsd. the sun b. Chlorophyll c. photosynthesis 3. An ecosystem has two major components, nonliving and living. The nonliving or abiotic include all of the following except a. An energy sourced. scavengers b. Minerals c. Physical factors (humidity, rainfall, etc.)

32 09/17/2013 warm up tuesday 1. Viewing Earth from outer space forces us to conclude that b. Earth and its resources are finite 2. What is the original source of all energy used by living organisms? b. the sun 3. An ecosystem has two major components, nonliving and living. The nonliving or abiotic include all of the following except 4. d. scavengers

33 09/17/2013 agenda tuesday Take 5-8 minutes to WRITE A CONCLUSION TO LAST WEEKS LAB Then we will start on the vocabulary for Chapter 2. IN YOUR JOURNALS You will define the word in your own words and then draw a small picture to help you remember the word: 1. mantle2. core 3. lithosphere4. atmosphere 5. hydrosphere6. ecosphere7. biosphere 8. heat capacity9. surface tension10. decomposers 11. ecosystem12. biotic13. abiotic14. habitat 15. niche 16. photosynthesis17. carbon dioxide 18. respiration 19. population 20. Community 21. Terrestrial22. biome 23. tundra24. coniferous 25. deciduous26. Marine 27. estuary 28. brackish

34 09/18/2013 warm up Wednesday 1. Organisms that obtain food material and energy from the breakdown of animal wastes and dead organisms are called a. Decomposersc. consumers b. Producersd. critters 2. All of the following fit into the general category of decomposers except a. Vegetablesc. earthworms b. Fungid. bacteria 3. When you metabolize food while eating, which of the following gases in the air mixture around you are you using? a. Nitrogenc. oxygen b. Carbon dioxided. carbon monoxide

35 09/18/2013 warm up Wednesday 1. Organisms that obtain food material and energy from the breakdown of animal wastes and dead organisms are called a. Decomposers http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z6V0a_7N1Mw 2. All of the following fit into the general category of decomposers except a. Vegetables http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uj4FL0u1wvg 3. When you metabolize food while eating, which of the following gases in the air mixture around you are you using? c. Oxygen http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7gPtASv0SQ

36 09/19/2013 warm up thursday 1. An ecosystem can function properly because it has a. A one-way flow of energy b. A recycling of chemicals c. Both a and b d. Neither a nor b 2. If one is to survive in a closed system, that system must contain all of the following except a. A gaseous mixture similar to the air in our atmosphere b. Fruits and vegetablesincluding sources of protein c. A variety of poultry and fish d. Bacteria to break down dead material 3. Water satisfies our metabolic requirements and the requirements of plants and animals. What other important function does water perform? a. Source of energyc. enrichment of soil b. Waste transport

37 09/19/2013 warm up thursday 1. An ecosystem can function properly because it has b. A recycling of chemicals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09_sWPxQymA 2. If one is to survive in a closed system, that system must contain all of the following except c. A variety of poultry and fish 3. Water satisfies our metabolic requirements and the requirements of plants and animals. What other important function does water perform? b. Waste transport http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dPKvHrD1eS4

38 09/19/2013 agenda Thursday We will finish the vocabulary today. Please write the definition IN YOUR OWN WORDS for the following in your journals. Draw a small picture to DEPICT the word. You can get ideas from your classmates displayed pictures. As soon as you are done, I will come by and stamp your journal. 1. mantle2. core 3. lithosphere4. atmosphere 5. hydrosphere6. ecosphere7. biosphere 8. heat capacity9. surface tension10. decomposers 11. ecosystem12. biotic13. abiotic14. habitat 15. niche16. photosynthesis17. carbon dioxide 18. respiration19. population20. community 21. Terrestrial22. biome 23. tundra 24. coniferous25. deciduous26. Marine

39 09/20/2013 warm up friday 1. Arctic and alpine tundras would be represented by a. Low precipitation and high temperature b. Low precipitation and low temperature c. High precipitation and high temperature d. High precipitation and low temperature 2. An ecosystem can survive without a. Waterc. decomposers b. Atmosphered. animals 3. A population is a. A group of organs performing a similar function b. A group of different organisms living in a given area c. A group of the same type of organisms living in a certain area.

40 ES WU 09/20/2013 1. Arctic and alpine tundras would be represented by b. Low precipitation and low temperature 2. An ecosystem can survive without d. animals 3. A population is a. A group of the same type of organisms living in a certain area.

41 09/20/2013 agenda Friday We will finish the vocabulary today. Please write the definition IN YOUR OWN WORDS for the following in your journals. Draw a small picture to DEPICT the word. You can get ideas from your classmates displayed pictures. As soon as you are done, I will come by and stamp your journal. 1. mantle2. core 3. lithosphere4. atmosphere 5. hydrosphere6. ecosphere7. biosphere 8. heat capacity9. surface tension10. decomposers 11. ecosystem12. biotic13. abiotic14. habitat 15. niche16. photosynthesis17. carbon dioxide 18. respiration19. population20. community 21. Terrestrial22. biome 23. tundra 24. coniferous25. deciduous26. Marine When you have finished, we will start a video on biomes

42 ES WU 09/23/2013 1. Which of the following shows movement from smallest to largest? a. Atomscellsearthecosystem b. Atomsorganismearthecosystem c. Moleculescellspopulationsorgans d. Cellsorganspopulationecosystem 2. Organisms usually classified as consumers include a. Some plants and no animals b. All animals but no plants c. Some animals and all plants d. Some plants and all animals 3. On land, large major ecosystems, such as forests, grasslands, tundra, and deserts, can be called a. Biomes b. Populations c. Communities

43 ES WU 09/23/2013 1. Which of the following shows movement from smallest to largest? d. Cellsorganspopulationecosystem 2. Organisms usually classified as consumers include b. All animals but no plants 3. On land, large major ecosystems, such as forests, grasslands, tundra, and deserts, can be called a. Biomes

44 ES WU 9/23/2013 How to create and/or read a climatograph http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7l5uQQTqxz4 You will draw this climatograph in your journals We will finish the video on biomes.

45 ES WU 09/24/2013 Please draw this climatograph in your journals What area would it most likely represent? A.A Tropical Rain Forest B.A Desert C.A geographical location near the poles D. An area in midwestern area of the U.S.

46 ES WU 09/24/2013 D. An area in midwestern area of the U.S.

47 ES WU 09/24/2013 I will give you a variety of charts on precipitation and temperature, you will complete three climatographs.

48 ES WU 09/25/2013 What would a temperature line look like if the clamatograph were located in the tropics? What would a temperature line look like if the climatograph were located in a temperate region? What would a temperature line look like if the climatograph were located in a polar region? What would the precipitation bars look like for a climatograph representing a rainforest or deciduous forest?

49 ES Agenda 9/25 I will give you a variety of biomes and climatographs, you will distinguish between them and cut and paste them in the appropriate areas. This will be a test grade!

50 ES Agenda 9/26 No warm up! Finish your climatographs!

51 ES WU 09/27/2013 Please answer the following in complete sentences: 1. Food webs/chains almost always begin with the ____. 2. _______are at the bottom of almost every food chain. 3. Fossil fuels in the ground are an example of a carbon sink. What do you think that means? 4. What comprises 78% of the air we breathe?

52 09/27/2013 Please answer the following in complete sentences: 1. Food webs/chains almost always begin with the sun. 2. Plants (producers) are at the bottom of almost every food chain. 3. Fossil fuels in the ground are an example of a carbon sink. A carbon sink is a reservoir that holds more carbon than it releases. 4. Nitrogen gas comprises 78% of the air that we breathe.

53 ES Agenda 9/27 This will be a test grade! Finsih climatographs, then get to work on the questions for chapter 2.

54 09/30/2013 Warm up 1. What is an adaptation? 2. Name three adaptations for organisms that live in the desert. 3. Name three adaptations for organisms that live in a polar region. 4. What area might the following climatograph represent?

55 09/30/2013 Warm up 1. What is an adaptation? An adaptation is a characteristic that an organism has developed to survive in a particular climate. 2. Name three adaptations for organisms that live in the desert. Organisms that live in the desert must have adaptations to limited water: animals have large appendages to dissipate heat, the ability to burrow or sleep during the hottest time of the day, the adaptation of being nocturnal, plants have thick skins to retain water, and spiny thorns to prevent other organisms from eating them for their water storage. 3. Name three adaptations for organisms that live in a polar region. Organisms that live in polar regions may change color depending on the time of year, may hibernate during the coldest time of the year, may have an extra layer of fat to contain body heat, plants many have waxy-coated leaved to prevent moisture loss, they may keep their leaves to save energy, and they are pyramid shaped to lose the heavy snow that builds on their branches.

56 09/30/2013 Agenda 1. We will finish the questions from chapter 2. 2. When you finish, please take this time to update your journals. 1. Update your table of contents 2. Get any warm ups or vocabulary you may be missing 3. Finish any prelab questions 4. Make sure you dont have anything missing.

57 10/01/2013 Warm up 1. What does deciduous mean? 2. What does coniferous mean? 3. Where are the three areas forests are located? 4. What were the names of the places the forests where located from our climatograph exercise?

58 10/01/2013 Warm up 1. What does deciduous mean? Deciduous means that the trees lose their leaves each year. 2. What does coniferous mean? Coniferous means that the leaves are needle-like and the trees are cone- bearing. 3. Where are the three areas forests are located? The three areas of forests are located near the poles, in the tropics and in temperate regions. 4. What were the names of the places the forests where located from our climatograph exercise? Russia, Brazil and the New England area of the United States were the examples of forests for our exercise.

59 10/01/2013 Agenda Go get a book and turn to page 51. 1. I will hand you a picture of an organism from a certain area. You will find the other students with an organism from the same area. These students will be in your group. You will then create a poster that will display and summarize important information about your ecosystem. Then you will present at the end of the class. Each student must participate and write their name by their contribution on the paper. 2. The information that must be included in your poster: 1. Name(s) of the ecosystem 2. Location on the map 3. Endangered species 4. Description of ecosystem 5. Life-forms 6. Climate information 7. Human impact

60 10/02/2013 Warm up 1. What is the difference between a freshwater system and marine waters? 2. Where can you find brackish water? 3. Who are the producers in marine environments?

61 10/02/2013 Write down the following questions in your journals on a fresh page. Make sure to leave enough room in between each question for the answer. Then we will watch a short video clip that will give you the answers and/or the definitions. 1. Name the two types of aquatic systems. 2. Name the marine ecosystem and the three freshwater ecosystems she mentions. 3. Name three organisms that live in freshwater. 4. What are the three zones that organisms live? 5. Name three organisms that live in each zone. 6. What are plankton? Why are they important? 7. What are organisms that float in water called? 8. What are benthos?

62 10/02/2013 1. Name the two types of aquatic ecosystems. Marine and freshwater. 2. Name the marine ecosystem and the three freshwater ecosystems she mentions. The marine ecosystem is the ocean, the freshwater ecosystems are ponds, swamps and bogs. 3. Name three organisms that live in freshwater. Frogs, snails, worms, cattails and arrowheads. 4. What are the three zones that organisms live? The three zones are intertidal, open ocean upper region, and open ocean lower region. 5. Name three organisms that live in each zone. Crabs, mussels, barnacles and plankton live in the intertidal zone. Seaturtles, fish and marine mammals live in open upper region, and shrimp, eels and glowing fish live in the benthos. 6. What are plankton? Organisms that float on water. Why are they important? They make oxygen. 7. What are organisms that float in water called? Nekton 8. What are benthos? Organisms that live on the bottom of the ocean.

63 10/03/2013 Warm Up 1. Why is soil important for life? 2. Why do almost all species rely on plants (even meat eaters)? 3. What is at the bottom of the food chain in aquatic systems? 4. Why are decomposers important in food webs? 5. Are their decomposers in aquatic systems?

64 10/03/2013 Warm Up 1. Why is soil important for life? Soil is important because it provides valuable minerals for plants, it filters water, helps regulate temperature, and allows plants a substrate to grow on. 2. Why do almost all species rely on plants (even meat eaters)? Plants turn inorganic matter (carbon dioxide, sunlight and water) into organic matter for herbivores to consume and then be consumed by predators. 3. What is at the bottom of the food chain in aquatic systems? Mostly algae (phytoplankton) 4. Why are decomposers important in food webs? Decomposers recycle the nutrients contained in those organisms. 5. Are their decomposers in aquatic systems? Yes, decomposers in aquatic systems are aquatic bacteria, aquatic fungi, marine worms, sea urchins, sea stars and sea cucumbers.

65 10/03/2013 Agenda 1. Get out your questions from Chapter 2. We will go over these quickly before we take the quiz.

66 10/04/2013 Using your text book (pgs. 61-63), please answer the following in complete sentences, and give an example of each: 1. What is primary succession? 2. What is secondary succession? 3. What are pioneer species? 4. What happened recently(2 years ago) in our area that is an example of succession? Was it primary or secondary?

67 10/04/2013 Warm Up: 1. Primary succession occurs when an environment is disturbed down to the bare rock, such as after a volcano eruption. 2. Secondary succession occurs when an environment is disturbed down to the soil, such as after a fire. 3. Pioneer species are species that are the first to colonize a disturbed area: lichens, grasses and weeds. 4. There was a forest fire in Bastrop County in 2011, this is an example of secondary succession.

68 10/04/2013 Agenda Please do test corrections using your textbook. You will write the correct answer on your test sheet and indicate the page number from the textbook that you found the answer. YOU WILL GET NO CREDIT WITHOUT THE PAGE NUMBER!

