Introduction Communication is the passing of a message from one person to another. It can be written (e.g a letter or memo) or oral (e.g by speaking to a friend using the telephone). It may involve giving an instruction, a reminder or some information.
Communication is only effective if the receiver understands the message given by the sender. When there is effective communication in a business organization, it results in successful business relationships, satisfied customers, happy workers and a positive business image.
Flow of Communication FLOW OF COMMUNICATION UPWARDHORIZONTALDOWNWARD
Flow of Communication Upward- E.g. submitting reports to superior/ manager. Horizontal- E.g. circulating memoranda to other departments Downward- E.g. receiving instructions from superior/ manager.
Methods of Communication A. Telephone B. Telefax Service or Facsimile Service C. E-mail D. Public Address (PA) System E. Intercom F. Two-way Radio (Walkie-Talkie) G. Audio-video Conferencing
A. Telephone Means: Telephone Type: Oral communication Features: Relatively low cost, fast and direct form of communication, messages can be sent locally or overseas Delivery time: Immediate
The telephone can be used to make local calls, trunk calls or international calls. Local call- telephone call that is made within the country Trunk call- call that is made to the main towns. (E.g. Penang – Kuala Lumpur) International call- call that is made to overseas countries other than Brunei.
B. Telefax Service or Facsimile Service Means: Telefax Type: Written communication Features: Low cost, can send or receive written or typed messages, photographs and diagrams locally or overseas, exact copy of information can be sent or received Delivery time: Immediate
Fax messages Remove paper clips and staples from the document to be faxed to prevent damage to the machine For a document which is small, very thin, creased or torn, make a photocopy of it and fax the photocopied document instead For detailed documents and photographs, select the Fine mode on the keypad Make a photocopy of received fax messages if they are printed on thermal paper. This is because the printout on thermal paper will fade over time.
Maintenance of the fax machine Operate the machine according to the procedure described in the instruction manual Keep the machine away from air-conditioners, direct sunlight, humid places, heat and dust Make sure that a telephone jack is located near the machine Clean the print head regularly in order to receive clear faxes Store fax paper in a cool and dry place away from sunlight
C. E-mail Means: Electronic mail Type: Written communication Advantages: a) Documents or files that have been sent from or received by an e-mail account can be stored in its electronic mailbox, b) can be accessed all over the world, c) users can read, scan, reply, send, file, delete and retrieve messages Features: E-mail is available to users connected to a network (group of computers linked to one another) Delivery time: Immediate
Important concepts and terms Server: a central computer which allows users to connect to it, and use or share information and resources. Terminal: equipment consisting of a keyboard and a display screen that is used for updating information in the computer or getting information from it. Username: an identification code or name that, allows the user to log in, or have access, to a server Password: a code that is required to gain entry into a secured system
An email address must have these features: firstname.lastname@example.org Seikee = Begin with a username @ = A symbol that separates the username from the domain or server name Hotmail.com = identifies the specific domain or server to which the message is sent Bn = usually ends with an abbreviation of country name
Activity E-mail has become a very popular means of communication. By using e-mail to communicate, many organizations are able to reduce the amount of paper used. In what other ways can companies help to conserve the environment?
D. Public Address (PA) System Means: Through loudspeakers connected to a microphone and a telephone operators switchboard Type: Oral communication Features: System can be used to conduct talks, to make public announcements or to page someone Delivery time: Instant
E. Intercom Means: Telephone system Type: Oral communication Features: Allows for communication between two people within the same office or building just by pressing a key on the telephone Delivery time: Instant
F. Two-way Radio (Walkie-talkie) Means: Two or more small communication devices Type: Oral communication Features: Small portable radios that are pre-tuned to the same frequency, two or more people can communicate over a short distance, security personnel usually carry them Delivery time: Instant
G. Audio-video Conferencing Means: Audio-video conferencing Type: Oral communication Features: uses video cameras, colour monitors and projectors, b) people at different locations can attend the same meeting, c) users can see and listen to each other even though they are at different places Delivery time: Instant
Next week lecture: Communication (B) - Network systems (LAN, Intranet, WAN, Internet) - Communication skills (listening skills, writing skills, telephone skills)