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Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE 101

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1 Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EERE 101
Kerry Duggan Senior Advisor August 2011

2 Clean Innovative Energy Solutions Securing America’s Future
“This is our generation’s Sputnik moment. We’ll invest in … clean energy technology — an investment that will strengthen our security, protect our planet, and create countless new jobs for our people. Maintaining our leadership in research and technology is crucial to America’s success.”  President Obama State of the Union January 25, 2011 SOTU 2011 This is our generation’s Sputnik moment.  Two years ago, I said that we needed to reach a level of research and development we haven’t seen since the height of the Space Race.  And in a few weeks, I will be sending a budget to Congress that helps us meet that goal.  We’ll invest in biomedical research, information technology, and especially clean energy technology -– (applause) -- an investment that will strengthen our security, protect our planet, and create countless new jobs for our people. Already, we’re seeing the promise of renewable energy.  Robert and Gary Allen are brothers who run a small Michigan roofing company.  After September 11th, they volunteered their best roofers to help repair the Pentagon.  But half of their factory went unused, and the recession hit them hard.  Today, with the help of a government loan, that empty space is being used to manufacture solar shingles that are being sold all across the country.  In Robert’s words, “We reinvented ourselves.” That’s what Americans have done for over 200 years: reinvented ourselves.  And to spur on more success stories like the Allen Brothers, we’ve begun to reinvent our energy policy. We’re not just handing out money.  We’re issuing a challenge.  We’re telling America’s scientists and engineers that if they assemble teams of the best minds in their fields, and focus on the hardest problems in clean energy, we’ll fund the Apollo projects of our time. At the California Institute of Technology, they’re developing a way to turn sunlight and water into fuel for our cars.  At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, they’re using supercomputers to get a lot more power out of our nuclear facilities.  With more research and incentives, we can break our dependence on oil with biofuels, and become the first country to have a million electric vehicles on the road by 2015.  (Applause.) We need to get behind this innovation.  And to help pay for it, I’m asking Congress to eliminate the billions in taxpayer dollars we currently give to oil companies.  (Applause.)  I don’t know if -- I don’t know if you’ve noticed, but they’re doing just fine on their own.  (Laughter.)  So instead of subsidizing yesterday’s energy, let’s invest in tomorrow’s. Now, clean energy breakthroughs will only translate into clean energy jobs if businesses know there will be a market for what they’re selling.  So tonight, I challenge you to join me in setting a new goal:  By 2035, 80 percent of America’s electricity will come from clean energy sources.  (Applause.) Some folks want wind and solar.  Others want nuclear, clean coal and natural gas.  To meet this goal, we will need them all -- and I urge Democrats and Republicans to work together to make it happen.  (Applause.)  Maintaining our leadership in research and technology is crucial to America’s success. 

3 Total: 36.1 Quadrillion BTU
U.S. Energy Supplies in 2009 Total: 36.1 Quadrillion BTU a Includes geothermal and solar


5 EERE’s Programs Buildings Technologies (BTP)
Industrial Technologies (ITP) Vehicle Technologies (VTP) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Weatherization & Intergovernmental (OWIP) Energy Efficiency Biomass Technologies (OBP) Geothermal Technologies (Geo) Hydrogen & Fuel Cells (Fuel Cells) Solar Energy (Solar) Wind & Water Energy Renewable Energy

6 EERE Goals Reduce energy consumption, GHG emissions and oil consumption and diversify our electric grid to grow our economy and keep America competitive in the 21st century. Achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of energy: Enable the cost-effective energy retrofits of 1.1 million housing units. Achieve a 20% improvement in commercial building energy efficiency by 2020. Transform the U.S. into the world leader in new transportation technologies: Develop and deploy advanced battery manufacturing capacity to support 500,000 plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a year by 2015. Accelerate growth in domestic renewable energy supplies: Double renewable energy generation (excluding conventional hydropower and biomass) from The Parker Ranch installation in Hawaii

7 Budget Request by Sector

8 Current Appropriation
EERE Budget Trend EERE Budget Trend FY a $ in millions Current Appropriation a Excludes ($-26.4M) reduction in Prior Year Balances

