4Period of Accretion = Meteoric Bombardment Nebular cloud began to condense (~ 4.7 b.y.o.); Whirlpools and eddies in cloud plane condensed into Sun, then the planets by gravitational attraction.98% of mass became the Sun. As Sun ignited, lighter gases of the inner planets were blown away by blast wave and solar wind. Outer planets retained these gases (called Gas giants).
6Early Earth was very hot (molten) Early Earth was very hot (molten). Lighter elements were pushed toward surface (H, O, C, N); Heavier elements sank (Fe, Ni, Cu).
7As Earth cooled, the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere formed from the de-gassing of the crust (Volcanoes). Early atmosphere consisted of H2, H2O, CO, N2, H2S, CO2, CH4At first, H2O was gaseous (too hot!). Eventually, Earth cooled enough for liquid water to accumulate. This caused erosion (oldest known rocks x 109). Oceans formed; probably fresh water at first.
8Now: ~ 326 million miles3 of H2O on surface : "Water Planet" Covers 72% of surface:Ocean (salt) 97%Fresh %2.2 % Polar ice caps % Groundwater, Lakes & Rivers
12Composition of MatterMatter - anything that has mass & takes up space.Element - a substance that cannot be broken down to simpler substances; has specific properties. Each has a chemical symbol: O, N, C, Fe, CuAtom - the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element.
13Nucleus: Neutrons (no charge) Protons (+ charge) Electron: move in regions outside nucleus (- charge)The number of electrons and protons should be equal in each element.Compound - made up of moleculesMolecule - the smallest unit of a compound that retains the characteristics of that compound.+-
14Water The most common compound on Earth's surface Extremely important to Biological systems; Life could not exist without it. Makes up % of living things;Adult human: % Baby: 75%Steer: 55% Jellyfish: 96%Carrot: 88% Watermelon: 93%
15Molecule: H2O - chemical formula -two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one oxygen atom in a 2:1 ratio.Covalent bond - the sharing of electrons between two atoms. A very strong chemical bond!O H H H O Hoxygen hydrogen = wateratom atomsCovalentbondx xx xxxxxxxxxx xx x
16Unique Properties of Water Water is a Polar molecule with opposite charges on each end.Dissolving power - called the "Universal Solvent“Cohesion - attraction of "like" molecules. Caused by Hydrogen bonding - unlike charges of the water molecule attractH H+_
18Hydrogen bonding - the positive region of one molecule attracts the negative region of another. Not a true chemical bond! It is a weak attraction water molecules have for each other; allows water to be a liquid at room temperature; produces cohesion and high surface tension.Adhesion - Positive and negative ends can attract other surfaces; called the "wetting capacity;" due to polarity.High Heat of Vaporization - water has a large capacity for absorbing heat. Many hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to vaporize or evaporate.
19Resistance to Temperature Change - Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break and release heat when they form.Ex: water droplets on cold glass (formation)evaporative air conditioners; sweating (break)Lower Density of Ice - water molecules form an hexagonal matrix when it freezes due to hydrogen bonding. Takes up more space, therefore is less dense, so it floats. Prevents lakes and streams from freezing solid; protects life forms during winter.
21Na+Cl- Question: Why can water dissolve so many things? Put these notes at bottom of page 4Question: Why can water dissolve so many things?Answer - Its Polarity !Ex: NaCl (common table salt, sodium chloride)Sodium and chlorine attract one another because theythey have opposite chargesNa+Cl-When this salt dissolves in water,the sodium and chlorine atomsseparate to form ions. The positiveNa+ is surrounded by the negativeends of the water molecules.HHVONa+OOHVVHHH
22The negative Cl - is surrounded by the positive ends of the water molecules.OVHHCl -HVHO
24When you go shopping in the grocery store, similar items are often placed on the same aisle. Why? They are most often related to each other.In science, classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities.In this unit, you will learn how scientists classify living things.You will also learn about the six kingdoms into which all living things are classified.
25Early Ideas On Earth’s Organisms Linnaeus – 1st to group similar organisms and assign them Latin namesTwo word name (Genus species)Known as Binomial nomenclature
26TaxonomyScientists classify the diverse number of organisms on the planet in order to learn and study from them.Taxonomy is the field of biology that identifies (gives organisms a name) and classifies organisms based on shared characteristics.
27Classification the grouping of information or objects based on Taxonomy is the science of groupingand naming organisms.Classification the grouping ofinformation or objects based onsimilarities.
