Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Peace and prosperity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 18 Peace and prosperity The years following WWII were generally a time of peace and prosperity. Cold War defense spending soon gave the economy a boost. Business’s boomed, and many Americans moved into the middle class. Other Americans felt opportunities were passing them by.
2 Ike eisenhower’s foreign policy The Nuclear Age1. Eisenhower becomes The US President in 1952.2. Cold War fears continueswith his presidency.
3 a. Tested 1st hydrogen bomb after he was elected Arms raced continueda. Tested 1st hydrogen bomb after he was electedb. Families built bomb sheltersc. “duck and cover” drills at schools1957 Soviet Unions launched Sputnik:a. first artificial satellite into orbit.
4 U.S. Nuclear Policy1. Launched 1st satellite in 19582. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created by Congress that same year to carry out space research.3. Improved math and science classes in schools, better educated students would help the US win the arms and space races.
5 Tried to “roll back” communism from certain areas a. Ike received help from John Foster Dulles (secretary of state)This New Look strategy is known as massive retaliationa. The threat of using nuclear weapons to stop communism.b. Brinkmanship(Dulles): US might have to come to the brink or edge without getting involved into war
6 Covert Operations1. Some Americans were against the brinkmanship, not every conflict called for the threat of nuclear weapons
7 Eisenhower used covert operations (secret missions) to gain more foreign-policy options. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) grew in size and influence.a. Become involved in missions in Iran (1953) and Guatemala (1954)
8 Cold War Crisis: Nikita Khrushchev take the place of Premier Joseph Stalin after his death.2. Khrushchev announces Stalin committed criminal acts and mass murder against the SU.
9 Wants capitalism and communism to come together * capitalism: Private businesses own and operate most industries, competition determines cost and payLeft unrest in communist Eastern Europe:a. Hungarian government wanted democracy: Soviet Unions invaded Hungary and crushed them.
10 Aswan High Dam (Egypt)1. US offered to help Egypt to build this dam in return for their support in the Cold War
11 2. When US found out Egyptian leader was on good terms with the SU, US dropped the project. 3. Lead to the Suez Crisis: (Egypt, Britain, France, Isreal) could have lead to WWIII. 4. Eisenhower Doctrine: Us aid to any Middle Eastern country facing communist aggression
12 The U-2 IncidentVice President Richard Nixon visits the SU2. Khrushchev then visits US
13 3. Things seem to be getting better between the US and SU a 3. Things seem to be getting better between the US and SU a. Eisenhower and Khrushchev agree to discuss arms reductions at a summit in Paris the next year. 4. May 5, 1960: SU shot down a US spy plane
14 5. US denies charge 6. Pilot (Frances Gary Powers) lives and admits he was on a secret mission in a U-2 spy plane.
15 7. Eisenhower then admits he approved the flight a. Said it was important that we gather military information about other powerful countries so we remain safe and free of attacks.8. Both still agreed to the summit, but it was a disaster.
16 A prosperous nation America under Eisenhower 1. Economy boomed in the 1950’sa. Spent $$$ on Cold War defense, creating tons of jobs2. More Americans became part of the Middle Classa. Earned between $3,000 and $7,000 a yearb. Could afford luxuries home appliances such as TV’s
17 3. Many could move: a. Some moved to the Sunbelt: South and West b 3. Many could move: a. Some moved to the Sunbelt: South and West b. Others moved to the suburbs 4. Many Americans could take a vacation or send their children to college.
18 A changing Workforce1. Growth of the service sector (clerical and sales workers)a. Mostly filled by women, low paying, little room for advancement2. Industrial jobs were taken away from some worker due to automation.a. The use of machines in production
19 Technological Advances 1. Medical Advances:a. Hearing aides, contact lens, polio vaccine (Dr. Jonas Salk)
20 2. Military Research: a. Improved computers (1st developed during WWII) 1st commercial jetliner (707)
21 Home Life:a. 1st nuclear power plant (gave electricity to homes and businesses), air conditioners
22 Suburban America and City Life : Highway Act – paid for a new national system of interstate highways which made it easy for people to live in the suburbs and commute to work in the cities2. Levittown (Long Island, NY)a. Early example of the preplanned and mass produced housing developments.b. The houses all look similar, have a garage and large yard.
23 3. Suburbs were places for families a 3. Suburbs were places for families a. Baby boom – a sharp rise in the # of babies born b. Suburban children participated in organized activities c. Neighbors sometimes competed with one another for the newest clothes, gadgets or cars.