9 Crosscutting Activities – DOE
Office of Science: EERE and Science are collaborating to develop synthetic-biology tools to enhance national capability in biomanufacturing. Advances in nanotechnology and other new materials developed in the Office of Science are moved to advanced product concepts in areas ranging from photovoltaic devices to solid state lighting. EERE works to ensure that the Office of Science is aware of areas where a fundamental breakthrough would be critical for cutting costs or improving the efficiency of key devices. Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy: Working collaboratively to achieve SunShot objectives for power electronics and PV. Collaborating in the design of the buildings hub. Collaborations on advanced biofuels feedstock development. Office of Electricity: Close collaboration on utility policy and regulations for encouraging energy efficiency and on analysis showing how new transmission, smart grid technologies, energy storage, and other advances will facilitate introduction of renewable energy. Fossil Energy: Collaboration on design of facilities that burn mixtures of coal and biomass, induced seismicity on geothermal. Federal Energy Management Program: Plays a key role supporting all Federal Government plans to implement Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. Loan Guarantee: Supports the research, development and deployment of renewable sources of energy like wind, biomass, geothermal and solar to bolster innovative renewable energy projects.

10 Crosscutting Activities - Interagency
EPA: Collaborating on Energy Star and other issues. DOE testing provides essential data for E15 rule. Collaboration on advanced fuels/engine research and testing. Collaboration on siting of renewables on brownfields. HUD: MOU allows DOE to work closely with HUD energy retrofit efforts. USDA: Collaboration on biomass feedstock. DOI: Collaboration on permitting and other regulatory issues associated with siting renewables and transmission lines. DOD: Key collaborator on demonstrations and procurement. Collaborate on siting renewable energy projects in a manner compatible with military mission. FERC: Key partner for analyzing transmission and other needs associated with rapidly expanding use of wind and solar. ACOE: MOU on assessing renewable energy generation from Federal hydropower facilities and developing best practices to increase sustainable generation. CEQ: Collaboration on permitting and siting renewables and transmission lines. NIST: Partner on innovation in manufacturing and outreach to upgrade manufacturing enterprises.

11 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Program Accomplishments
Building Technologies Overview: The U.S. Department of Energy funds RD&D to help commercial builders, businesses, and homeowners reduce energy use through energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Key FY12 Program Activities Residential Buildings Integration ($49.0M): Integrate advanced building technologies to reduce the energy consumption of existing and new homes. Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) ($224.0M): A new major competitive program to demonstrate innovative approaches to improve the efficiency of the commercial sector and cost effective energy efficient retrofits in commercial buildings. Emerging Technologies ($102.7M): Research fills identified gaps in technical performance and/or cost reduction needed to accelerate market penetration. Technology Validation and Market Introduction ($25.0M): Transform the market through the testing and verification of ENERGY STAR products. Equipment Standards and Analysis ($70.0M): DOE is committed to clearing the backlog of delayed actions, while simultaneously meeting all new requirements instituted by EPACT 2005 and EISA 2007. Recent Program Accomplishments Issued ten appliance standards since January 2009 that will save customers a projected $ billion in electricity costs by 2030. Developed one of the largest gains in an energy efficiency standard within a single code cycle. Worked with DOE Commercial Building Energy Alliances to develop innovative and high efficiency design specifications for 10-ton capacity commercial air conditioners (rooftop units) that will be used as the basis for procurement by building owners that are about 50 percent of the market for these units. These high-efficiency rooftop units are expected to reduce energy up to percent compared with current equipment. Working with Whirlpool Corporation to develop 50 percent improvement (relative to Federal minimum standards) in energy efficiency performance in domestic refrigerators, with an estimated cost premium of less than $100. Research led directly to a heat pump water heater (HPWH) introduced by General Electric in This created market ripple effects as A.O. Smith and Rheem met the competitive challenge with HPWH products of their own. The potential energy savings of these products is 0.7 Quads annually. Equipment Standards and Analysis ($40 M) - Energy Conservation Standards to be Completed by 2012 Products with Final Rules in 2010 Small Electric Motors Water Heaters (Residential) Direct Heating Equipment Pool Heaters Refrigerators (Residential) Products with Final Rules in 2011 Microwave Ovens Residential Furnaces and Mobile Home Furnaces Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts Clothes Dryers (Residential) Room Air Conditioners Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (Residential) Battery Chargers External Power Supplies (Class A) ER, BR, and Small Diameter Incandescent Reflector Lamps Residential Clothes Washers Commercial Buildings Integration (CBI) ($39 M) DOE’s key commercial buildings research includes whole building system integration, indoor environmental quality, control strategies and diagnostics, space conditioning and process and miscellaneous equipment. FY 2011 represents the first year of production of retrofit and new buildings case studies, with 10 expected completions (five retrofit and five new construction) that will help drive 50 to 70 percent increase in commercial buildings efficiency. Residential Buildings Integration ($39 M) Best practices for 40% energy savings in all climates completed in FY 2010; in FY % savings in Hot/Mixed-Dry climate. Increase research and deployment of energy efficiency within existing homes by designing activities with local governments to help expand the availability of low cost financing for energy retrofits Emerging Technologies ($92.7 M) Analysis tools: BT will also conduct research on, and incorporate additions to, EnergyPlus whole-building energy simulation software to allow building designers, operators, owners, and researchers to evaluate technologies for substantially improving the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing energy costs while maintaining comfort Windows: Development of cost effective, highly efficient glazing and fenestration systems for all building types in all parts of the country will require a portfolio of technologies matched to those types and climatic conditions. Solid State Lighting: The primary target is solid state lighting devices and technologies that can produce white light with efficacies in excess of 160 lm/W in commercial products, with an interim target of 119 lm/W projected for laboratory devices by 2012. Technology Development and Market Introduction ($20 M) Commercial Building Codes: ASHRAE % improvement goal Residential Building Codes: IECC Model Code push towards 30% improvement, 2009 IECC 12-17% increase in stringency 11

