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Structure of a computer. KS3 Curriculum Computers are devices for executing programs Not every computer is obviously a computer (most electronic devices.

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Presentation on theme: "Structure of a computer. KS3 Curriculum Computers are devices for executing programs Not every computer is obviously a computer (most electronic devices."— Presentation transcript:

1 Structure of a computer

2 KS3 Curriculum Computers are devices for executing programs Not every computer is obviously a computer (most electronic devices contain computational devices) Basic architecture: CPU, storage (e.g. hard disk, main memory), input/output (e.g. mouse, keyboard) Computers are very fast, and getting faster all the time (Moores law) Computers can pretend to do more than one thing at a time, by switching between different things very quickly

3 Not every computer is obviously a computer Not every computer is obviously a computer (most electronic devices contain computational devices) Students can research how many devices they can find that contain a microprocessor.

4 Devices that contain a microprocessor Personal phones watches calculators computers and laptops cameras iPods (iPads, other mp3 players, etc.) WII and X-boxes Computers: infrared keyboards and mice disk drives switches hubs Commercial devices: cash tills supermarket bar code scanners vending machines lottery ticket dispensing machines printers faxes copiers automatic door openers credit card processors ATM machines Industry vehicles (cars, airplanes, boats, trains, trucks, etc) navigational systems (tomtom, loran, etc) Home: clock/radios ovens microwave ovens washing machines driers stereo systems TVs DVD players satellite/cable boxes thermostats air conditioners motion detectors smoke detectors burglar alarm systems Medical: pace makers insulin auto-injectors heart monitors hearing aids Military: smart bombs missiles guns turrets tanks sonic guns Police: radar guns (for speeding tickets) infrared motion and camera systems (for traffic lights) uv locators (finding suspects and bodies) lie detectors Municipal devices: traffic lights walkie-talkies train ticket purchasing machines

5 Computers are devices for executing programs When a program runs on a computer the processor repeatedly fetches and executes the next instruction from main memory, one at a time. http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/education/k12/the-journey- inside/explore-the-curriculum/microprocessors/lesson2.html

6 Human CPU Activity Students can do a physical demonstration of the CPU operation. Get students to play the roles of: 1.Processor 2.Clock 3.Main memory registers (number them 1 to 6) 5.A bus that transfers data from the Processor to main memory

7 Human CPU Activity Write some increasingly difficult mathematical equations on pieces of paper e.g. 4+1, 7+9, 12+103, 45/5, 12^2, 9*4*5 Give a piece of paper to each student who is a piece of main memory. To start the processor give the clock a watch with a second timer. Tell them to instruct the processor to fetch an instruction from main memory every 20 seconds. The processor must use the bus to get the instructions from one memory register at a time and work out the answer before the 20 seconds are up. Clock speed can them be increased (10 seconds, 5 seconds etc.) to see the result on the processor.

8 Extension tasks Make the clock tick faster – a real clock ticks at 3Ghz Make the calculations more complex – then you can use an extra student be a dual core processor. It can be easier if difficult work is shared. Simulate saving to the hard disk by having on area of memory much further away and harder to get to than the others. Simulate a cache by having one student stand next to the processor and remember repeated calculations.

9 Extension tasks Use the how computers work instructions to draw images that could appear on the screen

10 Doing a million things at once Do you have any applications running at the same time? music playing streaming video e-mail sending/receiving gaming writing … at the same time…

11 Activity Use the workshop activity materials

12 Moore's law Moore's law is the observation that over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. Historic timeline http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/hi story/historic-timeline.html

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14 Processors into the future Todays high-end computer chips have as many as 16 cores. But Tileras top-of-the-line chip has 100. http://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2012 /01/mit-genius-stu/ http://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2012 /01/mit-genius-stu/ http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2011/04/20/ how-fast-is-the-fastest-microprocessor-chip- now-and-in-the-future/

15 Starters/Plenaries Youtube Starter: From sand to chip - How a CPU is made http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- GQmtITMdas http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- GQmtITMdas Other Intel videos http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/e ducation/k12/the-journey-inside/explore-the- curriculum/microprocessors.html

16 Starters/Plenaries Get students to look at PC adverts on the internet to see who can find the fastest processor. http://ark.intel.com/products/family/41877/I ntel-Pentium-Desktop-Processor

17 Summary


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