Presentation on theme: "In the Beginning! Early Earth -formed about 4.6 billion years ago (4.6 x 10 9 ) - age determined by radiometric means -Moon rocks 4.3 b.y.o -Oldest."— Presentation transcript:
In the Beginning! Early Earth -formed about 4.6 billion years ago (4.6 x 10 9 ) - age determined by radiometric means -Moon rocks 4.3 b.y.o -Oldest meteorites 4.7 b.y.o.
Period of Accretion = Meteoric Bombardment Nebular cloud began to condense (~ 4.7 b.y.o.); Whirlpools and eddies in cloud plane condensed into Sun, then the planets by gravitational attraction. 98% of mass became the Sun. As Sun ignited, lighter gases of the inner planets were blown away by blast wave and solar wind. Outer planets retained these gases (called Gas giants).
Early Earth was very hot (molten). Lighter elements were pushed toward surface (H, O, C, N); Heavier elements sank (Fe, Ni, Cu).
As Earth cooled, the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere formed from the de-gassing of the crust (Volcanoes). Early atmosphere consisted of H 2, H 2 O, CO, N 2, H 2 S, CO 2, CH 4 At first, H 2 O was gaseous (too hot!). Eventually, Earth cooled enough for liquid water to accumulate. This caused erosion (oldest known rocks x 10 9 ). Oceans formed; probably fresh water at first.
Now: ~ 326 million miles 3 of H 2 O on surface : "Water Planet" Covers 72% of surface: Ocean (salt) 97% Fresh 3% 2.2 % Polar ice caps.8 % Groundwater, Lakes & Rivers
Composition of Matter Matter - anything that has mass & takes up space. Element - a substance that cannot be broken down to simpler substances; has specific properties. Each has a chemical symbol: O, N, C, Fe, Cu Atom - the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element.
Nucleus: Neutrons (no charge) Protons (+ charge) Electron: move in regions outside nucleus (- charge) The number of electrons and protons should be equal in each element. Compound - made up of molecules Molecule - the smallest unit of a compound that retains the characteristics of that compound. + -
Water The most common compound on Earth's surface Extremely important to Biological systems; Life could not exist without it. Makes up % of living things; Adult human: % Baby: 75% Steer: 55% Jellyfish: 96% Carrot: 88% Watermelon: 93%
Molecule: H 2 O - chemical formula -two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to one oxygen atom in a 2:1 ratio. Covalent bond - the sharing of electrons between two atoms. A very strong chemical bond! O H H H O H oxygen + 2 hydrogen = water atom atoms x x x x x x x x x x x x Covalent bond
Unique Properties of Water Water is a Polar molecule with opposite charges on each end. Dissolving power - called the "Universal Solvent Cohesion - attraction of "like" molecules. Caused by Hydrogen bonding - unlike charges of the water molecule attract H + _
Hydrogen bonding - the positive region of one molecule attracts the negative region of another. Not a true chemical bond! It is a weak attraction water molecules have for each other; allows water to be a liquid at room temperature; produces cohesion and high surface tension. Adhesion - Positive and negative ends can attract other surfaces; called the "wetting capacity;" due to polarity. High Heat of Vaporization - water has a large capacity for absorbing heat. Many hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to vaporize or evaporate.
Resistance to Temperature Change - Hydrogen bonds absorb heat when they break and release heat when they form. Ex: water droplets on cold glass (formation) evaporative air conditioners; sweating (break) Lower Density of Ice - water molecules form an hexagonal matrix when it freezes due to hydrogen bonding. Takes up more space, therefore is less dense, so it floats. Prevents lakes and streams from freezing solid; protects life forms during winter.
Put these notes at bottom of page 4 Question: Why can water dissolve so many things? Answer - Its Polarity ! Ex: NaCl (common table salt, sodium chloride) Sodium and chlorine attract one another because they they have opposite charges Na + Cl - When this salt dissolves in water, the sodium and chlorine atoms separate to form ions. The positive Na + is surrounded by the negative ends of the water molecules. Na + O V H H O V O H H V H H
The negative Cl - is surrounded by the positive ends of the water molecules. Cl - H H V O H H V O
Taxonomy and Binomial Nomenclature
When you go shopping in the grocery store, similar items are often placed on the same aisle. Why? They are most often related to each other. In science, classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities. In this unit, you will learn how scientists classify living things. You will also learn about the six kingdoms into which all living things are classified.
Early Ideas On Earths Organisms Linnaeus – 1 st to group similar organisms and assign them Latin names Two word name (Genus species) Known as Binomial nomenclature 25
Taxonomy Scientists classify the diverse number of organisms on the planet in order to learn and study from them. Taxonomy is the field of biology that identifies (gives organisms a name) and classifies organisms based on shared characteristics.
Taxonomy is the science of grouping and naming organisms. Classification the grouping of information or objects based on similarities.