12 Key FY12 Program Activities Program Accomplishments
Industrial Technologies Overview: The Industrial Technologies leads the drive to reduce energy intensity and carbon emissions by changing the way industry uses energy.  The program sponsors cost-shared R&D, and supports the use of today's advanced technologies and energy management best practices. Key FY12 Program Activities Next Generation Materials ($100.8M): Initiate competitively selected R&D projects that focus on novel materials for use in a variety of clean energy and other applications Next Generation Manufacturing Processes ($129.0M): Initiate competitively selected R&D projects that focus on innovative manufacturing processes to achieve reductions in life cycle energy use and carbon emissions. Industrial Technical Assistance ($75.0M):  Continue development of and launch a credible, transparent industrial energy efficiency certification program.  Manufacturing Energy Systems Partnerships ($15.0M):  Support three knowledge development and dissemination centers to help solve critical manufacturing issues and accelerate emergence of the most promising clean energy technologies into full-scale manufacturing. Program Accomplishments Partnered with Yahoo to create a data center operating with 25 percent less energy than conventional designs. Supported R&D required to prepare 220 new, energy-efficient technologies for commercial use. Provided energy savings assessments and plant optimization software tools and training to more than 33,000 industrial plants over the past ten years. Identified $1.6 billion in annual savings from energy assessments conducted at 970 large plants and 1,900 small- and medium-sized facilities through Save Energy Now Audits (as of Jan. 2011). 105 companies – including approximately 7 of the top 50 largest U.S. industrial energy consumers –have signed the Save Energy Now LEADER pledge to reduce their energy intensity by 25 percent or more in 10 years.

13 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Accomplishments
Federal Energy Management Program Overview: Facilitates the Federal Government’s implementation of sound, cost effective energy management and investment practices resulting in lifecycle savings of over 52 trillion Btus. Increased funding for technical assistance will support Federal cost and GHG reduction efforts by developing guidance, technical assistance and GHG reporting protocols. Key FY12 Program Activities Project Financing ($10.1M): Facilitates Federal agencies’ access to private sector financing to fund energy efficiency improvements through its Energy Savings Performance Contracts (ESPCs), public benefit funds, and Utility Energy Service Contracts (UESCs) program support which results in lifecycle savings of about 33 trillion Btus. Technical Guidance and Assistance ($12.0M): Provide unbiased, expert technical assistance in areas such as audits for buildings, new technology deployment or analytical software tools with projects resulting in lifecycle savings of about 19 trillion Btus. Planning, Reporting and Evaluation ($5.0M): Required by statute to collect, verify, and report on progress by the Federal agencies toward the Federal energy management goals of reducing energy intensity in buildings, reducing petroleum usage, and conserving water. Federal Fleet ($2.0M): Assist Federal agency with technical assistance and support to meet the goals for reducing petroleum use by 20 percent and to increase alternative fuel consumption by 10 percent between 2005 to 2015 in vehicles as set forth in Executive Order DOE Specific Investments ($4.0M): Includes activities designed to implement Federal sustainability goals throughout the DOE complex. Recent Accomplishments Catalyzed an all-time Federal record by facilitating $536 million in investment from federal energy savings performance contracts in FY 2010 that will result in guaranteed savings of over $1.1 billion over the contracts’ lifetime. Leveraged $13 million in ARRA funds for technical assistance in support of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects with Federal agencies into an investment of $74 million.  Assisted DOE in: Reducing energy intensity by 17.7 percent (exceeding percent targeted reduction from 2003); Reducing water usage by 12 percent since 2007 (exceeding 6 percent target); and Obtaining 9 percent of electricity from renewables (exceeding 5 percent goal) Funded 119 technical assistance projects resulting in $122 million in project work in Federal facilities. Trained more than 10,000 federal employees through its First Thursdays Seminars on 6 topics in 2010.