28We only know about a fraction of the organisms that exist or have existed on Earth.Taxonomists give a unique scientific name toeach species they know about whether it’s alivetoday or extinct.The scientific name comes from one of two“dead” languages – Latin or ancient Greek.
29Rules for Binomial Nomenclature Always written in Latin and in italics.Genus name is written first and is capitalized.Species name is written second and is NOT capitalized.Correctly written scientific namesHomo sapiens (modern man)Felis domesticus (common housecat)
30When we identify an organism, we list only the genus and species name. The genus name is capitalized, the species name is not.Genus-species names are always underlined or in italics.Canis familiarisGenus species names can often be shortened. Ex C. familiaris, E. coli
40PurposeScientists give animals Latin names during classifications which consists of two parts; the genus and species names put together.They use Latin because it is universal (worldwide) and it is not widely spoken and, therefore, the meanings of the word are not likely to change.
41Purpose for Classification cont. Classification organizes large amounts of information into manageable levels.Classification also reveals (or shows) evolutionary relationships between organisms.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
42Carl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus) Von Linne was the Swedish biologist who in the mid-1700’s developed the biological system of classification with 7 taxonomic levels (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, & species).Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
43Modern Levels of Classification Domain is the most recently added 8th taxonomic level, which is even more inclusive than a kingdom.https://eapbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/classi6.jpgCreated & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
44Levels of Classification In modern taxonomy there are eight major levels of classification:DomainKingdomPhylumClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies
45Created & Designed by S. Harrington Mnemonic DeviceDirections:Create an Mnemonic Device to remember the levels of classification.Use the first letter for each level to create a rhythm, poem or saying to remember the order.D = …K = …P = …C = …O = …F = …G = …S = …Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
46Insect fish snake bird pig dog panda black bear grizzly bear tree As you move from the top to the bottom of this hierarchy, each classification level becomes more specific and includes fewer members than the level above it.Domain – EukaryaInsect fish snake bird pig dog panda black bear grizzly bear tree
48DomainIn the mid-1990’s, domain was added as a new level in the classification hierarchy.Domain is the largest group in the classification system.
493-DomainsThe three domains are:BacteriaArchaeaEukarya
50Created & Designed by S. Harrington Domain BacteriaBacteria includes common strains such as Streptococcus and E. coli.Includes Kingdom Eubacteria.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
51Created & Designed by S. Harrington Domain ArchaeaMembers of the domain Archaea (derived from Greek for “ancient”) and may be the oldest life forms on Earth!They live in very extreme environments (hot volcanic springs, black organic mud, etc) and can only survive in the absence of oxygen!Includes Kingdom ArchaebacteriaCreated & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
52Created & Designed by S. Harrington Domain EukaryaAll of the organisms that have a nucleus (eukaryotes) in Domain Eukarya.This domain includes a variety of life forms in the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
53Levels of Classification Kingdom is the second level. (EX Plants or Animals)These organisms have similar characteristics such as: cell structure, level of specialization and method of obtaining nutrients.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
54Created & Designed by S. Harrington Kingdom EubacteriaUnicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!)The microscopic bacteria live in the soil, in water, and in and on the human body!Some bacteria is used to convert milk to yogurt and another causes pneumonia.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
55Kingdom Archaebacteria Ancient unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!)These bacteria are all autotrophs (make their own food) and live in very extreme, often hostile environments.This Yellowstone spring is 194 degrees Fahrenheit!Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
56Eukarya The domain Eukarya is made up of four kingdoms. Protista (Protist)FungiPlantae (Plant)Animalia (Animal)Organisms in all these systems are eukaryotes.
57Created & Designed by S. Harrington Kingdom ProtistaSingle and Multicellular Eukaryotes (nucleus & organelles)Some autotrophs and some heterotrophsEX: amoebas, algae, kelpCreated & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
58Created & Designed by S. Harrington Kingdom FungiMolds, mildews, and mushrooms are examples of the kingdom Fungi.Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotesAll heterotrophs – they do not use photosynthesis to create food!Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
59Created & Designed by S. Harrington Kingdom PlantaePlants are complex multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls and create their food using photosynthesis (thus the green color!).Non-motile (do not move)EX: mosses, ferns, flowering and cone-bearing plantsCreated & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image:
60Created & Designed by S. Harrington Kingdom AnimaliaThe kingdom Animalia contain multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs.At the microscopic level, animal cells are different because they do NOT have cell walls.EX: sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, animals.Created & Designed by S. HarringtonBackground Image: