Presentation on theme: "The years following WWII were generally a time of peace and prosperity. Cold War defense spending soon gave the economy a boost. Businesss boomed, and."— Presentation transcript:
The years following WWII were generally a time of peace and prosperity. Cold War defense spending soon gave the economy a boost. Businesss boomed, and many Americans moved into the middle class. Other Americans felt opportunities were passing them by. CHAPTER 18 PEACE AND PROSPERITY
A. The Nuclear Age 1. Eisenhower becomes The US President in Cold War fears continues with his presidency. IKE EISENHOWERS FOREIGN POLICY
3. Arms raced continued a. Tested 1 st hydrogen bomb after he was elected b. Families built bomb shelters c. duck and cover drills at schools Soviet Unions launched Sputnik: a. first artificial satellite into orbit.
B. U.S. Nuclear Policy 1. Launched 1 st satellite in National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by Congress that same year to carry out space research. 3. Improved math and science classes in schools, better educated students would help the US win the arms and space races.
4. Tried to roll back communism from certain areas a. Ike received help from John Foster Dulles (secretary of state) 5. This New Look strategy is known as massive retaliation a. The threat of using nuclear weapons to stop communism. b. Brinkmanship(Dulles): US might have to come to the brink or edge without getting involved into war
C. Covert Operations 1. Some Americans were against the brinkmanship, not every conflict called for the threat of nuclear weapons
2. Eisenhower used covert operations (secret missions) to gain more foreign-policy options. 3. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) grew in size and influence. a. Become involved in missions in Iran (1953) and Guatemala (1954)
D. Cold War Crisis : Nikita Khrushchev take the place of Premier Joseph Stalin after his death. 2. Khrushchev announces Stalin committed criminal acts and mass murder against the SU.
3. Wants capitalism and communism to come together * capitalism: Private businesses own and operate most industries, competition determines cost and pay 4. Left unrest in communist Eastern Europe: a. Hungarian government wanted democracy: Soviet Unions invaded Hungary and crushed them.
b. Aswan High Dam (Egypt) 1. US offered to help Egypt to build this dam in return for their support in the Cold War
2. When US found out Egyptian leader was on good terms with the SU, US dropped the project. 3. Lead to the Suez Crisis: (Egypt, Britain, France, Isreal) could have lead to WWIII. 4. Eisenhower Doctrine: Us aid to any Middle Eastern country facing communist aggression
E. The U-2 Incident Vice President Richard Nixon visits the SU 2. Khrushchev then visits US
3. Things seem to be getting better between the US and SU a. Eisenhower and Khrushchev agree to discuss arms reductions at a summit in Paris the next year. 4. May 5, 1960: SU shot down a US spy plane
5. US denies charge 6. Pilot (Frances Gary Powers) lives and admits he was on a secret mission in a U-2 spy plane.
7. Eisenhower then admits he approved the flight a. Said it was important that we gather military information about other powerful countries so we remain safe and free of attacks. 8. Both still agreed to the summit, but it was a disaster.
A. America under Eisenhower 1. Economy boomed in the 1950s a. Spent $$$ on Cold War defense, creating tons of jobs 2. More Americans became part of the Middle Class a. Earned between $3,000 and $7,000 a year b. Could afford luxuries home appliances such as TVs A PROSPEROUS NATION
3. Many could move: a. Some moved to the Sunbelt: South and West b. Others moved to the suburbs 4. Many Americans could take a vacation or send their children to college.
B. A changing Workforce 1. Growth of the service sector (clerical and sales workers) a. Mostly filled by women, low paying, little room for advancement 2. Industrial jobs were taken away from some worker due to automation. a. The use of machines in production
C. Technological Advances 1. Medical Advances: a. Hearing aides, contact lens, polio vaccine (Dr. Jonas Salk)
2. Military Research: a. Improved computers (1 st developed during WWII) 1 st commercial jetliner (707)
3. Home Life: a. 1 st nuclear power plant (gave electricity to homes and businesses), air conditioners
D. Suburban America and City Life : Highway Act – paid for a new national system of interstate highways which made it easy for people to live in the suburbs and commute to work in the cities 2. Levittown (Long Island, NY) a. Early example of the preplanned and mass produced housing developments. b. The houses all look similar, have a garage and large yard.
3. Suburbs were places for families a. Baby boom – a sharp rise in the # of babies born b. Suburban children participated in organized activities c. Neighbors sometimes competed with one another for the newest clothes, gadgets or cars.