69 10/08/2013 WU Get a text book and answer the following questions in COMPLETE SENTENCES in your journals. 1. Define primary consumer. 2. How much energy transfers from one trophic level to the next? 3. If a carrot has 863J in it, then a rabbit eats it, then a snake eats the rabbit and then a hawk eats the snake, how much energy has the hawk received of the carrot?

70 10/08/2013 WU Get a text book and answer the following questions in COMPLETE SENTENCES in your journals. 1. A primary consumer is an herbivore on the 2 nd level of an energy pyramid. 2. How much energy transfers from one trophic level to the next? 10% of energy transfers from one trophic level to the next. 3. If a carrot has 863J in it, then a rabbit eats it, then a snake eats the rabbit and then a hawk eats the snake, how much energy has the hawk received of the carrot? The hawk will get only.863J of energy from the carrot.

71 10/08/2013 Agenda Please write the following questions down in your journals. You will answer these questions while watching a video clip on ecological succession. Be sure to leave enough space to answer the questions! 1.What is ecological succession? 2.What is primary succession? What is the example he gives? 3.What do we need to get soil? 4.Why does life come back slower with primary succession? 5.How do organisms get to new islands? 6.What is secondary succession? What is the example he gives? 7.What are pioneer species? What are the two examples he gives? 8.What are serotinous cones? 9.What is a climax community?

72 10/08/2013 Agenda 1.What is ecological succession? The serious of steps by which life comes back. 2.What is primary succession? What is the example he gives? Primary succession is when a disturbance removes everything down to bare rock. A volcanic eruption. 3.What do we need to get soil? We have to have erosion (wind and rain) to create soil from rock. 4.Why does life come back slower with primary succession? Because very few organisms can live without soil. 5.How do organisms get to new islands? Wind, water, carried by birds. 6.What is secondary succession? Secondary succession when there is a disturbance, but the soil remains. What is the example he gives? A forest fire. 7.What are pioneer species? Species that come into an area after a disturbance. What are the two examples he gives? Lupine and Lodgepole pines. 8.What are serotinous cones? Cones that are filled with wax and only open when there is a fire. 9.What is a climax community? What happens after succession.

73 10/09/2013 WARM UP Using your text book (pa. 47), please answer the following in complete sentences. 1. What is photosynthesis? Write down the equation. 2. What is respiration? Write down the equation. 3. What process is responsible for providing the basis for most of the organic matter on the planet? Why? 4. What process do humans use? 5. What is the difference between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? 6. What is the energy source for respiration? 7. Do plants perform cellular respiration? 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxHZH0P5aKI

74 10/09/2013 Using your text book (pa. 47), please answer the following in complete sentences. 1. What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use light energy to convert carbon dioxide, water and minerals into sugars and starches that make up plant cells. 2. What is respiration? Respiration is the process organisms use to break down food to obtain energy. 3. What process is responsible for providing the basis for most of the organic matter on the planet? Why? Photosynthesis turns inorganic matter (sunlight, carbon dioxide and water) into organic matter that almost all other organisms on the planet rely on. 4. What process do humans use? Cellular respiration 5. What is the difference between photosynthesis and cellular repiration? They are opposite of each other. 6. What is the energy source for respiration? Glucose 7. Do plants perform cellular respiration? Yes, plants perform cellular respiration in certain cells. 8. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yxHZH0P5aKI

75 10/09/2013 AGENDA We will watch some videos clips of the nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus cycle. You will diagram these in your journals. http://www.classzone.com/books/ml_science_share/vis_sim/e m05_pg20_nitrogen/em05_pg20_nitrogen.html http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/The-Ocean-in- Action/Sci-Media/Animations-and-Interactives/Carbon-cycle http://www.wadsworthmedia.com/biology/starr_udl11_tour/p hos_anim.html

76 10/10/2013 Warm up 1. Have you ever been to an estuary? 2. Can you name one here on the coast of Texas? 3. What kind of water can you find in estuary?

77 10/10/2013 Warm up 1. Have you ever been to an estuary? If you have been to the coast, chances are you went through or by an estuary to get there. 2. Can you name one here on the coast of Texas? There are several on the coast: Galveston Bay, Sabine Lake, Upper Laguna Madre, Mata Gorda Bay, Corpus/Aransas Bays, Corpus Christi Bay 3. What kind of water can you find in estuary? Brackish

78 10/10/2013 Write down the following questions in your journals on a fresh page. Make sure to leave enough room in between each question for the answer. Then we will watch a short video clip that will give you the answers and/or the definitions. 1. What is an estuary? 2. What partially encloses it? 3. Why are estuaries protected places? 4. How many estuaries are in the United States? 5. How much of the U.S. population visit estuaries every year? 6. Why is an estuary important? Name at least three reasons. 7. Why is an estuary a huge part of the economy? Name at least three reasons. 8. Why are estuaries important to us aside from our economies? 9. What is happening to our estuaries?

79 10/10/2013 1. What is an estuary? The area where freshwater meets seawater. 2. What partially encloses it? Reefs, barrier islands or fingers of land. 3. Why are estuaries protected places? They are the most productive places on earth. 4. How many estuaries are in the United States? Over 100 5. How much of the U.S. population visit estuaries every year? 70% 6. Why is an estuary important? Name at least three reasons. Places to live, eat, and reproduce for many organisms, they are nurseries of the sea, they house unique habitats that help prevent pollution, erosion and floods. 7. Why is an estuary a huge part of the economy? Name at least three reasons. Estuaries provide commercial and recreational fishing, tourism and boating provide income and jobs. 8. Estuaries are national treasures, natural laboratories for scientists and students, are a gathering place for communities and inspiration for artists. 9. The demands and threats to our estuaries is high from overuse and overpopulation.

80 10/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Name 3 parts to the hydrological cycle? LEAVE SPACE TO ADD 3 MORE! 2. Define biogeochemical. 3. What is the major component that plants make their bodies out of? 4. What two things do plants release into the atmosphere?

81 10/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Name 3 parts to the hydrological cycle? LEAVE SPACE TO ADD 3 MORE! Precipitation, condensation, infiltration, run- off, evaporation, transpiration 2. Define biogeochemical. Earth chemicals for life 3. What is the major component that plants make their bodies out of? Carbon 4. What two things do plants release into the atmosphere? Carbon dioxide (from cellular respiration) and oxygen (from photosynthesis)

82 10/11/2013 Agenda 1. Biogeochemical cycles ppt and notes 2. Create a Venn Diagram in your journals over the three cycles.

83 10/14/2013 WARM UP 1. Where does electrical energy come from? 2. What are some sources of energy for our power plants? 3. How long have we had electrical energy available to developed nations?

84 10/14/2013 WARM UP 1. Where does electrical energy come from? Electrical energy generally comes from boiling water to make steam that turns a turbine that generates electricity. 2. What are some sources of energy for our power plants? Most of the power plants in the US are coal powered, but we also have oil, nuclear, wind and geothermal. 3. How long have we had electrical energy available to developed nations? Since the turn of the century

85 10/14/2013 Agenda COMPLETE TEST CORRECTIONS TODAY! TO GET CREDIT, YOU MUST WRITE THE PAGE NUMBER IN THE TEXTBOOK WHERE THE ANSWER IS, IT MAY ALSO BE IN YOUR WARM UPS, IF SO RECORD THE DATE

86 10/15/2013 WARM UP 1. Name the three biogeochemical cycles we have been studying. 2. List the characteristics of each. For example: Phosphorus: starts with rock, moves through soil into plants 3. What has to happen to nitrogen before it can be taken up by plants?

87 10/15/2013 WARM UP 1. Name the three biogeochemical cycles we have been studying. Nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon 2. List the characteristics of each. For example; phosphorus moves into plants by their roots, through the soil. We will write some examples on the board. 3. Nitrogen must be converted to a reactive form before plants can use it. It must combined with oxygen before it can be used by plants.

88 10/15/2013 NOTES 1. Name one difference between the phosphorus cycle and the carbon cycle. 2. Name one difference between the phosphorus cycle and the nitrogen cycle. 3. Name one difference between the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle.

89 10/15/2013 WARM UP 1. Name one difference between the phosphorus cycle and the carbon cycle. Phosphorus does not react with water to create acid. Phosphorus does not cycle through the atmosphere as a gas. Phosphorus is take up by plants through the soilcarbon is taken up by plants through their stomata. 2. Name one difference between the phosphorus cycle and the nitrogen cycle. Nitrogen must be converted to a usable form before plants can take it up through their roots. Nitrogen comes from the atmosphere in the form of a gas, phosphorus comes from rocks on the Earth. 3. Name one difference between the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle. Nitrogen must be converted to a usable form before plants can use it, and then it taken up through their roots. Carbon is taken directly out of the atmosphere for use by plants, through the stomata.

90 10/15/2013 Agenda 1. After watching a short video, you will create a three-circle Venn Diagram of the three biogeochemical cycles we have been studying. 2. Use a one page, blank, 9.5-11inch sheet of paper. 3. Use colored pencils or markers. 4. Each person will hand one in for a grade. 5. The diagram must include the following: 1. At least 5 characteristics of each cycle 2. Clear labeling of each circle 3. Clear labeling of inner circles 4. If the labels and/or characteristics cannot fit in the circle, list them on the side or on the back of the sheet.

91 10/15/2013 Agenda Once you have finished your Venn Diagram (MAKE SURE YOUR NAME IS ON IT!) While watching the video identify the types of ecosystems. PLEASE CREATE A FOOD WEB WITH THE FOLLOWING ORGANISMS IN YOUR JOURNALS. USE ONE FULL PAGE. SHOW THE AMOUNT OF ENERGY LOST PER TROPHIC LEVEL. THE PHYTOPLANKTON WILL START WITH 10,000J.

92 10/18/2013 WARM UP 1. The ability to move matter around is the definition of a. Mass b. Oil c. System d. energy 2. Which of the following would be an example of kinetic energy? a. Flying arrow b. Thrown baseball c. Charged battery d. A and b only e. A and c only 3. A system where nothing enters or leaves it called a a. Steady state b. Static system c. Open system d. Closed system

93 10/17/2013 WARM UP 1. The ability to move matter around is the definition of d. energy 2. Which of the following would be an example of kinetic energy? a. Flying arrow b. Thrown baseball d. A and b only 3. A system where nothing enters or leaves it called a d. Closed system

94 10/17/2013 Agenda As you watch the video, answer the following questions in your journals: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=20Vb6hlLQSg 1. What are the two finite resources he lists? 2. What are the infinite resources he lists? 3. What must happen to turn energy into electrical energy? 4. What spins inside a generator? 5. Why is water an efficient method to generate electricity? 6. What happens when there is too much or too little electricity being used? 7. What needs to happen to electricity to move between grids? 8. What does a transformer do?

95 10/17/2013 Agenda As you watch the video, answer the following questions in your journals: 1. What are the two finite resources he lists? Oil and coal 2. What are the infinite resources he lists? Wind and solar 3. What must happen to turn energy into electrical energy? Mechanical energy must change to electrical energy. 4. What spins inside a generator? Magnets around a wire coil 5. Why is water an efficient method to generate electricity? Because it can be reused over and over again 6. What happens when there is too much or too little electricity being used? The power grid can shut down 7. What needs to happen to electricity to move between grids? The voltage needs to be increased to some ungodly amount 8. What does a transformer do? Change the voltage of electricity

96 10/21/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following is NOT a form of energy? a. Mechanical b. Photosynthesis c. Electrical d. Chemical e. Light (radiant) 2. Using gasoline to run a car and eating food so that you can make it through the day are examples of a. Heat energy b. Radiant energy c. Nuclear energy d. Geothermal energy e. Chemical energy 3. The evaporation of water from leaves by it moving through small openings under the plant leaf is called a. Condensation b. Transpiration c. Infiltration d. Respiration e. percolation

97 10/21/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following is NOT a form of energy? b. Photosynthesis 2. Using gasoline to run a car and eating food so that you can make it through the day are examples of e. Chemical energy 3. The evaporation of water from leaves by it moving through small openings under the plant leaf is called b. Transpiration

98 10/21/2013 Agenda Bill Nye Video on Electricity and Energy You will complete a worksheet and turn it in as soon as the video is over!

99 10/22/2013 WARM UP 1. Food chains start with producers and end with a. Carnivores b. Herbivores c. Omnivores d. Insects e. decomposers 2. The LEAST useful form of energy is a. Mechanical b. Ambient temperature heat c. Gasoline d. Electrical e. Hot water 3. Energy is most usable where it is concentrated, such as in a. Low temperatures b. Chemical bonds c. Automobile exhaust

100 10/22/2013 WARM UP 1. Food chains start with producers and end with e. decomposers 2. The LEAST useful form of energy is b. Ambient temperature heat 3. Energy is most usable where it is concentrated, such as in b. Chemical bonds

101 10/22/2013 Agenda Keep in mind the difference between a comfort and necessity Lets name some things that are necessary for life and those that are for comfort. I need a volunteer to come to the board. 1. What is a necessity to successfully conduct class? 2. What could be eliminated, reduced or redesigned to use less conventional forms of energy? 3. Draw a picture of the most energy efficient classroom you can think of. Use internet resources if available.

102 10/23/2013 WARM UP 1. The worlds most abundant fossil fuel is a) Biodiesel b) Coal c) Oil d) Natural gas 2. Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the resource that provided the greatest amount of energy for heating and cooking was a) dung b) wood c) coal d) oil

103 10/23/2013 WARM UP 1. The worlds most abundant fossil fuel is a) Biodiesel b) Coal c) Oil d) Natural gas 2. Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the resource that provided the greatest amount of energy for heating and cooking was a) dung b) wood c) coal d) oil

104 10/23/2013 WARM UP 1. The worlds most abundant fossil fuel is b. Coal 2. Before mining techniques improved in the 1700s, the resource that provided the greatest amount of energy for heating and cooking was b. wood

105 10/23/2013 Agenda ECODOME PROJECT You will create an ecodome:. Watch this vidoe clip about the Biosphere II to give you ideas. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/10/booming/biosphere-2- good-science-or-bad-sense.html?_r=0

106 10/24/2013 WARM UP 1. Energy usually results in the release of which of the following? A. Heat B. Light C. Work D. Wastes E. Water 2. Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including a) Nuclear energy b) Geothermal energy c) Tidal energy d) Wind energy

107 10/24/2013 WARM UP 1. Energy usually results in the release of which of the following? a. Heat 2. Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including d. Wind energy

108 10/23/2013 Agenda We will continue with the ECODOME PROJECT. I have an additional handout that may clarify some information.

109 10/25/2013 WARM UP Match the definitions and terms: 1. Electricity is normally bought and sold in these units. 2. The energy content of food is most often expressed in these units. 3. In the United States, heating systems and air conditioners are rated in terms of their ability to provide or withdraw so many of these units per cubic foot. 4. The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water one Celsius degree. 5. The nonmetric unit for mechanical energy or work. a. Calorie b. joulec. kilowatt-hour d. foot-pounde. Btu

110 10/25/2013 WARM UP Match the definitions and terms: 1. Electricity is normally bought and sold in these units. c.kWH 2. The energy content of food is most often expressed in these units. a. Calorie 3. In the United States, heating systems and air conditioners are rated in terms of their ability to provide or withdraw so many of these units per cubic foot. e.Btu 4. The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of water one Celsius degree. A. calorie 5. The nonmetric unit for mechanical energy or work. D. foot-pound

111 10/25/2013 Agenda Redemption Day

112 10/28/2013 WARM UP 1. All of the following are statements of the second law of thermodynamics EXCEPT: a. In any conversion of energy from one form to another, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. b. In any closed system, disorder (entropy) always tends to increase toward a maximum. c. Heat is work and work is heat d. In a closed system, heat will spontaneously flow from hot to cold. 2. All of the following words mean the same thing except a. Entropy b. Chaos c. Randomness d. Disorder e. Arrangement

113 10/28/2013 WARM UP 1. All of the following are statements of the second law of thermodynamics EXCEPT: a. In any conversion of energy from one form to another, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. b. In any closed system, disorder (entropy) always tends to increase toward a maximum. c. Heat is work and work is heat d. In a closed system, heat will spontaneously flow from hot to cold. 2. All of the following words mean the same thing except a. Entropy b. Chaos c. Randomness d. Disorder e. Arrangement

114 10/28/2013 Agenda ECODOME PRESENTATIONS!

115 10/29/2013 WARM UP 1. Carbon can be stored in all of these EXCEPT : a. In living plantsd. in limestone deposits b. As CO2 in the aire. metals C. In the bodies of live animals 2. The nitrogen cycle: a. Supplies ecosystems with nitrogen for making protein, DNA, and RNA. b. Contains a process for fixing atmospheric nitrogen c. Uses denitrifying bacteria to release N2 back into the air d. Allows legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen e. All of these are part of the cycle

116 10/29/2013 WARM UP 1. Carbon can be stored in all of these EXCEPT : a. In living plantsd. in limestone deposits b. As CO2 in the aire. metals C. In the bodies of live animals 2. The nitrogen cycle: a. Supplies ecosystems with nitrogen for making protein, DNA, and RNA. b. Contains a process for fixing atmospheric nitrogen c. Uses denitrifying bacteria to release N2 back into the air d. Allows legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen e. All of these are part of the cycle

117 10/29/2013 Agenda Solar Ovens We will go through a ppt. and you will take notes.

118 10/30/2013 WARM UP 1. The agony of heat refers to the fact that a. Heat is a form of energy b. Heat is uncomfortable when ones surroundings become too hot c. Heat can be changed to work (mechanical energy) and from work (mechanical energy) back to heat. d. All energy ultimately ends up as relatively worthless low- temperature heat. e. The relationship between high heat and high humidity creates a stressful environment for living things. 2. We are running out of useful energy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. The energy sources we rely on most are presently nonrenewable sources. b. Energy cannot be recycled c. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. d. As energy is used, it ultimately ends up as low-temperature heat e. Heat spontaneously flows from hot to cold

119 10/30/2013 WARM UP 1. The agony of heat refers to the fact that a. Heat is a form of energy b. Heat is uncomfortable when ones surroundings become too hot c. Heat can be changed to work (mechanical energy) and from work (mechanical energy) back to heat. d. All energy ultimately ends up as relatively worthless low- temperature heat. e. The relationship between high heat and high humidity creates a stressful environment for living things. 2. We are running out of useful energy for all of the following reasons EXCEPT a. The energy sources we rely on most are presently nonrenewable sources. b. Energy cannot be recycled. c. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. d. As energy is used, it ultimately ends up as low-temperature heat. e. Heat spontaneously flows from hot to cold.

120 10/30/2013 Agenda Solar Ovens Please watch this video on how to make solar ovens Items you will need: Someone competent with a scalpel a scalpel aluminum foil plastic wrap a ruler a marker a pizza box glue http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbwliZJiHe8

121 10/31/2013 WARM UP 1. All of the following strategies are useful for taking care of our energy resources EXCEPT a. Changing lifestyles so we consume less energy. b. Redesigning technology to be more efficient. c. Perfecting the use of nontraditional energy sources. d. Matching the quality of the energy source to the task being performed. e. Storing energy in preparation for an economic depression. 2. Respiration is the process by which the majority of living organisms form these two by-products a. Nitrogen and water b. Carbon and water c. Oxygen and water d. Carbon dioxide and water

122 10/31/2013 WARM UP 1. All of the following strategies are useful for taking care of our energy resources EXCEPT a. Changing lifestyles so we consume less energy. b. Redesigning technology to be more efficient. c. Perfecting the use of nontraditional energy sources. d. Matching the quality of the energy source to the task being performed. e. Storing energy in preparation for an economic depression. 2. Respiration is the process by which the majority of living organisms form these two by-products a. Nitrogen and water b. Carbon and water c. Oxygen and water d. Carbon dioxide and water

123 10/31/2013 Agenda COMPUTER LAB! You will research different environmental science career options and complete a worksheet.

124 11/01/2013 WARM UP 1. Why do vegetarians use food energy more efficiently than nonvegetarians? a. Only one energy transformation is involved. b. Many transformations are required to change the plant energy into human energy c. Some intermediate steps are necessary after the food in placed in the mouth. d. More useful energy is lost by vegetarians e. You can eat fruits and vegetables quickly because they do not require preparation like meats do. 2. Why are there more rabbits than coyotes on earth? a. Rabbits are herbivores. b. Rabbits are closer to the bottom of the food chain. c. A greater source of food supports a larger population. d. All of the above.

125 11/01/2013 WARM UP 1. Why do vegetarians use food energy more efficiently than nonvegetarians? a. Only one energy transformation is involved. b. Many transformations are required to change the plant energy into human energy. c. Some intermediate steps are necessary after the food in placed in the mouth. d. More useful energy is lost by vegetarians. e. You can eat fruits and vegetables quickly because they do not require preparation like meats do. 2. Why are there more rabbits than coyotes on earth? a. Rabbits are herbivores. b. Rabbits are closer to the bottom of the food chain. c. A greater source of food supports a larger population. d. All of the above.

126 11/01/2013 Agenda Redemption Day If you need to redeem the Ecodome Presentation, this is your task. Write 1-2 paragraphs about each of the cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and water. Include each phase of the cycle and how the substance moves around. Write a paragraph about how food chains/webs work. Include how they begin and how they end. Also dis- cuss the energy lost between trophic levels. Why are there more primary consumers than apex predators? What energy powers all of the cycles? Explain how for each cycle.

127 11/04/2013 WARM UP 1. At the present time, which one of the following provides the greatest amount of energy for powering the US economy? a. Natural gas b. Oil c. Solar d. Coal e. Nuclear 2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource used by early humans? a. Burned kerosene b. Burned wood c. Flowing water d. Food from plants and animals

128 11/04/2013 WARM UP 1. At the present time, which one of the following provides the greatest amount of energy for powering the US economy? b. Oil 2. Which of the following is not a renewable resource used by early humans? a. Burned kerosene b. Burned wood c. Flowing water d. Food from plants and animals

129 11/04/2013 Agenda Finish Energy Worksheet

130 11/05/2013 WARM UP 1. The energy content of a fuel is the a. Number of kWh in the fuel b. Amount of energy in a kilogram of fuel c. Amount of energy in the fuel d. Number of calories in a square centimeter of fuel 2. Until 1979, total US energy demand was a. Increasing linearly. b. Increasing exponentially c. Static (not changing) d. Decreasing at about 5% annually.

131 11/05/2013 WARM UP 1. The energy content of a fuel is the b. Amount of energy in a kilogram of fuel 2. Until 1979, total US energy demand was b. Increasing exponentially

132 11/05/2013 Agenda Microorganisms: Friend or Foe? You will get into groups of 8. Each person will prepare a baby food jar. You will label each jar as follows: 1. name, date, bread, moist, warm 2. name, date, bread, moist, cool 3. name, date, bread, dry, warm 4. name, date, bread, dry, cool 5. name, date, vegetable, warm 6. name, date, meat, warm 7. name, date, milk, warm 8. name, date, fruit, warm

133 11/06/2013 WARM UP 1. To produce electric current without a battery, both a coil of wire and _______ are required. a. Bulb b. Tinker toy c. Resistor d. Switch e. magnet 2. To produce electric current, the circuit must be complete and there must be _____ between a coil of wire and a magnet. a. Attraction b. Repulsion c. Motion d. Contact e. Lubrication

134 11/06/2013 WARM UP 1. To produce electric current without a battery, both a coil of wire and _______ are required. e. magnet 2. To produce electric current, the circuit must be complete and there must be _____ between a coil of wire and a magnet… c. Motion

135 11/06/2013 Agenda Video: Understanding Bacteria

136 11/07/2013 WARM UP 1. Thermal electric generating plants ALWAYS produce a certain amount of a. Nuclear wastes b. Smoke particles c. Thermal pollution d. Sulfur gases 2. The use of Earths heat as an energy source is a. Geothermal b. Solar c. Potential d. Nonrenewable

137 11/07/2013 WARM UP 1. Thermal electric generating plants ALWAYS produce a certain amount of c. Thermal pollution 2. The use of Earths heat as an energy source is a. Geothermal

138 11/07/2013 Agenda Video: Understanding Bacteria

139 11/08/2013 WARM UP 1. The sun produces energy by a. Fission b. Fusion c. Ionization d. breeding 2. The British Thermal Unit is a. A unit of solar energy b. A hot English rock group c. A unit for measuring energy d. A unit for measuring light

140 11/08/2013 WARM UP 1. The sun produces energy by b. Fusion 2. The British Thermal Unit is c. A unit for measuring energy

141 11/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Iron is mined from an area of concentrated iron ore and made into thousands of products, which eventually end up in landfills and dumps. Which form of the second law of thermodynamics does this represent? a. In any conversion of energy from one form to another, there is always a decrease in the amount of useful energy. b. Heat cannot flow from cold to hot. c. In any closed system, randomness tends towards a maximum. 2. In the following food chain, where is the greatest amount of energy contained? Grainmicesnakeshawks a. Grain b. Mice c. Snakes d. Hawks e. None of these

142 11/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Iron is mined from an area of concentrated iron ore and made into thousands of products, which eventually end up in landfills and dumps. Which form of the second law of thermodynamics does this represent? c. In any closed system, randomness tends towards a maximum. 2. In the following food chain, where is the greatest amount of energy contained? Grainmicesnakes hawks a. Grain

143 11/11/2013 Agenda Redemption Day Trade and Grade Chapter 3 Worksheet Please look at all your assignments. If you are missing something WORK ON IT! If you have turned everything in, but are still failing, I MAY have a redemption handout for you. Please ask me for it! Check your microbes and write down your observations! TEST TOMORROW!

144 11/12/2013 WARM UP 1. Why are we running out of resources? 2. Energy can neither be created or destroyed, but it can be… 3. Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. It can, however, be…

145 11/12/2013 WARM UP 1. Why are we running out of resources? Because we take them out of the ground and scatter them about the globe. Most of our materials end up as waste in dumps and landfills. 2. Energy can neither be created or destroyed, but it can be transformed from one form to another. 3. Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. It can, however, be rearranged.

146 11/12/2013 Agenda TEST TODAY! Questions? Topics Covered Energy Transfer Carbon sinks, carbon sources Food Pyramids Laws of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of Matter The importance of microbes and decomposers When you are finished, please check your microbes and record your observations in your journals.

147 11/13/2013 WARM UP 1. Mineral resources a. Are always artificial. b. Have no useful purpose in society. c. Are used as raw materials for manufacturing. d. Always come from living things. 2. A naturally inorganic substance with a characteristic internal structure and set of chemical and physical properties is (a) a. Matter b. Mineral c. Stone d. Rock

148 11/13/2013 WARM UP 1. Mineral resources c. Are used as raw materials for manufacturing. 2. A naturally inorganic substance with a characteristic internal structure and set of chemical and physical properties is (a) b. Mineral

149 11/13/2013 Agenda Write down the following words and leave enough room for a definition. FIRST COME FIRST SERVE-WRITE YOUR NAME BY THE WORD You will choose a vocabulary word and make a foldable with a picture and the definition. The outside will have the word and a picture, the inside will have the definitionuse your text book! 1. Crystal2. Mineral3. Physical weathering 4. Chemical weathering 5. Rock6. Igneous7. Sedimentary 8. Metamorphic 9. Magma10. Lava11. Extrusive12. Intrusive 13. Crust14. Foliation15. Mantle16. Core 17. Lithosphere18. Earthquake19. Seismic waves 20. Seismology 21. Plate tectonics 22. Rift23. Sea-floor Spreading 24. Subduction zone 25. Uplift26. Conservation27. Recycling28. Divergent Zone 29. Convergent Zone 30. Reclamation31. Natural resources 32. Mineral resources

150 11/13/2013 Agenda Once you have completed your word, picture and definition, please post it on the wall. Then go around and write the definitions to the rest of the words in your journals. Check your microbes! Record your observations!

151 11/14/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following cannot be a mineral? a. Silver b. Sugar c. Fools gold d. Quartz 2. Density is a measure of a minerals relative a. Strength b. Hardness c. Luster d. Mass or heaviness. 3. The number of different kinds of minerals presently known is approximately a. 2000 b. 20 c. 8 d. 95

152 11/14/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following cannot be a mineral? b. Sugar 2. Density is a measure of a minerals relative d. Mass or heaviness. 3. The number of different kinds of minerals presently known is approximately a. 2000

153 11/14/2013 Agenda Happy Thursday! Check your microbes and record your observations! (5 min) Bill Nye Rocks and Weathering Video Clip and Movie Sheet

154 11/18/2013 WARM UP 1. Rocks that have been formed by solidification of hot mobile material called magma are classified as a. Igneous b. Metamorphic c. Sedimentary d. Erosional 2. Understanding plate tectonics helps geoscientists locate mineral resources because a. Earthquakes always reveal valuable minerals b. Patterns of mineralization often follow former plate boundaries c. They can now drill through crustal plates to reach minerals in the mantle d. supercontinents are the only places where new minerals form.

155 ES Warm Up 1. Rocks that have been formed by solidification of hot mobile material called magma are classified as a. Igneous 2. Understanding plate tectonics helps geoscientists locate mineral resources because b. Patterns of mineralization often follow former plate boundaries Nov 18 th 2013

156 11/18/2013 Agenda Happy Monday! Video Clip on Microbes and food Check your microbes and record your observations! (5 min) Finish Microbe worksheet, it is due today. If you dont turn in it until tomorrow, what is the highest grade you can make on it?

157 11/19/2013 WARM UP 1. Exploring for new minerals does not involve a. Smelting b. Remote sensing c. Collecting plant specimens d. Magnetic surveys e. Seismic reflection 2. Igneous rocks are those that a. Undergo changes deep in the earths crust due to heat and pressure. b. Erode away due to weathering and accumulate c. Become marble d. Result from the cooling and solidification of hot fluid materials

158 11/19/2013 WARM UP 1. Exploring for new minerals does not involve a. Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a metal from its ore. This includes production of silver, iron, copper and other base metals from their ores. Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gasses or slag and leaving just the metal behind.extractive metallurgymetaloresilverironcopperbase metalsreducing agent 2. Igneous rocks are those that d. Result from the cooling and solidification of hot fluid materials

159 11/19/2013 Agenda Happy Tuesday! Sea Floor spreading with Bill Nye Sea Floor Spreading activity REDEMPTION FOR MICROBE HANDOUT: FIND AN ARTICLE ON MICROBES AND SUMMARIZE IT IN 2-5 PARAGRAPHS AND BRING IT IN, DUE FRIDAY

160 11/20/2013 WARM UP 1. Metamorphic rocks are those that a. Undergo changes deep in the earths crust due to heat and pressure. b. Erode away due to weathering and accumulate c. Become marble d. Result from the cooling and solidification of hot fluid materials e. A and C only 2. The following rock type is a metamorphic rock form from shale a. Granite b. Obsidian c. Gypsum d. Slate

161 11/20/2013 WARM UP 1. Metamorphic rocks are those that a. Undergo changes deep in the earths crust due to heat and pressure. c. Become marble e. A and C only 2. The following rock type is a metamorphic rock form from shale d. Slate

162 11/20/2013 Agenda Happy Wednesday! Sea Floor Spreading Worksheet Continued… Using your textbooks define the following words in your journals, and then label them on your Sea-Floor 1. Spreading Worksheet: 2. Subduction Zone 3. Convergent Zone 4. Divergent Zone 5. Continental Plate 6. Oceanic Plate 7. Mid-Oceanic Ridge Answer the questions that you wrote in your journals from yesterday.

163 11/21/2013 WARM UP 1. The following rock type is a sedimentary rock composed of large chunks of other rocks cemented together a. Quartzite b. Talc c. Marble d. Conglomerate 2. Hot liquid rock that is exposed at the surface a. Quartzite b. Talc c. Marble d. Conglomerate e. Lava

164 11/21/2013 WARM UP 1. The following rock type is a sedimentary rock composed of large chunks of other rocks cemented together d. Conglomerate 2. Hot liquid rock that is exposed at the surface e. Lava

165 11/21/2013 Agenda Happy Thursday Please finish the questions from the Sea- Floor Spreading worksheet in your journals!

166 11/22/2013 WARM UP 1. Subduction zones are areas where a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges b. Hot spots that have created islands such as Hawaii c. Where more dense oceanic crust is forced underneath less dense continental crust 2. Mid-oceanic ridges a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges b. Hot spots that have created islands such as Hawaii c. Where more dense oceanic crust is forced underneath less dense continental crust

167 11/22/2013 WARM UP 1. Subduction zones are areas where c. Where more dense oceanic crust is forced underneath less dense continental crust 2. Mid-oceanic ridges a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges

168 11/22/2013 Agenda Happy Friday! Make one last observation of your microbes, and record in your journals. Write a one paragraph conclusion of the microbe lab. Dump the microbes in the trash and clean the jars and beakers.

169 12/2/2013 WARM UP 1. Convergent zones are those areas where a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges b. Hot spots that have created islands such as Hawaii c. Any two plates come together, either subducting or colliding 2. Divergent zones are those areas where a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges and the plates are splitting apart. b. Hot spots that have created islands such as Hawaii c. Where more dense oceanic crust is forced underneath less dense continental crust

170 12/2/2013 WARM UP 1. Convergent zones are those areas where c. Any two plates come together, either subducting or colliding 2. Divergent zones are those areas where a. New rock is being created at oceanic ridges and two plates are splitting apart

171 12/2/2013 Agenda Happy Monday! Earth Processes Video and Movie Sheet!

172 12/3/2013 WARM UP 1. Layered textures in rocks suggest their origin is most likely a. Only sedimentary b. Only metamorphic c. Sedimentary or metamorphic d. Sedimentary or igneous 2. Rocks that split into smaller fragments by the action of wind, water, ice and temperature are examples of a. Physical weathering b. Chemical weathering c. Percolation d. Biotic factors

173 12/3/2013 WARM UP 1. Layered textures in rocks suggest their origin is most likely c. Sedimentary or metamorphic 2. Rocks that split into smaller fragments by the action of wind, water, ice and temperature are examples of a. Physical weathering

174 12/03/2013 Agenda Happy Tuesday! Earth Processes Video and Movie Sheet! Write this down in your journals and we will watch a video clip on it: What is a hot spot?

175 12/4/2013 WARM UP 1. Which is not true about Earths crust? a. It is the least dense of all Earths layers. b. It is the source of almost all mineral resources. c. It lies above the outer core and below the mantle. 2. The overall global pattern of earthquakes and volcanoes a. Is associated wit h active plate boundaries. b. Is entirely random. c. Changes with the seasons d. Is a sign of crustal stability

176 12/4/2013 WARM UP 1. Which is not true about Earths crust? c. It lies above the outer core and below the mantle. 2. The overall global pattern of earthquakes and volcanoes a. Is associated wit h active plate boundaries.

177 12/04/2013 Agenda Happy Wednesday! Density Lab There are 8 lab stations with 8 different items You will determine the density by weighing the item (grams) and then submerging it in water to determine its volume. WHEN RETRIEVING THE ITEM FROM THE WATER, POUR IT INTO ANOTHER CONTAINER! NOT DIRECTLY INTO THE SINK SO AS NOT TO DROP IT DOWN THE DRAIN! IF IT GOES DOWN THE DRAIN, ALL THOSE AT THAT LAB TABLE WILL RECEIVE A ZERO FOR THE ASSIGNMENT What is the equation for density? What are the units for density? Create a graph of the density of the items

178 12/5/2013 WARM UP 1. Plate movement is explained using a. Convection currents. b. Conduction patterns. c. Radiation waves. 2. A mineral deposit is called an ore when a. It is found only in oceanic crust b. Magma hardens into crystalline rock c. The mineral can be mined profitably

179 12/5/2013 WARM UP 1. Plate movement is explained using a. Convection currents. 2. A mineral deposit is called an ore when c. The mineral can be mined profitably

180 12/05/2013 Agenda Happy THURSDAY! Density Lab There are 8 lab stations with 8 different items You will determine the density by weighing the item (grams) and then submerging it in water to determine its volume. WHEN RETRIEVING THE ITEM FROM THE WATER, POUR IT INTO ANOTHER CONTAINER! NOT DIRECTLY INTO THE SINK SO AS NOT TO DROP IT DOWN THE DRAIN! IF IT GOES DOWN THE DRAIN, ALL THOSE AT THAT LAB TABLE WILL RECEIVE A ZERO FOR THE ASSIGNMENT What is the equation for density? What are the units for density? Create a graph of the density of the items

181 12/9/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following are not found inside our homes? a. Ceramics b. Metals c. Plastics d. Alloys e. Aggregates 2. All of the following statements are true except a. The properties of alloys are usually preferable to those of pure metals. b. An alloy is the solid that results when two or more metals from which they are made. c. Alloys are usually more resistant to corrosion than the metals from which they come. d. Metals can be alloyed with metals but not with nonmetals.

182 12/9/2013 WARM UP 1. Which of the following are not found inside our homes? e. Aggregates 2. All of the following statements are true except a. The properties of alloys are usually preferable to those of pure metals. b. An alloy is the solid that results when two or more metals are melted together and then cooled. c. Alloys are usually more resistant to corrosive than the metals from which they come. d. Metals can be alloyed with metals but not with nonmetals An alloy is a mixture or solid solution composed of a metal and another element.mixturesolid solution metal

183 12/09/2013 Agenda Happy Monday! CONCLUSION TO DENSITY LAB

184 12/10/2013 WARM UP 1. The plate tectonic theory seems to explain a. Why continents fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. b. Why Earths magnetic poles move about as time goes by. c. Why earthquake belts, active volcano belts, and ocean trenches occur at nearly the same places on Earth. d. All of the above. 2. Mid-oceanic ridges and seafloor spreading are most commonly associated with a. Plate sliding. b. Plate destruction. c. Plate creation. d. Plates and cups.

185 12/10/2013 WARM UP 1. The plate tectonic theory seems to explain a. Why continents fit together like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. b. Why Earths magnetic poles move about as time goes by. c. Why earthquake belts, active volcano belts, and ocean trenches occur at nearly the same places on Earth. d. All of the above. 2. Mid-oceanic ridges and seafloor spreading are most commonly associated with c. Plate creation.

186 12/10/2013 Agenda Happy Tuesday! Worksheet Chapter 4, page 126 Record page numbers!

187 12/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Rock identification is often difficult because a. Crystals grow too close together. b. Without a microscope, fine-grained specimens tend to look alike. c. The colors dont always match photos in books. d. Rocks are always made of three or more different types of mineral. 2. Limestone effervesces (bubble) with dilute HCL to indicate a. Volcanic gases are being released. b. The acid frees up gases trapped in rock. c. The acid opens the sinuses of tiny fossils. d. The rock contains the mineral calcite.

188 12/11/2013 WARM UP 1. Rock identification is often difficult because b. Without a microscope, fine-grained specimens tend to look alike. 2. Limestone effervesces (bubble) with dilute HCL to indicate d. The rock contains the mineral calcite.

189 12/11/2013 Agenda Use the textbook to complete the worksheet, Chapter 4. Page 126.

190 12/12/2013 WARM UP 1. The pink crystals in granite are a. Quartz. b. Biotite. c. Basalt. d. Calcite. e. Feldspar. 2. On Earth, earthquakes occur: a. Where plates separate. b. Where plates slides past each other. c. Where plates collide. d. At locations not on plate boundaries due to cracks in the Earth. e. Earthquakes can occur at all of these.

191 12/12/2013 WARM UP 1. The pink crystals in granite are e. Feldspar. 2. On Earth, earthquakes occur: a. Where plates separate. b. Where plates slides past each other. c. Where plates collide. d. At locations not on plate boundaries due to cracks in the Earth. e. Earthquakes can occur at all of these.

192 12/12/2013 Agenda Practical! Quiz on rock identification! Go to each lab table and identify the rocks using the worksheet provided.

193 12/13/2013 WARM UP 1. Earths crust contains a high concentration of a. Platinum. b. Silicon. c. Zinc. d. Copper. 2. Which of the following is NOT true. Gold, copper, and silver a. Are all minerals. b. All have metallic luster. c. Are each alloys. d. Each exist as native elements.

194 12/13/2013 WARM UP 1. Earths crust contains a high concentration of b. Silicon. 2. Which of the following is NOT true. Gold, copper, and silver a. Are all minerals. b. All have metallic luster. c. Are each alloys. d. Each exist as native elements..

