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1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable GridWise Architecture Council Meeting Edison Electric Institute Washington, DC August 28, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable GridWise Architecture Council Meeting Edison Electric Institute Washington, DC August 28, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 | Energy Efficiency and Renewable GridWise Architecture Council Meeting Edison Electric Institute Washington, DC August 28, 2013 Andrew Nicholls George Hernandez PNNL

2 2 Driver: EERE Grid Integration Initiative in FY 2014 Congressional Budget Request Outreach and Engagement – Sept Participated in Electricity Distribution System Workshop – Nov Participated in Electricity Transmission System Workshop – Dec Building to Grid Technical Meeting at NREL with industry and DOE labs to obtain input on EERE draft vision, establish community of thought, document state of art, identify barriers and opportunities – Feb GWAC Workshop in Atlanta – present EERE draft vision to GWAC Council, set stage for request of input on upcoming report – Feb-May 2013 Engage GWAC to ensure strong bldgs. focus at May Conference – May 2013 GWAC Workshop: Overview of EERE Grid Integration Initiative and DOE Technical Opportunities report, call for authors to help complete report – May 2013 GWAC TE Conference in Portland: plenary (Risser and Parks) and buildings-focused sessions – June 2013 IEE (Edison Foundation) hosts Washington, DC meeting with members with innovative utility projects (Con Ed, Pepco, NV Energy) – August 2013 GWAC Meeting at EEI DOE Buildings Grid Engagement

3 3 BTO Grid Integration Portfolio Buildings-to-Grid Reference Document (PNNL) – Define general characteristics of transaction-based framework needed to form information backbone to realize vision; establish distinction between physical/financial transactions, define who can participate and how and value thereby; define functional requirements of solutions that could scale. – Draft due end of Fiscal Year, Final end of Calendar Year Case Studies of Transactions-Based Approaches (DOE labs, industry) – Compile list of case studies with range of transactions-based elements to understand state of art, lessons learned, and gaps. Include relevant buildings controls projects. – Federal Register Request for Information – Your input would be greatly appreciated – End Product: Searchable online database

4 4

5 5 Evaluate Demand & Renewable Energy Response in building technologies (PNNL) (Heat pump water heaters, commercial building rooftop HVAC units) – Project goals - Evaluate degree to which Demand response/ancillary services can be provided Response provides substantial added value to consumers Effective accommodation of variable generation assets is feasible Response compromises ability to provide traditional peak load management services, reduces equipment life, or reduces delivered energy efficiency Grid-Ready Building Equipment (PNNL, LBNL, Navigant) – Address data/communication/interoperability protocols/standards for device engagement & control as part of a demand management strategy Talk to Rob Pratt if you would like more information about these projects BTO Grid Integration Portfolio

6 6 Process – Define BTO vision, broadly characterize barriers and challenges, identify attributes of solutions: DOE, LBNL, NREL, ORNL, PNNL – Examine challenge from three points of view: Grid-to Buildings; Buildings-to-Grid; enabling Communications and information technology – Define technical, market and policy gaps between the vision and todays solutions – Identify participant-specific value propositions for engaging in transactions-based approach to energy Timeline – Draft V1 of report with lab input completed May 2013 – Draft V2 with industry input by Sept – Post report for public comment (Request for Information) in Federal Register by Oct Buildings-to-Grid Technical Opportunities Report

7 7 B2G Technical Opportunities Report – Vision To achieve the nations objectives for utilities to accommodate high levels of clean energy generation while improving reliability and maintaining the cost effectiveness of the power grid, this new installed grid infrastructure must be used in a continuously optimized manner. The framework DOE proposes will therefore need to enable the harnessing and coordination of millions of small, distributed assets such as demand response (DR) in buildings, distributed generation and storage, and EVs to provide valuable grid services. The purpose of transaction-based control schemes for these assets is to seamlessly integrate them into a collaborative, incentive-based network that, from the perspective of grid operations, functions as a virtual control system, and enables and motivates them to transact and deliver energy services to the grid at the lowest possible cost while providing building owners and occupants new value streams.