We only know about a fraction of the organisms that exist or have existed on Earth. Taxonomists give a unique scientific name to each species they know about whether its alive today or extinct. The scientific name comes from one of two dead languages – Latin or ancient Greek.
Rules for Binomial Nomenclature Always written in Latin and in italics. Genus name is written first and is capitalized. Species name is written second and is NOT capitalized. Correctly written scientific names – Homo sapiens (modern man) – Felis domesticus (common housecat)
When we identify an organism, we list only the genus and species name. The genus name is capitalized, the species name is not. Genus-species names are always underlined or in italics. Canis familiaris Genus species names can often be shortened. Ex C. familiaris, E. coli
There are at least 50 common names for the animal shown on the previous 7 slides. Common names vary according to region. Soooo……why use a scientific name?
Purpose Scientists give animals Latin names during classifications which consists of two parts; the genus and species names put together. They use Latin because it is universal (worldwide) and it is not widely spoken and, therefore, the meanings of the word are not likely to change.
Purpose for Classification cont. Classification organizes large amounts of information into manageable levels. Classification also reveals (or shows) evolutionary relationships between organisms. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
Carl von Linne (Carolus Linnaeus) Von Linne was the Swedish biologist who in the mid- 1700s developed the biological system of classification with 7 taxonomic levels (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, & species). Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
Modern Levels of Classification Domain is the most recently added 8 th taxonomic level, which is even more inclusive than a kingdom. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg https://eapbiofield.wikispaces.com/file/view/classi6.jpg
Levels of Classification In modern taxonomy there are eight major levels of classification: 1.Domain 2.Kingdom 3.Phylum 4.Class 5.Order 6.Family 7.Genus 8.Species
Mnemonic Device D = … K = … P = … C = … O = … F = … G = … S = … Directions: Create an Mnemonic Device to remember the levels of classification. Use the first letter for each level to create a rhythm, poem or saying to remember the order. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
As you move from the top to the bottom of this hierarchy, each classification level becomes more specific and includes fewer members than the level above it. Domain – Eukarya Insect fish snake bird pig dog panda black bear grizzly bear tree
Dashing King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda
Domain In the mid-1990s, domain was added as a new level in the classification hierarchy. Domain is the largest group in the classification system.
3-Domains The three domains are: 1.Bacteria 2.Archaea 3.Eukarya
Domain Bacteria Bacteria includes common strains such as Streptococcus and E. coli. Includes Kingdom Eubacteria. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
Domain Archaea Members of the domain Archaea (derived from Greek for ancient) and may be the oldest life forms on Earth! They live in very extreme environments (hot volcanic springs, black organic mud, etc) and can only survive in the absence of oxygen! Includes Kingdom Archaebacteria Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
Domain Eukarya All of the organisms that have a nucleus (eukaryotes) in Domain Eukarya. This domain includes a variety of life forms in the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg ea_fot3_380.jpg
Levels of Classification Kingdom is the second level. (EX Plants or Animals) Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg These organisms have similar characteristics such as: cell structure, level of specialization and method of obtaining nutrients.
Kingdom Eubacteria Unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!) The microscopic bacteria live in the soil, in water, and in and on the human body! Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg Some bacteria is used to convert milk to yogurt and another causes pneumonia. commons/thumb/6/6d/320px-Prokaryote_cell_diagram.svg.png
Kingdom Archaebacteria Ancient unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus!) These bacteria are all autotrophs (make their own food) and live in very extreme, often hostile environments. This Yellowstone spring is 194 degrees Fahrenheit! Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg
Eukarya The domain Eukarya is made up of four kingdoms. 1.Protista (Protist) 2.Fungi 3.Plantae (Plant) 4.Animalia (Animal) Organisms in all these systems are eukaryotes.
Kingdom Protista Single and Multicellular Eukaryotes (nucleus & organelles) Some autotrophs and some heterotrophs EX: amoebas, algae, kelp Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg gory/files/Bio%20102/Bio%20102%20lectures/protists /amoeba_proteus_X_100.jpg Images/NeptunesHarvest/ Kelp.jpg
Kingdom Fungi Molds, mildews, and mushrooms are examples of the kingdom Fungi. Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes All heterotrophs – they do not use photosynthesis to create food! Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg s2/album225/mushroom.jpg
Kingdom Plantae Plants are complex multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls and create their food using photosynthesis (thus the green color!). Non-motile (do not move) EX: mosses, ferns, flowering and cone- bearing plants Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg od/bird-of-paradise.jpg
Kingdom Animalia The kingdom Animalia contain multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs. At the microscopic level, animal cells are different because they do NOT have cell walls. EX: sponges, jellyfish, worms, insects, animals. Created & Designed by S. Harrington Background Image: potato.com/images/animals/jellyfish/jellyfish.jpg