195 12/13/2013 Agenda Happy Friday the 13 th ! Create a diagram depicting what every child born in the U.S.A. will require with regard to minerals, metals and fuels in their lifetime. See pages 128-129. Requirements 1. WORK IN GROUPS NO LARGER THAN 2!!! 2. Amount of each mineral or fuel per capita (per person) 3. What it is used for, for example bauxite (aluminum) is used to make buildings, beverage containers, autos, airplanes 4. A visual concept of one billion, for example, $1 billion is a stack of $1,000 dollar bills stacked 330 feet high 5. You will present your poster on Monday

196 12/16/2013 WARM UP 1. A population tends to increase if the a. Birthrate is high and death rate is low. b. Birthrate is high and death rate is high. c. Birthrate is low and death rate is high d. Birthrate is low and death rate is low. 2. The major reason for the dramatic increase in the worlds human population during the last 100 years is a. Increasing birthrates. b. Decreasing birthrates. c. Improved day care for children. d. Increasing death rates. e. Decreasing death rates.

197 12/16/2013 WARM UP 1. A population tends to increase if the a. Birthrate is high and death rate is low. 2. The major reason for the dramatic increase in the worlds human population during the last 100 years is e. Decreasing death rates.

198 12/16/2013 Agenda Happy Monday! Present your Diagrams! Create a diagram depicting what every child born in the U.S.A. will require with regard to minerals, metals and fuels in their lifetime. See pages 128-129. Requirements 1. Amount of each mineral or fuel per capita (per person) 2. What it is used for, for example bauxite (aluminum) used to make buildings, beverage containers, autos, airplanes 3. A visual concept of one billion, for example, $1 billion is a stack of $1,000 dollar bills stacked 330 feet high 4. You will present your poster on Monday

199 ES Warm Up 1. A main advantage of raising children in the U.S. is a. The care they have traditionally provided in old age b. The opportunity for sharing love and experiences c. The help they provide around the house 2. Family planning is based on a. The desire of people to practice birth control b. The availability of birth control information c. The availability of a wide variety of birth control methods d. All of the above e. None of the above Jan 7 th, 2014

200 ES Warm Up 1. A main advantage of raising children in the U.S. is b. The opportunity for sharing love and experiences 2. Family planning is based on a. The desire of people to practice birth control b. The availability of birth control information c. The availability of a wide variety of birth control methods d. All of the above Jan 7 th, 2014

201 ES Agenda Finish Movie World in the Balance. Worksheet due at the end of the period. Jan 7 th, 2014

202 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following lower population growth rates except a. Public health programs b. Birth control c. Disease d. Accidents 2. While retaining long life expectancy and low infant mortality rates, populations can be stabilized by achieving a a. Lower birthrate b. Higher birthrate c. Lower death rate d. Higher death rate Jan 8 th, 2014

203 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following lower population growth rates except a. Public health programs 2. While retaining long life expectancy and low infant mortality rates, populations can be stabilized by achieving a a. Lower birthrate Jan 8 th, 2014

204 ES Warm Up 1. Even if all new couples decide to have two-child families, ZPG (zero population growth) would not be achieved immediately in the US and other developed nations because a. Birth control practices are opposed by some powerful religious groups b. Some birth control methods are not too reliable c. There is such a large percentage of young people in the population d. Our tax structure allows a family to claim an exemption for each child 2. If a nonrenewable resource is consumed exponentially, the quantity of resource consumed in the next doubling would be a. The same as the quantity consumed in the previous doubling b. Four times as much as was consumed in the previous doubling c. More than was consumed in all previous doublings Jan 10 th, 2013

205 ES Warm Up 1. Even if all new couples prefer and have two-child families, zpg (zero population growth) would not be achieved immediately in the US and other developed nations because c. There is such a large percentage of young people in the population 2. If a nonrenewable resource is consumed exponentially, the quantity of resource consumed in the next doubling would be c. More than was consumed in all previous consumption Jan 10 th, 2013

206 ES Agenda Human Population Growth http://www.prb.org/Publications/Datasheets/2011/world-population-data- sheet/video-7-billion.aspx Am I ready for the responsibility of having children? Please get a calculator and complete the worksheet. Use the following numbers to help you-make adjustments as you see fit. 1. Food = $150 month x 12 months a year x 18 years (per child) 2. Clothing = $150 month x 12 months a year x 18 years (per child) 3. School/daycare = $300 month x 18 months 4. Housing = $500-1500 month x 12 x 18 5. Transportation = $500 month 6. Entertainment = $100 month 7. Utilities = $100 8. Dental/eyes = $200 year 9. Health Insurance = $350 month 10. Vacations $5,000 year 11. Recreation = $1000 year 12. College? Jan 10 th, 2013

207 ES Agenda Human Population Growth http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5V4Lt1i44I http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/earthnews/88504 87/World-population-could-double-warns-UN.html http://www.ted.com/talks/hans_rosling_religions_an d_babies.html EVERYTHING IS CONNECTED ACTIVITY Work in groups to create a concept map regarding human population growth. Jan 13 th, 2013

208 ES Agenda Human Population Growth http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/the- magazine/the-magazine-latest/ngm-7billion/ Fatimas Story: A Case Study Person A will read a paragraph and then person B will share with person A what was read in the paragraph in their own words. Then Person B will read a paragraph and Person A will share what was read in their own words and so on and so forth. You will then complete the questions on the back of the sheet IN YOUR JOURNALS IN COMPLETE SENTENCES! Jan 14 th, 2013

209 ES Warm Up 1. If doubling time is 10 years, what would be the percentage annual growth rate? a. 5% b. 7% c. 9% d. 11% 2. If you invest $3000 in a new energy source that pays an annual interest rate of 14%, when will you have $6000? a. 1 year b. 3 years c. 5 years d. 7 years Jan 22 nd, 2013

210 ES Warm Up 1. If doubling time is 10 years, what would be the percentage annual growth rate? b. 7% 2. If you invest $3000 in a new energy source that pays an annual interest rate of 14%, when will you have $6000? c. 5 years 70/growth rate percentage = doubling time Jan 22 nd, 2013

211 ES Agenda Human Population Growth http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2012/06/201 26191060849944.html A Case Study: How many children will you have? Do you want boys? Girls? How many of each? In your journals, please title a page Human Population Growth and write down how many children you want and what gender you want. Then take a coin and flip it. Heads are boys and tails are girls. Keep flipping until you have the amount of children you desire. Then answer the questions on the following slide: Jan 22 nd, 2013

212 ES Agenda Get a textbook and use the information in chapter 5 to help you answer the following questions. Then answer these questions your journals: 1. Were you able to have the number of children you originally said you wanted in the first scenario? 2. How about the number of daughters and sons? Why? 3. What factors besides income, determine how many children people have? Name at least 4. pg 199, 201 4. Why might a boy or girl child be preferred in the US? 5. How might this vary from culture to culture? Name at least 2 reasons pg 201-202 6. What difference does it make to a societys population whether there is a tradition of large family sizes or a tradition of small family sizes? 7. How do your personal family size decisions affect other people in the society? Name at least 3 pg 202, 204, 206-207 8. How do they affect the natural environment? Give at least 5 reasons. Jan 22 nd, 2013

213 ES Warm Up Look at the following population histograms. 1. Which one represents the fastest growth? 2. What percentage of the population are 0-4 years of age? Jan 23 rd, 2013

214 ES Warm Up 1. Look at the following population histograms. 2. Which one represents the fastest growth? Kenya 3. What percentage of the population are 0-4 years of age? Almost 20% Jan 23 rd, 2013

215 ES Agenda We will watch a short video on how to create a population histogram. You are going to create a population histogram in your journals. You will need: 1. a population sheet from a particular country 2. a calculator 3. a ruler 4. your brain There will be an example on the board of the histogram you will draw in your journals. First you need to fill in some information on your population sheet: the percentages and the age groups. Jan 23 rd, 2013

216 ES Warm Up Please write the following definition and then answer the questions below. The Demographic Transition ( DT ) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates as in under developed countries to low birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.birthdeath rates economic system 1. What are some reasons that people have less children in more industrialized (or developed) countries? 2. What are some reasons that people will have more children in less developed countries? Jan 27 th, 2014

217 ES Warm Up 1. What are some reasons that people have less children in more industrialized (or developed) countries? a. Urbanization b. Cost of raising children c. Decrease in infant deaths d. Womens increase in individual rights, education and job opportunities 2. What are some reasons that people will have more children in less developed countries? a. Their children may not survive b. They need children to take care of them when they are old c. They need children to work in the fields Jan 27 th, 2013

218 ES Agenda Jan 27 th, 2013 Movie clips: 7 billion and counting The Science of Over Population World Population Population Clock-Time Bomb Write 9 quiz questions with answers! 3 Questions for each video clip

219 Cardinal Time Jan 29 th, 2013 6 th Period Sit where I ask you to sit. Worksheet: Are you ready for children?

220 ES Warm Up 1. If the birth rate in the African country of Senegal is 39 per 1000 and the death rate is 10 per 1000, what is annual growth rate of this population? a. 3.9% b. 2.9% c. 1.0% d. 4.9% e..039% 2. What is the population doubling time for humans in Peru, a country that has a birth rate of 19 per 1000 and a death rate of 6 per 1000? a. 13 years b. 19 years c. 1.9 years d. 54 years e. 25 years Birth Rate – Death Rate / 10 Jan 29 th, 2013

221 ES Warm Up 1. If the birth rate in the African country of Senegal is 39 per 1000 and the death rate is 10 per 1000, what is annual growth rate of this population? b. 2.9% 2. What is the population doubling time for humans in Peru, a country that has a birth rate of 19 per 1000 and a death rate of 6 per 1000? d. 54 years Jan 29 th, 2014

222 ES Agenda Jan 29 th, 2014 We will do a popcorn reading! Fatimas Story I will assign someone to begin the reading. That person will read a minimum of two lines (more if you would like!) Then call on someone to continue the reading. Everyone starts with a 100% participation grade. If you are called on, and dont know where we are in the reading you lose 10 pointseach time. Write the questions on the next page in your journals. Once you answer them, I will come by and stamp them.

223 ES Cardinal Time 1. You will get your grades 2. You will read an article 3. You will show me any and all assignments you may be missing Jan 30 th, 2014

224 ES Warm Up 1. High population density can ____. a. hinder organisms from finding mates b. Decrease biodiversity within a species c. Decrease competition d. Decrease the use of resources e. Increase the incidence of disease transmission 2. Unregulated populations tend to increase by ______. a. Linear growth b. Exponential growth c. Pyramidal growth d. Emigration e. Immigration Jan 30 th, 2014

225 ES Warm Up 1. High population density can ____. e. Increase the incidence of disease transmission 2. Unregulated populations tend to increase by ______. b. Exponential growth Jan 30 th, 2014

226 ES Agenda Jan 30 th, 2014 Population histograms

227 ES Warm Up 1. Living things are able to do all of the following except a. Repair damaged parts b. Reproduce themselves c. Respond to their surroundings d. Grow larger from the outside e. Die and decompose 2. What piece of information do seeds NOT store for future use? a. What kind of seed it is. b. The exact location of where it was planted. c. How to make roots, stems, and leaves. d. How to make more seeds to make more plants. e. How to maximize photosynthesis. Jan 31 st, 2014

228 ES Warm Up 1. Living things are able to do all of the following except d. Grow larger from the outside 2. What piece of information do seeds NOT store for future use? b. The exact location of where it was planted. Jan 30 th, 2014

229 ES Agenda Jan 30 th, 2014 Fatimas Story

230 ES Warm Up 1. Of the following, which BEST describes what a seed is? a. A small leaf. b. A special type of virus. c. A reproductive structure that contains a plant embryo and stored food. d. A piece of stem that can grow into a plant. e. The part of a plant that photosynthesizes. 2. All of the following are products that come from seeds except a. Coffee. b. Vegetable oil. c. Mustard. d. Peanut butter. e. Maple syrup. Jan 31 st, 2014

231 ES Warm Up 1. Of the following, which BEST describes what a seed is? c. A reproductive structure that contains a plant embryo and stored food. 2. All of the following are products that come from seeds except a. Maple syrup. Sap comes from starch stored in trees for winter time and come out in the spring. Jan 31 st, 2014

232 ES Agenda Jan 31 st, 2014 The Story of Stuff

233 ES Warm Up 1. Advantages of having a variety of tomatoes include all of the following except a. Some varieties are more resistant to drought. b. Some varieties resist insect attack better than other. c. Varieties vary in tastes that appeal to different people d. Varieties provide choice and choice takes time. e. Varieties vary in their nutritional value. 2. Which of the following is NOT part of the natural selection process? a. Variation within a population. b. The fittest have a survival advantage. c. Desirable traits are passed on to new generations. d. Competition over time can lead to extinction. e. Weak traits can band together to survive anyway. Feb 3 rd, 2014

234 ES Warm Up 1. Advantages of having a variety of tomatoes include all of the following except a. Some varieties are more resistant to drought. b. Some varieties resist insect attack better than other. c. Varieties vary in tastes that appeal to different people d. Varieties provide choice and choice takes time. e. Varieties vary in their nutritional value. 2. Which of the following is NOT part of the natural selection process? a. Variation within a population. b. The fittest have a survival advantage. c. Desirable traits are passed on to new generations. d. Competition over time can lead to extinction. e. Weak traits can band together to survive anyway. Feb 3 rd, 2014

235 ES Agenda Feb 3 rd, 2014 Answer the questions in Chapter 6 of the textbook. You will get two grades today. One is a participation grade: each time I have to redirect you for talking, sleeping, etc. you will lose 10 points. This is independent work. There will be no talking. The second grade will be on how many questions you can complete. Then you will pick a question to draw a picture of for our word wall.