24 4. Conformity and Prejudice in the Suburbs a 4. Conformity and Prejudice in the Suburbs a. Most people living there were white, middle class b. Some believed they tried to keep people of other races from moving in
25 5. Leaving the City behind a 5. Leaving the City behind a. Many poor and non-white residents were left I the cities b. Fewer tax $$$$$ decline in urban conditions c. Urban renewal program: government plan to replace old run down houses with large housing projects (mixed reviews)
26 A changing culture Television and Film ’s: Television’s Golden Years2. Before TV there was Vaudeville shows-stage productions that combined singing, dancing, and comedy.
27 3. Popular TV programs were drama, game shows, soap operas, comedies (Lucille Ball) and westerns 4. Commercials were usually sponsored by a single company, worked better than the radio (see it) 5. Movies: mostly about young rebels a. Rebel Without a Cause (James Dean) and The Wild One (Marlon Brando)
28 Writers and Artists1. African American writersa. Ralph Ellison: Invisible Manb. James Baldwin: Notes of a Native Son2. Beatniks (beats): criticized American Lifea. Jack Kerouac wrote about following yourown path in his book On the Road
29 3. Silent generations: the name of college students and teenagers who didn’t protest and did what was expected. a. Reading MAD magazine was looked at as rebelling.
30 Rock ‘n’ Roll1. Teenagers rebelled by listening to new music2. Bebop/bop: African American jazz musicians paired up to play jazz at a rapid pace
31 3. Rock ‘n’ Roll: drew from African American rhythm and blues a 3. Rock ‘n’ Roll: drew from African American rhythm and blues a. Used the electric guitar for a fast-paced sound b. Elvis Presley was the most famous
32 4. Critics thought this music lead to youth crime a. Gave no message (do-wop do-wop)b. Cut across racial lines
33 The early civil rights movement Segregation after World War II1. Many African American veterans returned from war, but still were not treated equally in the US2. Faced voting discriminationa. Fees, literacy tests, and violencekeep African Americans from voting.
34 3. Summer of 1946, civil rights activist tried to gain Truman’s attention by protesting at the White House and Lincoln Memorial
35 4. In December, Truman set up The Committee on Civil Rights: look into racial discrimination and suggest answers. a. Desegregated the armed forces b. Set up a Fair Employment Practices Commission: banned racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees.
36 The Struggle against Segregation Begins 1. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had one goal: to end the segregation of black and white Americans.
37 2. Segregated Schools: a. Officials argued they were “separate but equal” b. 1938: Supreme Court ruled every state had to offer equal educational opportunities (white law school and a black law school)
38 c Sweatt v. Painter: Herman Sweatt was refused admission to the law school at the University of Texas. Instead they created an African American law school. 1. The new school did not provide equal access. So the court ordered he was allowed to be admitted to University of Texas. 2. Possible because of Thurgood Marshall: NAACP attorney
39 Brown v. Board of Education 1. Seven year old Linda Brown from Topeka, Kansas lived close to a white school, but had to travel all the way across town to attend the African American school2. Her father sued to allow Linda to attend the closer white school
40 : US supreme Court decides segregation in public schools is ILLEGAL a. Overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling that established separate but equal : Court ordered schools to desegregate “with all deliberate speed”
41 The Little Rock Nine1. Segregation was slow, only 3 school districts in the entire South desegregated in 19542. School Board in Arkansas started to integrate the high school first then slowly worked downa. Choosing 9 outstanding African American students to attend Central High school in (Little Rock 9)
42 3. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus didn’t want integration. a 3. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus didn’t want integration. a. Went on TV the day before school started and declared the National Guard units would prevent them from starting school. b. Said this would prevent the violence that would occur
43 4. Daisy Bates, president of Arkansas NAACP, called all the nine and told them to meet her in the morning before school so they could get a ride together. 1. Elizabeth Eckford, 1 of the 9, never got the message 2. arrived by herself to be greeted by an angry mob and the National Guard which wouldn’t allow her in
44 d. Was finally helped to safety by a white woman c. Crowd was screaming to lynch her as she ran away the crowd followed her.d. Was finally helped to safety by a white woman5. President Eisenhower sent federal troops to enforce desegregation at Central High since Faubus continued not to follow the law for several weeks.
45 6. Once the troops left, white students continue to harass the 8 out of 9 students who remained : Ernest Green became the first African American student to graduate from Central High.
46 8. Faubus continued to keep fighting a 8. Faubus continued to keep fighting a. Shut down the school for the school year b. Court order made them reopen and continue to desegregate
47 The Montgomery Bus Boycott 1. Public transportation in Montgomery, Alabama was segregated.a. White passengers rode in the front, African Americans had to ride in the backb. African Americans had to give up their seats if the bus filled upc. African Americans had to pay at the front, get off, and then enter through the back