4. Conformity and Prejudice in the Suburbs a. Most people living there were white, middle class b. Some believed they tried to keep people of other races from moving in
5. Leaving the City behind a. Many poor and non-white residents were left I the cities b. Fewer tax $$$$$ decline in urban conditions c. Urban renewal program: government plan to replace old run down houses with large housing projects (mixed reviews)
A. Television and Film s: Televisions Golden Years 2. Before TV there was Vaudeville shows-stage productions that combined singing, dancing, and comedy. A CHANGING CULTURE
3. Popular TV programs were drama, game shows, soap operas, comedies (Lucille Ball) and westerns 4. Commercials were usually sponsored by a single company, worked better than the radio (see it) 5. Movies: mostly about young rebels a. Rebel Without a Cause (James Dean) and The Wild One (Marlon Brando)
B. Writers and Artists 1. African American writers a. Ralph Ellison: Invisible Man b. James Baldwin: Notes of a Native Son 2. Beatniks (beats): criticized American Life a. Jack Kerouac wrote about following your own path in his book On the Road
3. Silent generations: the name of college students and teenagers who didnt protest and did what was expected. a. Reading MAD magazine was looked at as rebelling.
C. Rock n Roll 1. Teenagers rebelled by listening to new music 2. Bebop/bop: African American jazz musicians paired up to play jazz at a rapid pace
3. Rock n Roll: drew from African American rhythm and blues a. Used the electric guitar for a fast-paced sound b. Elvis Presley was the most famous
4. Critics thought this music lead to youth crime a. Gave no message (do-wop do-wop) b. Cut across racial lines
A. Segregation after World War II 1. Many African American veterans returned from war, but still were not treated equally in the US 2. Faced voting discrimination a. Fees, literacy tests, and violence keep African Americans from voting. THE EARLY CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
3. Summer of 1946, civil rights activist tried to gain Trumans attention by protesting at the White House and Lincoln Memorial
4. In December, Truman set up The Committee on Civil Rights: look into racial discrimination and suggest answers. a. Desegregated the armed forces b. Set up a Fair Employment Practices Commission: banned racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees.
B. The Struggle against Segregation Begins 1. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had one goal: to end the segregation of black and white Americans.
2. Segregated Schools: a. Officials argued they were separate but equal b. 1938: Supreme Court ruled every state had to offer equal educational opportunities (white law school and a black law school)
c Sweatt v. Painter: Herman Sweatt was refused admission to the law school at the University of Texas. Instead they created an African American law school. 1. The new school did not provide equal access. So the court ordered he was allowed to be admitted to University of Texas. 2. Possible because of Thurgood Marshall: NAACP attorney
C. Brown v. Board of Education 1. Seven year old Linda Brown from Topeka, Kansas lived close to a white school, but had to travel all the way across town to attend the African American school 2. Her father sued to allow Linda to attend the closer white school
: US supreme Court decides segregation in public schools is ILLEGAL a. Overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that established separate but equal : Court ordered schools to desegregate with all deliberate speed
D. The Little Rock Nine 1. Segregation was slow, only 3 school districts in the entire South desegregated in School Board in Arkansas started to integrate the high school first then slowly worked down a. Choosing 9 outstanding African American students to attend Central High school in 1957 (Little Rock 9)
3. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus didnt want integration. a. Went on TV the day before school started and declared the National Guard units would prevent them from starting school. b. Said this would prevent the violence that would occur
4. Daisy Bates, president of Arkansas NAACP, called all the nine and told them to meet her in the morning before school so they could get a ride together. 1. Elizabeth Eckford, 1 of the 9, never got the message 2. arrived by herself to be greeted by an angry mob and the National Guard which wouldnt allow her in
c. Crowd was screaming to lynch her as she ran away the crowd followed her. d. Was finally helped to safety by a white woman 5. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation at Central High since Faubus continued not to follow the law for several weeks.
6. Once the troops left, white students continue to harass the 8 out of 9 students who remained : Ernest Green became the first African American student to graduate from Central High.
8. Faubus continued to keep fighting a. Shut down the school for the school year b. Court order made them reopen and continue to desegregate
E. The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1. Public transportation in Montgomery, Alabama was segregated. a. White passengers rode in the front, African Americans had to ride in the back b. African Americans had to give up their seats if the bus filled up c. African Americans had to pay at the front, get off, and then enter through the back
: Rosa Parks, African American, refused to give up her seat and was arrested for breaking the law.
3. E.D. Nixon (former NAACP president) organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott a. African Americans boycotted the city bus system
4. The Montgomery Improvement Association was formed to strengthen the boycott a. Lead by minister Martin Luther King Jr. 5. The bus system lost 70% of its passengers, still refused to desegregate.
: US Supreme Court ruled the Montgomerys bus system was ILLEGAL 7. Martin Luther King helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference a. Helped lead the struggle for civil rights