236 ES Warm Up 1. Which of the following is not a measure of biodiversity? a. Ecosystem diversity b. Genetic diversity c. Species diversity d. Species richness e. Economic diversity 2. Which of the following is an example of artificial selection? a. Cichlids have diversified into nearly 200 species in Lake Tangayika. b. Whales have evolved tails that help propel them through water. c. Darwins finches have beaks adapted to eating different food. d. Ostriches have lost the ability to fly. e. Thoroughbred racehorses have been bred for speed. Feb 4 th, 2014

237 ES Warm Up Feb 4 th, 2014 1. Which of the following is not a measure of biodiversity? e. Economic diversity 2. Which of the following is an example of artificial selection? e. Thoroughbred racehorses have been bred for speed.

238 ES Agenda Feb 4 th, 2014 Finish worksheet (10 mins) Pick a vocabulary word and draw a picture Post the picture, do a gallery walk & record defs EthicalAestheticEconomicEcologicalEmotiveIntellectual Growth & Repair Repro- duction Change & Adapt MovementResponseDeath CellsHetero- trophic Vascular plants Non- vascular plants ElementsMolecules DNASeedsProteomeAngio- sperms Gymno- sperms Spoilage IPMBiological control Biomag- nification SymbiosisInvasive Species Germplasm Seed banks Genetic engineering IBPGRGenesBiotech- nology hybridization

239 ES Warm Up 1. Animal cells have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT a. Rectangular shape b. Cell membrane c. Nucleus d. A curved surface e. organelles 2. Extinction is the term used when all members of a species a. disappear off the face of the planet. b. die out locally. c. live in zoos. d. are threatened with habitat loss e. many members disappear in a locality. Feb 5 th, 2014

240 ES Warm Up 1. Animal cells have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT a. Rectangular shape 2. Extinction is the term used when all members of a species A. Gone off the planet Feb 5 th, 2014

241 ES Agenda Feb 5 th, 2014 Pre-Lab Seed Adaptation 1.We will take turns reading page 229, 6.4 2.Pick a partner 3.Determine the type of experiment you would like to perform on some seeds. 4.In your journals, set up your experiment. a.Identify the independent variable b.Identify the dependent variable c.What is the control? d.Draw a diagram in your journal. e.Get my approval before beginning your experiment.

242 ES Warm Up 1. Insects adapt readily to environmental change because a. They are widespread. b. They are numerous. c. They contain great variability across species. d. They reproduce rapidly e. All of these are reasons. 2. Monocultures involve a. Small plots of land. b. The growing of one kind of crop in a large area. c. Genetically engineered crops. d. Setting aside land as wilderness. e. Saving seeds for future generations. Feb 6 th, 2014

243 ES Warm Up 1. Insects adapt readily to environmental change because a. They are widespread. b. They are numerous. c. They contain great variability across species. d. They reproduce rapidly e. All of these are reasons. 2. Monocultures involve b. The growing of one kind of crop in a large area. Feb 6 th, 2014

244 ES Agenda Feb 6 th, 2014 Review Gamewhiteboards

245 ES Warm Up 1. A pesticide that kills spiders is called a(n) a. Fungicide b. Arachnicide c. Herbicide d. Insecticide e. rodenticide 2. Even though the fittest survive, nature is very diverse because a. There can be many niches in a small area. b. Populations became separated when the earths plates separated. c. Warm climates can support a greater variety of species. d. Organisms can gain benefit from one another (symbiosis). e. All of the above. Feb 10 th, 2014

246 ES Warm Up 1. A pesticide that kills spiders is called a(n) b. Arachnicide 2. Even though the fittest survive, nature is very diverse because a. There can be many niches in a small area. b. Populations became separated when the earths plates separated. c. Warm climates can support a greater variety of species. d. Organisms can gain benefit from one another (symbiosis). e. All of the above. Feb 10 th, 2014

247 ES Agenda Feb 10 th, 2014 GRADE THE STORY OF STUFF TEST EXTRA CREDIT Please write the answer on the back of your scantron. Write an essay on the story of stuff. Think about these questions: What was the movie about? What was the message? Why are people that normally live off the land moving into the cities? What people are the most vulnerable to toxins in the environment? Please write at least 2 paragraphs.

248 ES Warm Up 1. Which of the following is a scientific reason for preserving biological diversity? a. All life has a right to exist. b. Variety adds enjoyment to life. c. Diversity brings stability to the biosphere. d. Diversity has economic payoffs. e. None of the above are scientific reasons. 2. Setting land aside to preserve diversity is an example of a. Wilderness preservation. b. Seed banks. c. Cryopreservation. d. Biotechnology. e. Genetic engineering. Feb 11 th, 2014

249 ES Warm Up 1. Which of the following is a scientific reason for preserving biological diversity? c. Diversity brings stability to the biosphere. 2. Setting land aside to preserve diversity is an example of a. Wilderness preservation. Feb 11 th, 2014

250 ES Agenda Feb 11 th, 2014 NEW UNIT AGRICULTURE AND NUTRITION USING THE TEXTBOOK (CHAPTER 7) ANSWER THE QUESTIONS IN YOUR JOURNALS. THIS IS INDEPENDENT WORK!

251 ES Warm Up 1. Which one of the following are organic molecules are needed by higher animals to perform specific biological functions (e.g. blood clotting)? a. Water b. Proteins c. Vitamins d. Carbohydrates e. fats 2. The building blocks used for making proteins are a. Fatty acids b. Amino acids c. Nucleotides d. Simple sugars e. Nitrogen bases Feb 12 th, 2014

252 ES Warm Up Answers 1. Which one of the following are organic molecules are needed by higher animals to perform specific biological functions (e.g. blood clotting)? c. Vitamins 2. The building blocks used for making proteins are b. Amino acids There are 20 amino acids, 8 of which Your body cannot make, you must Consume them in meat and dairy products. Feb 12 th, 2014

253 ES Agenda Feb 12 th, 2014 Finish Text Book Questions.

254 ES Warm Up 1. Seeds can be an excellent source of all of the following except a. Carbohydrates b. Protein c. Starch d. Sugar e. Fat 2. Which statement about earths carrying capacity for humans is not true? a. As the standard of living goes up, the carrying capacity goes down. b. The earth can support more vegetarian than meat eaters. c. There is no one single number for the earths carrying capacity. d. Scientists have accurately determined that the earths carrying capacity is well over 100 billion. Feb 13 th, 2014

255 ES Warm Up 1. Seeds can be an excellent source of all of the following except a. Carbohydrates b. Protein c. Starch d. Sugar e. Fat 2. Which statement about earths carrying capacity for humans is not true? a. As the standard of living goes up, the carrying capacity goes down. b. The earth can support more vegetarian than meat eaters. c. There is no one single number for the earths carrying capacity. d. Scientists have accurately determined that the earths carrying capacity is well over 100 billion. Feb 13 th, 2014

256 ES Agenda Feb 13 th, 2014 Food, Inc. continued

257 ES Warm UP 1. Which layer of soil is of most value because it supports agricultural crops? a. C-horizon b. A-horizon c. O-horizon d. B-horizon 2. All of the following are characteristics of soil that indicate it is good for agriculture EXCEPT: a. High in organic matter b. Drains well c. Contains potash, phosphorus, nitrogen d. Salinization Feb 18 th, 2014

258 ES Warm Up Answers 1. Which layer of soil is of most value because it supports agricultural crops? b. A-horizon 2. All of the following are characteristics of soil that indicate it is good for agriculture EXCEPT: d. Salinization- the process of increasing the salt content in soil. Salinization is mainly caused by irrigation. Feb 18 th, 2014

259 ES Agenda Feb 18 th, 2014 Write a one page essay on the water cycle. Think about the following: Precipitation Infiltration Evaporation Condensation Run off Ground water

260 ES Warm UP 1. The number of Calories you need each day is based on your a. Age b. Gender c. Size d. Activities e. All of these are factors 2. A persons surface area is most closely related to a. Age b. Heat loss c. Gender d. Activity level Feb 19 th, 2014

261 ES Warm UP 1. The number of Calories you need each day is based on your e. All of these are factors, age, activities, gender, size 2. A persons surface area is most closely related to b. Heat loss Feb 19 th, 2014

262 ES Agenda Feb 19 th, 2014 PPT. Agriculture and Nutrition continued…

263 ES Warm UP 1. All of the following are ways to practice good nutrition EXCEPT: a. Increase the intake of fats, oils and sweets b. Eat a high variety of foods c. Increase the amount of vegetables, fruits and grains d. Eat meat, poultry, and fish in moderation 2. Earths carrying capacity … a. Is expected to rise due to an increase in living standards b. Is expected to reach 100,000 billion c. Is expected to decrease due to a decrease in living standards d. Is expected to decrease due to an increase in living standards Feb 20 th, 2014

264 ES Warm UP 1. All of the following are ways to practice good nutrition EXCEPT: a. Increase the intake of fats, oils and sweets 2. Earths carrying capacity … d. Is expected to decrease due to an increase in living standards Feb 20 th, 2014

265 ES Agenda Feb 20 th, 2014 Arable Land Lab- ARABLE- (of land) used or suitable for growing crops. – Merriam Webster Write down the following questions in your journals: 1.How much topsoil did Americas farmland have 2oo years ago? 2.How much is there today? 3.How much farmland did we lose between 1932 and 1992? 4.How did we lose it? 5.How much do we lose worldwide per year? 6.Why does it matter? Write down at least 4 reasons. Answer while watching the video clip, A Culture of Conservation

266 ES Agenda Feb 20 th, 2014 I NEED A ONE PAGE ESSAY ON THE FOLLOWING: What role does agriculture play in your life? Think about the following: the movie FOOD INC. What do you eat during a typical day? How was that food grown? Where did the water come from to grow it? If you eat lots of meat, what do those animals eat? Where do they get slaughtered? Is it healthy? What kind of products are in the foods you eat, such as sodas, processed foods such as chips, boxed food, crackers, cereal, etc.? Do you know what is in the food you eat? Should you have a right to know?

267 ES Warm UP 1. GMOs are … a. Conservation practices used on soil b. Systems designed to reduce erosion c. Genetically modified organisms d. Proteins that make up seeds 2. Food practices today are … a. Highly regulated and animals are treated humanely b. Diminished almost to the point where they were in the early 1900s c. Practiced sustainably and people and animals are healthier than ever Feb 21 st, 2014

268 ES Warm UP 1. GMOs are … c. Genetically modified organisms 2. Food practices today are … b. Diminished almost to the point where they were in the early 1900s Feb 21 st, 2014

269 ES Agenda Feb 21 st, 2014 One page writing to turn in for a grade: Write a page about: A lab you did at any time during your school experience that was the most fun! Think about how old you were when you did it. What was the most fun about it? Did you learn anything? Do you remember the teacher that taught it? Is there is a lab you would like to do in this class?

270 ES Warm UP 1. Succession … a. Can be either primary or secondary b. Is the natural process of organisms recovering after a disturbance c. Is a state that most agriculture fields maintain today to ensure the best environment from crops d. All of the above 2. Corn in the U.S. is a. 85% genetically modified b. Contribute ingredients to ketchup, vanilla extract, cake m ix, margarine, white vinegar, and soft drinks c. Is mostly owned by the company that invented Agent Orange d. All of the above Feb 24 th, 2014

271 ES Warm UP 1. Succession … a. Can be either primary or secondary b. Is the natural process of organisms recovering after a disturbance c. Is a state that most agriculture fields maintain today to ensure the best environment from crops d. All of the above 2. Corn in the U.S. is a. 85% genetically modified b. Contribute ingredients to ketchup, vanilla extract, cake m ix, margarine, white vinegar, and soft drinks c. Is mostly owned by the company that invented Agent Orange d. All of the above Feb 24 th, 2014

272 ES Agenda Feb 24 th, 2014 Population Carrying Capacity Bill Nye and Movie Sheet

273 ES Warm UP 1. Subsidies … a. Are assistance to a business or economic sector or producers from the government b. Have allowed soft drinks prices to decrease by 23% while the price of fruits and vegetables have increased by almost 40% c. Are well known by the publicspecific amounts and to which companies they go to d. A and B 2. Nearly all processed food… a. Is good for you b. Is a healthy mixture of grains, vegetables and fruits c. Contains high fructose corn syrup d. All of the above Feb 25 th, 2014

274 ES Warm UP 1. Subsidies … a. assistance to a business or economic sector or producers from the government b. Have allowed soft drinks prices to decrease by 23% while the price of fruits and vegetables have increased by almost 40% d. A and B 2. Nearly all processed food c. Contains high fructose corn syrup Feb 25 th, 2014

275 ES Agenda Feb 25 th, 2014 Population Carrying Capacity Lab Define the following in your journals: Carrying capacity( in the handout) Competition-Competition in biology and ecology is a contest between organisms, animals, individuals, groups, etc., for territory, a niche, or resources. Population-a group of the same species of organisms living in a given area. Identify the population and the competition in the lab. Tragedy of the commons-individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one's self-interest, behave contrary to the whole group's long- term best interests by depleting some common resource.