8 8 Thank you to reviewers from following entities 1.Caron Consulting 2.Carrier 3.Cisco 4.Emerson 5.Enernex 6.GE Appliances 7.Honeywell 8.Joule Assets 9.MIT 10.NIST 11.Quality Logic 12.Sensus Metering Systems 13.Trane

9 9 Sample Input on Gaps from Utility POV Lack of a comprehensive grid control architecture that provides means to perform B2G integration – Federations, disaggregation, constraint fusion, boundary deference, coordinated local selfish optimization Lack of grid communications infrastructure that would support a comprehensive grid control architecture Present regulatory environment does not support necessary local or distributed energy market elements Utility business models do not encourage B2G adoption Unclear impact of utility cyber and physical security requirements on B2G control integration Distribution level grid connectivity may be poorly known, leading to power and control integration difficulties

10 10 What DOE Requests from GWAC Members Industry help in identifying Significant Gaps (between Barriers and Vision) from Grid, Buildings, Communications perspectives. – Where do challenges exist for which no or very little work is being conducted today? – What gaps must to be addressed to take promising solutions to scale? Industry help in describing potential participant-specific value propositions for actively engaging in buildings-to-grid integration from Grid, Buildings, Communications perspectives. – Why will IOUs, investor-owned utilities, publicly owned power systems, and load-serving entities and others want to participate, given their own motivations? – Why will building owners want to participate? What specific benefits might they see? Case Studies Send Comments to Andrew Nicholls

11 11 Transactional Network Project

12 12 Project Objectives and Team The transactional network enables energy saving retrofit solutions AND the networked systems to transact with the grid to mitigate variable distributed renewable energy sources Initially, the transactional concept is demonstrated using networked RTUs In the future, the concept can be extended to network other building systems, interaction between buildings and electric vehicles Work is being done at the three national laboratories –Pacific Northwest –Oak Ridge –Lawrence Berkeley

13 13 What is the Transactional Network? Transactional network enables: –Interactions among networked systems (e.g. RTUs and other building systems) and the electric power grid –software applications on the platform or in the Cloud Embedded automated diagnostics and advanced controls on the transactional platform and the RTU controller Applications running in the Cloud in cases where the transactional platform and controller resources (i.e. processing) are inadequate Applications that provide continuous monitoring and verification, automated energy management, etc.

14 14 Packaged air conditioners and heat pumps (RTUs) are used in about 58% of all cooled commercial buildings, serving about 69% of the cooled commercial building floor space (EIA 2003) –Packaged A/C uses 0.9 quads of electricity for cooling annually and 0.4 quads of heating (source) Operating efficiency is low due to lack of: –advanced controls to improve part load performance –equipment maintenance RTUs cannot easily interact with the grid to be more responsive to grid needs Why RTUs?

15 15 Challenge: Most RTUs operate inefficiently –lack of advanced controls constant supply speed fan, integrated economizer controls and constant ventilation Objective: Improve operational efficiency of RTUs through use of advanced RTU controls leading to energy and carbon emission reductions between 30% and 50% Implementation: Install variable frequency drives on supply fans and retrofit the RTU with an advanced controller having following control strategies: –integrated economizers –variable or multiple speed fan –variable capacity control and –demand controller ventilation Verification of Performance: Comparison of consumption between standard and advanced RTU control modes Embedded Advanced RTU Controls

16 16 Inputs: DR signal from an external source Outputs: Modifies RTU control sequences by changing space set point temperatures, controls supply fan speed (if the fan has a variable frequency drive), limits compressor staging Verification of Performance: Comparison of estimated expected consumption with actual measured Demand Response Agent Control Actions: –Pre-cooling, set point adjustments and fan speed changes –Post-DR recovery will be gradual to avoid rebound effect

17 17 AFDD Capabilities: –Comparing discharge air temperature with mixed air temperature (AFDD0) –Checking damper modulation (AFDD1) –Sensor faults (outdoor, mixed and return air temperature) (AFDD2) –Not economizing when RTU should (AFDD3) –Economizing when RTU should not (AFDD4) –Excess outdoor air (AFDD5) –Inadequate outdoor ventilation air (AFDD6) Unique: Diagnostics algorithms will initiate proactive tests (e.g. commanding damper, etc.) Energy Impacts: Energy impacts will be estimated for AFDD3, AFDD4 and AFDD5 faults Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics: Air Side Agent

18 18 Microsoft Azure Cloud Data- base SMDS Web UI- Server Smart Monitoring + Diagnostics System VOLTTRON Lite Information Exchange Bus … RTU 1RTU nRTU 2RTU 3 … Web Access Controller Agent Device Driver Agent Agent Inputs: Uses only three data points sampled at 1 minute intervals –Outdoor air temperature –Total RTU power –Fan speed signal Outputs: Automatically detects and reports –Refrigerant-side performance degradation (or improvement) –Energy and cost impacts of the degradation (or improvement) –Operation schedule changes –Selected operation faults, such as compressor short cycling, 24/7 operation, system never on, and inadequate ventilation

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