2 IntroductionCommunication is the passing of a message from one person to another. It can be written (e.g a letter or memo) or oral (e.g by speaking to a friend using the telephone). It may involve giving an instruction, a reminder or some information.
3 Communication is only effective if the receiver understands the message given by the sender. When there is effective communication in a business organization, it results in successful business relationships, satisfied customers, happy workers and a positive business image.
4 Flow of CommunicationFLOW OF COMMUNICATIONUPWARDHORIZONTALDOWNWARD
5 Flow of CommunicationUpward- E.g. submitting reports to superior/ manager.Horizontal- E.g. circulating memoranda to other departmentsDownward- E.g. receiving instructions from superior/ manager.
6 Methods of Communication A. TelephoneB. Telefax Service or Facsimile ServiceC.D. Public Address (PA) SystemE. IntercomF. Two-way Radio (Walkie-Talkie)G. Audio-video Conferencing
7 A. Telephone Means: Telephone Type: Oral communication Features: Relatively low cost, fast and direct form of communication, messages can be sent locally or overseasDelivery time: Immediate
8 The telephone can be used to make local calls, trunk calls or international calls. Local call- telephone call that is made within the countryTrunk call- call that is made to the main towns. (E.g. Penang – Kuala Lumpur)International call- call that is made to overseas countries other than Brunei.
9 B. Telefax Service or Facsimile Service Means: TelefaxType: Written communicationFeatures: Low cost, can send or receive written or typed messages, photographs and diagrams locally or overseas, exact copy of information can be sent or receivedDelivery time: Immediate
10 Fax messagesRemove paper clips and staples from the document to be faxed to prevent damage to the machineFor a document which is small, very thin, creased or torn, make a photocopy of it and fax the photocopied document insteadFor detailed documents and photographs, select the Fine mode on the keypadMake a photocopy of received fax messages if they are printed on thermal paper. This is because the printout on thermal paper will fade over time.
11 Maintenance of the fax machine Operate the machine according to the procedure described in the instruction manualKeep the machine away from air-conditioners, direct sunlight, humid places, heat and dustMake sure that a telephone jack is located near the machineClean the print head regularly in order to receive clear faxesStore fax paper in a cool and dry place away from sunlight
12 C. E-mail Means: Electronic mail Type: Written communication Advantages: a) Documents or files that have been sent from or received by an account can be stored in its electronic mailbox, b) can be accessed all over the world, c) users can read, scan, reply, send, file, delete and retrieve messagesFeatures: is available to users connected to a network (group of computers linked to one another)Delivery time: Immediate
13 Important concepts and terms Server: a central computer which allows users to connect to it, and use or share information and resources.Terminal: equipment consisting of a keyboard and a display screen that is used for updating information in the computer or getting information from it.Username: an identification code or name that, allows the user to log in, or have access, to a serverPassword: a code that is required to gain entry into a secured system
14 An email address must have these features: Seikee = Begin with a = A symbol that separates the username from the domain or server name Hotmail.com = identifies the specific domain or server to which the message is sent Bn = usually ends with an abbreviation of country name
15 Activityhas become a very popular means of communication. By using to communicate, many organizations are able to reduce the amount of paper used. In what other ways can companies help to conserve the environment?
16 D. Public Address (PA) System Means: Through loudspeakers connected to a microphone and a telephone operator’s switchboardType: Oral communicationFeatures: System can be used to conduct talks, to make public announcements or to page someoneDelivery time: Instant
17 E. Intercom Means: Telephone system Type: Oral communication Features: Allows for communication between two people within the same office or building just by pressing a key on the telephoneDelivery time: Instant
18 F. Two-way Radio (Walkie-talkie) Means: Two or more small communication devicesType: Oral communicationFeatures: Small portable radios that are pre-tuned to the same frequency, two or more people can communicate over a short distance, security personnel usually carry themDelivery time: Instant
19 G. Audio-video Conferencing Means: Audio-video conferencingType: Oral communicationFeatures: uses video cameras, colour monitors and projectors, b) people at different locations can attend the same meeting, c) users can see and listen to each other even though they are at different placesDelivery time: Instant
20 Next week lecture: Communication (B) Network systems (LAN, Intranet, WAN, Internet)Communication skills (listening skills, writing skills, telephone skills)