276 ES Warm UP Populations have a tendency to a. Fluctuate depending on the food supply b. Stay the same over time c. Increase linearly Carrying capacity refers to a. Populations of different species of organisms and their habitat b. The amount of one species a given environment can support sustainably. c. The least amount of organisms that can survive in a particular niche. Feb 26 th, 2014

277 ES Warm UP Populations have a tendency to a. Fluctuate depending on the food supply Carrying capacity refers to b. The amount of one species a given environment can support sustainably. Feb 26 th, 2014

278 ES Agenda Feb 26 th, 2014 Dirt the movie.

279 ES Warm Up 1. The tragedy of the commons refers to a. The tragedy of pollution b. The tragedy of over population c. The idea that common resource owned by no one and used by everyone will be over used until it is worthless d. None of the above 2. Describe three areas of the planet that are vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons. a. b. c. February 27 th,2014

280 ES Warm Up 1. The tragedy of the commons refers to c. The idea that common resource owned by no one and used by everyone will be over used until it is worthless 2. Describe three areas of the planet that are vulnerable to the tragedy of the commons. a. b. c. February 27 th,2014

281 ES Agenda Feb 27 th, 2014 Dirt the movie.

282 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following are NON-renewable forms of energy EXCEPT a. Oil b. Natural gas c. Coal d. hydroelectric 2. Which of the following are possible waste products given off from petroleum combustion? a. Soot and sulfur gases b. Carbon dioxide and fly ash c. Water and carbon dioxide d. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides March 3 rd,2014

283 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following are NON-renewable forms of energy EXCEPT d. hydroelectric 2. Which of the following are possible waste products given off from petroleum combustion? c. Water and carbon dioxide http://science.howstuffworks.com/30198-really-big-things- hydroelectric-power-video.htm March 3 rd,2014

284 ES Agenda March 3 rd, 2014 Chapter 8 questions from text

285 ES Warm UP At an electric power plant, electricity is produced in the a. Turbine b. Condenser c. Generator d. Precipitator Cooling towers cool the water that comes off the a. Generator b. Turbine c. Boiler d. Coal silo e. Pulverizer March 4 th, 2014

286 ES Warm UP At an electric power plant, electricity is produced in the c. Generator Cooling towers cool the water that comes off the b. Turbine March 4 th, 2014

287 ES Agenda March 4 th, 2014 Chapter 8 Questions

288 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following are true about oil as an energy source for the United States, except a. Oil is derived from the remains of prehistoric marine organisms. b. Oil is trapped underground in a variety of geologic formations. c. Oil is very plentiful and domestic supplies should last for centuries. d. Oil is easily stored, transported, and consumed. 2. In what kind of geologic formations are oil deposits most likely to develop? a. Sedimentary deposits in seas b. Sedimentary deposits on land c. Metamorphic deposits in seas d. Metamorphic deposits on land March 5 th,2014

289 ES Warm Up 1. All of the following are true about oil as an energy source for the United States, except a. Oil is derived from the remains of prehistoric marine organisms. b. Oil is trapped underground in a variety of geologic formations. c. Oil is very plentiful and domestic supplies should last for centuries. d. Oil is easily stored, transported, and consumed. 2. In what kind of geologic formations are oil deposits most likely to develop? a. Sedimentary deposits in seas March 5 th,2014

290 ES Agenda March 5 th, 2014 Energy ppt.

291 ES Warm Up 1. What reactant is left out of the following chemical reaction for natural gas combustion? Natural Gas Carbon Dioxide + Heat + Water a. Wastes b. Oxygen c. Coal d. Nothing 2. Why must coal have been formed in stagnant waters? a. Plants contain no oil or fat. b. Decomposition is more complete in stagnant conditions. c. Bacteria could not work to complete their action under these conditions. d. Running water would have decreased decomposition of plant material. March 6 th,2014

292 ES Warm Up 1. What reactant is left out of the following chemical reaction for natural gas combustion? Natural Gas Carbon Dioxide + Heat + Water b. Oxygen 2. Why must coal have been formed in stagnant waters? c. Bacteria could not work to complete their action under these conditions. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_8VqWKZIPrM March 6 th, 2014

293 ES Agenda March 6 th, 2014 The Last Mountain.

294 ES Agenda March 7 th, 2014 The Last Mountain.

295 ES Warm Up 1. Which one of the following statements about energy transitions is correct? a. The U.S. has switched from wood to oil. b. The U.S. has switched from oil to coal. c. The U.S. has switched from nuclear to solar. d. The U.S. has switched from wood to coal. 2. The energy content of a fuel is the a. Number of kWh in the fuel. b. Amount of energy in a kilogram of fuel. c. Amount of energy in the fuel. d. Number of calories in a square centimeter of fuel. March 17 th,2014

296 ES Warm Up 1. Which one of the following statements about energy transitions is correct? d. The U.S. has switched from wood to coal. 2. The energy content of a fuel is the b. Amount of energy in a kilogram of fuel. March 17 th,2014

297 ES Agenda March 17 th, 2014 Go over tests, then the movie FUEL.

298 ES Warm Up 1. What do we call layers of sediment in which petroleum formed? a. Reservoir beds b. Water beds c. Source beds d. Sedimentary beds 2. Which of the following are possible waste products given off from petroleum combustion? a. Soot and sulfur gases b. Carbon dioxide and fly ash c. Water and carbon dioxide d. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides March 18 th,2014

299 ES Warm Up 1. What do we call layers of sediment in which petroleum formed? c. Source beds 2. Which of the following are possible waste products given off from petroleum combustion? c. Water and carbon dioxide March 18 th,2014

300 ES Agenda March 18 th, 2014 Fuel, the movie.

301 ES Warm Up 1. Heat powered electric generating plants ALWAYS produce a certain amount of a. Nuclear wastes b. Smoke particles c. Thermal pollution d. Sulfur gases 2. The practice of dumping waste heat into nearby lakes, rivers, or bays results in a. Increased metabolic rates in fish b. Thermal pollution c. Lowered populations of desirable fish. d. Dissolved oxygen loss. e. All of these are problems. March 19 th,2014

302 ES Warm Up 1. Electric generating plants ALWAYS produce a certain amount of c. Thermal pollution 2. The practice of dumping waste heat into nearby lakes, rivers, or bays results in a. Increased metabolic rates in fish b. Thermal pollution c. Lowered populations of desirable fish. d. Dissolved oxygen loss. e. All of these are problems. March 19 th,2014

303 ES Agenda March 19 th, 2014 Please put your name next to one of resources listed below. You will do research on this resource and answer the questions on the handout. You will present your findings tomorrow. BauxitePaperCottonIron ore Gold CopperCoalManganese CobaltPlatinumChromiumGraphite Natural gasDiamondsSilverLead LimestoneZincOilBariumCadmium AsbestosSulfurTin PlasticsRubberAntimonyPhosphorus Nitrogen

304 ES Warm Up 1. Why is surface mining a problem? a. Irrigation is needed to reclaim the land. b. It removes good topsoil from productive use. c. It creates erosional problems. d. All of the above. 2. Which of the following types of coal is found mostly in eastern Pennsylvania? a. Peat b. Lignite c. Bituminous d. Anthracite March 20 th,2014

305 ES Warm Up 1. Why is surface mining a problem? a. Irrigation is needed to reclaim the land. b. It removes good topsoil from productive use. c. It creates erosional problems. d. All of the above. 2. Which of the following types of coal is found mostly in eastern Pennsylvania? d. Anthracite March 20 th,2014

306 ES Agenda March 20 th, 2014 In your journals write down these questions. You will answer these as your class-mates present their material. 1.What is the resource? 2.Where does it come from? 3.Are there any concerns over this resource? 4.What can you do to conserve this resource?

307 ES Warm Up 1. Identify the type of coal mining where a cutter (shearer) is pulled back and forth across a mine face. The loosened coal drops onto a conveyor. As the mining machine cuts its way into the seam, hydraulic jacks automatically push steel roof supports forward. The roof behind is allowed to fall. a. Surface b. Conventional c. Continuous d. Longwall 2. The cheapest way to mine coal is a. Longwall mining. b. Surface mining. c. Room-and-pillar mining. d. Continuous mining. March 21 st,2014

308 ES Warm Up 1. Identify the type of coal mining where a cutter (shearer) is pulled back and forth across a mine face. The loosened coal drops onto a conveyor. As the mining machine cuts its way into the seam, hydraulic jacks automatically push steel roof supports forward. The roof behind is allowed to fall. a. Longwall –See video clip longwall mining 2. The cheapest way to mine coal is b. Surface mining. March 21 st,2014

309 ES Agenda March 21 st, 2014 Cookie Mining Lab

310 ES Warm Up 1. Which fuel burns cleanest? a. Natural gas b. Coal c. Oil d. Wood e. Tar 2. The products of coal combustion make coal look like a poor fuel. Why are we returning to coal as a significant source of energy? a. We have a lot of coal. b. We are running out of petroleum. c. Coal decreases our need for foreign oil. d. All of the above. March 24 th,2014

311 ES Warm Up 1. Which fuel burns cleanest? a. Natural gas 2. The products of coal combustion make coal look like a poor fuel. Why are we returning to coal as a significant source of energy? a. We have a lot of coal. b. We are running out of petroleum. c. Coal decreases our need for foreign oil. d. All of the above. March 24 th,2014

312 ES Agenda March 24 th, 2014 Open Notes Quiz

313 ES Warm Up 1. The nucleus of an atom does not contain a. Electrons b. Protons c. Neutrons 2. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its a. Atomic number b. Number of isotopes c. Ability to fission d. Mass number March 25 th,2014

314 ES Warm Up 1. The nucleus of an atom does not contain a. Electrons 2. The chemical properties of an atom are determined by its a. Atomic number THE NUMBER OF PROTONS DETERMINES WHAT KIND OF ELEMENT IT IS. March 25 th,2014

315 ES Agenda March 25 th, 2014 Text book questions on Nuclear Energy

316 Mar 26 th, 2014 Write down the following questions, leaving room to answer them. 1. What is radioactive decay? 2. Why do large elements need more neutrons than smaller elements? 3. What is alpha, beta and gamma decay? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFdR_yMKOCw

317 MAR 26 th, 2014 1. What is radioactive decay? Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting particles of ionizing radiation. A material that spontaneously emits this kind of radiationwhich includes the emission of energetic alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma raysis considered radioactive.nucleusatomionizing radiationalpha particlesbeta particles gamma rays 2. Why do large elements need more neutrons than smaller elements? Because protons are positively charged and are repelled by each other. Without many more neutrons, the nucleus would fall apart. 3. What is alpha, beta and gamma decay? Alpha loses two protons and two neutrons, beta loses an electron(positron or electron) and gamma emits high frequency energy.

318 ES Agenda March 26 th, 2014 Write down the following questions down in your journal: 1.How hot would it be in the reactor? 2.How much pressure would you feel? 3. What are the pellets made out of? 4. What is the analogy he uses to compare fission splitting the atom? 5. What is the last thing needed to make the neutrons to be absorbed by uranium atoms? Start Seconds from Disaster

319 Mar 27 th, 2014 1. What happened in Chernobyl? 2. Why is nuclear energy so dangerous? 3. What is one big problem with using nuclear energy?

320 Mar 27 th, 2014 1. What happened in Chernobyl? A nuclear reactor meltdown. 2. Why is nuclear energy so dangerous? It can last for hundreds of thousands of years. 3. What is one big problem with using nuclear energy? Waste disposal.

321 ES Agenda March 27 th, 2014 1.Finish Seconds from Disaster 2.Fix up your solar ovens for cooking for tomorrow! 3.Bring food for tomorrow (Smores or nachos only!)

322 Mar 28 th, 2014 1. Why would anyone want to change coal into a gas or liquid when it works perfectly well as a solid? a. Homes use gas. b. Cars use a liquid. c. Both a and b. 2. The chemical symbol for methane gas is a. CO 2 b. H 2 O c. H 2 d. CO e. CH 4

323 Mar 28 th, 2014 1. Why would anyone want to change coal into a gas or liquid when it works perfectly well as a solid? a. Homes use gas. b. Cars use a liquid. c. Both a and b. 2. The chemical symbol for methane gas is e. CH 4

324 ES Agenda March 28 th, 2014 1.Put your food in your solar oven and place outside in the sun. 2.Work on questions from chapter 11 in your textbooks.

325 ES Warm Up 1. Write the following definition in your journals: Nonpoint source pollution generally results from land runoff, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, drainage, seepage or hydrologic modification. 2. Name one or two potential sources of nonpoint source pollution. 3. Name some specific pollution associated with it (for example fertilizer). 4. Video on nonpoint source pollution

326 Todays Lab 1. Each student will crumble up one or two pieces of USED/SCRATCH paper. 2. Each student will help color on the trash bag or plastic table cloth. 3. We will take the crumbled paper and put it on the ground and lay the trash bag/plastic table cloth over it. 4. Students will spray the trash bag/plastic table cloth with a spray bottle and see where the colored pollutants go.

327 ES WU Write three things about non-point source pollution. Write five parts to the water cycle. Why is the carbon cycle important to humans? When do biomes and continents in the southern hemisphere experience winter? Does temperature define deserts? If not, what does? What is the independent variable in the scientific method? What is the MAJOR theme in the tragedy of the commons?

328 Properties of Water Lab Today we are going to study the properties of water by looking at several lab stations that demonstrate those properties. The properties that will be demonstrated are: Cohesion Adhesion Relative density of liquid water and ice Polarity/solubility Latent heat of vaporization And some others… Go to each lab station, write what you observe in your notebooks. Determine the property of water you are observing and a sentence or two about how that property is important for life.

329 ES Warm Up Answer the following in complete sentences Eutrophication is A. Always bad B. Nutrient loading C. The dissolution of oxygen in water In order to be considered an ORGANIC compound, it MUST contain which of the following elements: A. Hydrogen B. Nitrogen C. Carbon D. Phosphorus E. Sulfur Humans have negatively impacted the nitrogen cycle by: A. Burning fossil fuels B. Overpopulating C. Making synthetic fertilizers

330 ES Warm Up Define littoral zone Define benthic zone Define limnetic zone Define profundal zone Define tributary Define watershed

331 Instructions for todays SPECIFIC HEAT LAB There are 8 stations. There should be 3-4 people at each station. There are 4 different substances in test tubes at each station, a stop watch, a thermometer and a heat lamp. You will be taking the temperature of each substance at 2 minute intervals before and after turning ON the heat lamp. You will also take the temperature of each substance at 2 minute intervals after turning OFF the heat lamp. You will make a graph showing all 4 substances. I would use different colored pencils for each substance. How are you going to set up your graph? What are the x and y axes? Draw the outlines of your graph and get my approval prior to starting the lab.

