2Truman’s FAIR DEAL Fair Deal- Truman’s package of reforms after WWII Increase minimum wageIncrease aid to agriculture and educationEnact a national health insurance programWar ends, labor demanded decreases, unemployment increasesPrice controls lifted, prices sky rocket, inflation increases, workers demand higher wages, strikes occur
3Republican Congress 22nd amendment- two term limit of president Taft-Hartley Act- limited the power of labor unions and outlawed closed shop (workplace in which the employer agrees to hire only members of a certain union)Congress refused to act on civil rights but Truman issued an executive order of desegregated troops.
5Truman to EisenhowerTruman wins 1948 election although newspapers predicts Wallace to defeat him.For the next 4 years Truman battled with Congress over Fair Deal legislation.1952 Republican Eisenhower defeats Stevenson“I like IKE” popular campaign sloganTook a middle of the road approach “modern republicanism”
6Economic GrowthEmergence of McDonalds 1940’s- two brothers Dick and Mac opened the first “fast food” restaurantReal Income grew after WWII. People in the 1950’s had twice as much money as people in the 1920’s.People were SPENDING MONEY and shopping centers grewBusiness Methods grew to encourage growth in 3 waysAdvertisingBuy now, pay laterPlanned obsolescence (buying goods that go out of date)
8Shifting EconomyGeneral Motors- 1st corporation to earn 1 billion dollars a yearCost of living Index- measures differences in wages and goods over time (GM had a agreement with workers, as Cost of living Index rose, so did their wages)Blue-Collar workers to White-Collar workers- workforce changed from factory or skill trade jobs to professionals such as lawyers, doctors, engineers, sales, and managers.
9Marriage, families, & a BABY BOOM Marriages increased in 1946 (soldiers returned home from war) which led to….BABY BOOM- large increase in the number of babies born from This led to an increase in…Diaper servicesBottlesMaternity wardsHomes/ appliancesSchoolsFamily Roles: Stay-at-home moms and working dadsMany books published and tv shows encouraged women to stay at home including “Leave It To Beaver”Women forwent college and stayed at home
10Population Shifts Suburbs grew Migration to the Sunbelt Levittown- first planned community in nation in Long Island, New YorkMigration to the SunbeltShift of manufacturing and other businesses to warm-weather states including, Texas, California, and Florida and 10 other states.Shift made available due to water projects in the arid SW and development of air conditioners
11The Automobile Middle Class dream to have Two cars in every garage Fathers commuted to jobs in nearby citiesMothers could run to the shopping centers and supermarketsStatus SymbolCars were a sign of consumer culture wealth and prestigeInterstate Highway System1956 construction started and completed 10,000 miles of highway by 1960 (today we have over 45,000 miles)
13Technological Advances Polio Vaccine- Dr. Jonas Stalk – made up of small parts of the polio virus so people could develop antibodies to protect them from the actual virus.million school children took part in trials and was deemed successfulSurgical techniques advancedOpen heart surgeryKidney transplantLife Expectancy increased from 68 in 1950 to 69.7 by 1960
14Technological Advances Nuclear Energy- electricity, x-rays, and radioactive iodine to treat cancerComputers enter the workplace1946- ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), 18,000 vacuum tubes, 1,500 square feet of floor space (a Levittown home), and could perform 300 multiplications per second.1952- UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer I)- same as above but could handle letters and words
15Critics of SuburbiaSuburbia- critics saw suburbia as a wasteland of conformity and materialism (needed wealth)The Organization Man- book by William Whyte- saw the suburbs as packaged villages that have become the dormitory of a new generation of organization men.Defense of Suburbia- although no African American’s there were many different religious and ethnic groups present in Suburbs
16NonconformityBeat Movement- writers and poets who were either beaten down or beatific( blissfully happy)- BeatniksStarted New York CityRejected all forms of convention or ways of livingObscene writing- morally offensive
17NonconformityYouth Culture rebelled against the world of their parents through music, dance, movies, and slangAlan Freed- disc Jockey Cleveland Ohio played black rhythm and blues (Rock’n’roll) ELVIS PRESLEY “Elvis the Pelvis”James Dean- Rebel Without a Cause“Big Daddies” (older people), “Boss” (great), “Threads” (clothes), “radioactive” (really popular), “Don’t have a cow”, “Cool it”
18Art and ComicsThe American Way- comics broke from convention “Tales from the Crypt”Parents were horrified by new comicsTaught the youth how to lie, rob, assault, cheat, steal and break into housesAbstract Expressionism- new form of art that expressed emotionsVivid and unstructuredJackson Pollock “The source of my painting is the unconscious”
19Poverty in SocietyPeople felt poverty was a moral condition and an economic problemPauperism- people depending on government assistance or pubic assistanceWorking poor- more respected than paupers but little differencePoverty line-minimum amount of income one would need to meet basic needs $2,000 families 2008-$22,000 family of fourAn Invisible Class “The Other America” by Harrington¼ of society lived in povertyPoor cities, elderly, no political power
20Landscape of PovertyInner Cities African Americans moved from the south into northern cities as whites moved to the suburbsHousing Act of 1949-urban renewal, replacing slums with high rise apartments in cities became “the projects”American Farmers- lived in povertyAgribusiness- food production by corporate farms put small farmers out of businessMexican braceros- worked for low wages on corporate farmsAppalachia- mountainous poor region in the SouthPoorest Citizens- American IndiansTermination Policy- ended federal aid to tribesVoluntary Relocation Program- encouraged Indians to move to cities100 tribes were terminated, land was sold, and poverty grew worseBy 1963, termination was a failure and abandoned