332 ES Warm Up Answer the following in complete sentences 1. Write a hypothesis for the lab we did yesterday. 2. What was the independent variable? 3. What was the dependent variable? 4. Which substance took the longest to change temperatures? 5. Which substance took the least amount of time to change temperatures? 6. Did the results support your hypothesis? Why or why not?

333 Specific Heat Lab II There are three substances in beakers with thermometers in them. 1. Place the three beakers on a hotplate. 2. Take the temperatures of each substance at 2 minute intervals using the stopwatches provided at each station. Record in a data table. After three trials, turn the hotplate off, then measure the temperatures at 2 minute intervals for 3 trials. Graph and summarize your results.

334 ES Warm Up 1 st Period Answer the following in complete sentences I will grade your graphs from Tuesdays lab including summary. 1. What does oligotrophic mean? 2. What is a riparian zone? 3. Name one pro and one con to dams. 4. Why are some rivers that previously reached the oceans not doing so anymore? 5. What were the last two labs about?

335 ES Warm Up Answer the following in complete sentences 1. What were we testing for yesterday? 2. What were the three substances? 3. What was the hypothesis? 4. What was the independent variable? 5. What was the dependent variable? 6. Did your results support your hypothesis? 7. What does oligotrophic mean? 8. What is a riparian zone? 9. Name one pro and one con for dams. 10. Why are some rivers that previously reached the oceans not doing so anymore?

336 ES Warm Up Which conclusion can you draw from this graph? From The Science behind the Stories a) It is more water efficient to produce vegetables b) It is more water efficient to produce meat c) Vegetable and meat production are relatively alike in water consumption d) There is little correlation between water consumption and our diet

337 Warm UP 1. Why is the high/low (write the appropriate choice down in your journal) specific heat of water important for life? 2. What does it mean to have high specific heat? 3. Of the four substances from our lab on Tuesday the soil heated up and cooled down the quickest. Does this mean it has high or low specific heat?

338 Water, water all around 1. Is flooding generally good or bad for ecosystems? 2. Currently we are using fresh water supplies sustainably. T/F 3. Capillary action is due to the cohesive properties of water. T/F 4. In arid countries the majority of water use is either agriculture or household use. T/F

339 Questions for Water Video Please write the following questions down in your journals. Please ensure that there is enough space to answer the questions while watching the video. Why is water so powerful? How much of your body is water? How much pours over Niagra Falls in one hour? What is the percentage of water on earth? How many cubic miles of water is there on earth? How much is fresh water? How much is left to sustain us all? How many people lack access to clean drinking water? What did Benjamin Franklin say? Why do people think that bottled water is safer than tap water? What is the purpose of the spring house? How does reverse osmosis work?

340 Thermal (specifically heat) pollution: A. diminishes the ability of an aquatic system to retain dissolved oxygen B. does not directly affect aquatic life Nutrient Loading: *A. causes algal blooms *B. decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen in an aquatic system *C. Both A and B. The process by which water that hits the ground becomes ground water is called: a. Infiltration b. Percolation c. A and B

341 What are some factors that are leading to a fisheries collapse? Why is there more mercury in organisms higher up the food chain? Who are the people that are the most vulnerable to mercury toxins? Name two adaptations of deep ocean organisms? What causes the water to move around the planet in known current patterns?

342 Directions for our Water Regulations and Acts Activity There are 6 Water Regulations and Acts: Water Resources Planning Act (1965) Water Resources Development Act (1986) Safe Drinking Water Act (1974) Clean Water Act (1972) Doctrine of Riparian Rights Principle of Prior Appropriation You will be given a card that represents one of these regulations. The card will give you the definition of another regulation and you have to find the student with the card that has the appropriate act or right. Then the two of you will come up with a way to present it to the class-either a skit, rap, letter, song, poem, brochure, public service announcement, mock protest or some other creative way to present the material.

343 1. Why is dissolved oxygen SO important in an aquatic system? 2. What kind of nutrients are usually referred to when discussing eutrophication? 3. When talking about LIMITING FACTORS for populations of organisms all but which of the following are NOT included: A. nitrogen B. phosphorus C. food energy D. sunlight E. none of the above

344 DURING THE PRESENTATIONS During the presentations in your journals write the definitions of each of the water laws/regulations/rights/principles or doctrines in YOUR OWN WORDS! If this proves too difficult, use the words of the presenters.

345 1. In your own words write down what the Doctrine of Riparian Rights mean? 2. What does the Principle of Prior Appropriation mean? 3. What does the Water Resources Planning Act (1965) mean? 4. What does the Water Resources Development Act (1986)mean?

346 Agenda We will do research in the library over unreliable and reliable sources. Please take the CLASS SET of questions and answer the questions in your journals. This will also be your exit slip. You will go to www.ideaprompter.comwww.ideaprompter.com Then you will go to lesson plans Pick 2 articles from the first 3 Pick 2 articles from the last 3 Answer the questions on the handout Work in pairs, have one person answer the questions for the first two articles, then have the 2 nd person answer the questions for the last two articles 6 TH PERIOD YOU HAVE A HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

347 ES Warm up Of the sources we looked at yesterday, which was the MOST reliable? Why? Of the sources we looked at yesterday, which was the LEAST reliable? Why? We will work for a few minutes finishing up the questions from yesterday (10 min) Take a stance on global warming from the information we gathered yesterday. Use the EVIDENCE you gathered yesterday to DEFEND YOUR STANCE (10 MIN). You will answer questions from a handout on wastewater treatment (to be written in COMPLETE SENTENCES IN YOUR JOURNALS).

348 We will draw graphs in our journals of the tests we used to measure water quality on Friday. How will you set up your graph? Were all the units for every test the same? How will you differentiate between samples? Talk with a partner about how you will set up your graphs and how you will label your axes. Take 5 minutes. Set up your graphs. This should take 10-15 minutes. Read the hand out on waste water treatment facilities and answer the questions in your journals. (This is a class set!)

349 Using the tap water as your control, Which water sample had the highest quality? Which water sample had the lowest quality? Were these results consistent with the appearance of the water? Which water sample had the highest dissolved oxygen? Does this indicate that the sample would support the highest number of organisms? Why or why not?

350 October 11 th Agenda 2 nd and 6th We will watch several movie clips about waste water treatment. You can finish the homework from yesterday (the 7 questions and the paragraph of travels through the waste water treatment plant). If you have finished the homework from yesterday, please take notes on the movie clips. Some examples would be: Describe the steps through the treatment plant. What does most of the work? Where does the water end up? Yum, glup! Comments? Ideas?

351 Es Warm up oct 12, 2012 2 nd and 6 th Period Why is global warming an environmental concern? How do we know it IS a concern? (What evidence is there?) What causes the problem? What are the future effects of the problem? Have their been irreversible effects of this problem? What are they? Is there anything being done to solve this problem? Are their laws related to the topic? Is there anything an individual can do to help the problem? If so, what?

352 Oct 12 th Agenda, 2 nd and 6th You will review for the quiz. Please get white boards from the back and work in teams of two. After you collaborate and agree on an answer, one person will write the answer then you will switch! Keep track of your score: write slashes on the corner of your whiteboard. This is contest between the left side and right side of the classroom. Winners will get one free bathroom pass for this class ONLY.

353 Oct 15 th 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up Please write the following definitions in your journals: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless corrosive gas that harms plants and animals. So2 my change to sulfur trioxide (SO3) when it enters the atmosphere. SO3 reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) which is the main component of acid rain. Two-thirds of the sulfur in the atmosphere is due to human activities: the burning of coal and oil. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless and odorless gas that is highly toxic and is formed by the incomplete combustion of fuel such as coal, oil, natural gas, or charcoal. Nearly all of the CO in the atmosphere eventually leads to the production of ozone. Ozone in the lower atmosphere is a major component in photochemical smog.

354 Oct 15 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda Today we will go over a couple ppts on the atmosphere and air pollution. Slow me down if I move too quickly. We will watch two movies: air pollution and its causes and air pollution and athletes

355 Oct17 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up How many environmental issues can you think of? Whoever comes up with the most (legitimate issues) will get something special.

356 Oct 17 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda 1. We will watch several video clips on environmental issues. 2. You will receive a project assignment due in 5 weeks. 3. The project will be worth 2 test grades. 4. You will receive a rubric and be required to pick a topic on a first-come first-serve basis. 5. You will be able to work alone or in pairs. 6. You will not be able to work in larger groups. 7. The project will require a presentation in front of the class.

357 Oct 18 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up Photochemical Oxidants in the atmosphere are products of a secondary reaction or of a reaction caused by the Sun. The creation of ozone is the most significant photochemical reaction, the reaction takes place when an atmospheric reaction splits a molecule of nitrogen dioxide, forming a single atom of oxygen. This single atom can then react with a molecule of O2 to form O3 or ozone. Ozone in the stratosphere protects the planet from the Suns harmful radiation. Ozone that is formed close to the ground, however, can damage plants, eyes and lungs, and building materials. Ozone gives photochemical smog its distinctive color (reddish-brown).

358 Oct 18 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda We will finish going through the ppt. and then take an open notes quiz.

359 Oct 19 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up 1. Today you will have a substitute. 2. I have instructed the substitute to write down the names of any students that are disruptive or do not participate, or who do not take direction. 3. The substitute is also instructed to send anyone who is disruptive to Ms. De La Fuente, and you will receive a referral.

360 Oct 19 th, 2012 1. Today you will watch most of the movie, An Inconvenient Truth. 2. You will answer the questions provided in YOUR JOURNALS. This is a class set.

361 Oct 22 nd, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up Particulate matter: dust, ash, soot, lint, smoke, pollen, and spores are all considered particulate matter. That is solid or liquid particles suspended in a gas. Often the most obvious form of pollution which reduces visibility and leaves cars and windows dirty. Particles that are less than 2.5mm in size are the most dangerous because they directly enter lungs damaging lung tissue and increasing risks of cancer. Nitrogen oxides: highly reactive gases that are formed when nitrogen is heated to about 650 degrees Celsius. This happens during the burning of fossil fuels or other combustion processes. NO is formed when these processes take place. They further oxidize into NO 2 which is responsible for giving photochemical smog its distinctive reddish brown color. NOx mix with water vapor forming Nitric Acid which is a major component of acid rain.

362 Oct 22 nd, 2 nd and 6 th agenda I will go through the rest of the ppt. that we started last week. You will take notes. Take this opportunity to fix some of your wrong answers on the open notes quiz. Draw the diagram of the atmosphere Draw the picture of both causes of acid rain We will watch another movie on air pollution (air_pollution animated)

363 Oct 23 rd, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up According to the US Bureau of Transit Statistics for 2006 there are 250,844,644 registered passenger vehicles in the US. These vehicles spew hundreds of millions of tons of exhaust into the atmosphere. Much of this exhaust is invisible water vapor, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxides. Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas contributing to global warming today. Carbon monoxide and nitrous oxides are dangerous to human health. Nitrous oxides also harm the environment. Particulates, tiny particles created when fuel is incompletely burned, are yet another major component of exhaust. US Bureau of Transit Statistics

364 Oct 23 rd, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda We will do a partial lab first. You will have a rag, a quarter, and a marker. You will trace the quarter in the middle of the rag for 8-10 times. Each quarter is about 5 cm 2 You will take the rag home with you and collect the particulate pollution that comes out of a family owned vehicle. I will give you detailed instructions. We will do another lab on seed germination and acid rain.

365 Oct 23 rd, 2 nd and 6 th Lab Acid Rain and seed germination 1. You will work in pairs. 2. Take one plastic cup and label it Rain 3. Take another plastic cup and label Acid Rain 4. Put you and your partners names or initials and the period number on both cups. 5. Take 2 sets of 5 seeds and place them in two different plastic cups 6. Place the 5 seeds along the outside of the cup 7. Place a cotton ball (or several) on the inside of the cup 8. Add water to the cotton ball until saturated in the cup labeled rain 9. Add vinegar to the cotton ball until saturated in the cup labeled acid rain

366 Oct 24 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up 1. How is acid rain formed? 2. What are the two types of acid rain? 3. What type of acid rain have scrubbers in coal plants helped reduce? 4. Why is the other type of acid rain is becoming more of a problem?

367 Oct 24 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda We will examine the rags that you have brought back for particulate matter Get a magnifying glass Count the amount of particulates per circle All information will be recorded in your journals We will analyze the information using the class set of questions I provide you These will be answered in your journals You will draw a graph of the results in your journals, how will you set it up? What are your axes?

368 Oct 25 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up Work in pairs: Grab one calculator per two people Given the data we took yesterday, average the amount of particulate among all the cars Take that average and multiply it times 250,000,000 (this was the estimated number of passenger vehicles in the US In 2009) What does that number represent?

369 Oct 25 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda We will do a case study on air pollution Before we do the case study, we will watch a video on air pollution and from this video you will answer the questions I provide you Get into groups of 5 people Finish answering the questions provided.

370 Oct 26 th, 2 nd and 6 th Warm Up How are NOx formed? Why are they are problem? What can you do to help prevent them?

371 Oct 26 th, 2 nd and 6 th Agenda We will finish up the case study We will begin another case study: Electrical Storm

372 What do you know about global warming? Name 2 or 3 things that you have heard about global warming. http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/516/index.ht ml http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/516/index.ht ml http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/304/video-al- gore.html http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/304/video-al- gore.html http://local.brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/PHVid eos/Chapter%2003.mpg http://local.brookings.k12.sd.us/biology/PHVid eos/Chapter%2003.mpg


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