14 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Accomplishments
Vehicle Technologies Overview: Working to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that will enable America to use less petroleum. The long-term aim is to develop "leap frog" technologies that will provide Americans with greater freedom of mobility and energy security, while lowering costs and reducing impacts on the environment. Key FY12 Program Activities Battery and Electric Drive Technologies ($188.0M): Develop next generation battery technology and prototype systems that provide full electric drive vehicle performance and reduce cost to $300/kWh.  Vehicle and Systems Stimulation & Testing ($58.0M): Includes new focus on wireless charging of in-motion and stationary electric vehicles, high efficiency systems, codes and standards. Accumulate 112 million miles of plug-in hybrid and electric vehicle testing by 2015. Advanced Combustion Engine R&D ($49.0M): Novel combustion designs and thermoelectrics to improve passenger vehicle fuel economy by 25% to 40%, and 20% for commercial vehicles in 2015. Materials Technology ($38.0M): Multi-material vehicle validation of 50% weight reduction compared to 2002 midsized body and chassis. Develop non-rare earth element alloys for high performance lightweight magnesium extrusions. Fuels Technology ($18.5M): Expand work on engine and transmission lubricants to demonstrate 2% fuel efficiency improvement from improved lubricants (2015). Demonstrate next generation biofuels in ultra-clean combustion regimes. Outreach, Deployment & Analysis ($236.5M): Support community based EV deployment initiatives via Clean Cities to support the President’s goal of a million electric drive vehicles on the road by 2015. Recent Accomplishments VTP-sponsored R&D enabled engine manufacturers to improve diesel engine efficiency by 5 percent since 2002, which has saved 2.4 billion gallons of diesel fuel worth more than $7.6 billion – more than 60 times VTP’s $123 million investment in commercial engine R&D from 1999 to 2007. Helped reduce the cost of PHEV Lithium-ion battery to $650 per kilowatt-hour, a 35 percent reduction from the 2008 baseline of $1000 per kilowatt-hour, and on track to reduce cost to $300 per kilowatt-hour by 2015. VTP and Argonne National Laboratory developed breakthrough battery technology that has been licensed to multiple users, including GM and its suppliers. VTP’s Clean Cities initiative has enabled the replacement of approximately 2.4 billion gallons of petroleum since Through Recovery Act investments, Clean Cities deployed more than 9,000 vehicles that will displace an estimated 38 million gallons of petroleum per year, and installed more than 2,100 new fueling and charging stations.

15 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Accomplishments
Weatherization and Intergovernmental Activities Overview: Accelerates deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, policies, and practices by building on successful Recovery Act initiatives with State and local governments, utilities, and Native American tribal governments. Key FY12 Program Activities Weatherization Assistance Grants Program ($320.0M): The program will support over 48,000 residential energy retrofits and prepare of thousands of workers for “green” careers.  Formula grants result in reduced national energy consumption and energy costs for low-income families.   State Energy Program ($63.8M): Formula grants support innovative State and local energy projects and protects the core capability of energy offices. “Special Projects” competitive grants have a significant energy impact by addressing “policy” and “financial” components of the technology deployment process. The program also supports grantees through outreach and technical assistance and performance management improvements. Tribal Energy Activities ($10.0M): The program builds partnerships with tribal governments to address Native American energy needs. Competitive financial support and technical assistance stimulate clean energy project planning and implementation on tribal lands. Management of FY 2012 programs complement the $11.5B in State and local energy efficiency and renewable energy projects initiated under the Recovery Act. Recent Accomplishments In the first quarter of 2011, the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) supported nearly 15,000 jobs, and completed retrofits on more than 75,000 low income homes bringing the total number of homes retrofitted under the Recovery Act to more than 400, WAP continues to retrofit 25,000 homes per month. In first quarter of 2011, under the State Energy Program 118,000 new workers were trained. States upgraded 15,750 buildings (14,500 residential),and thousands of renewable energy systems were installed through Q4 2010, including: Nearly 2,500 solar photovoltaic systems with 25.5 megawatts of capacity; Over 1,100 solar thermal systems with nearly 38,000 square feet of capacity; Over 200 wind turbines with over 8.5 megawatts of capacity; and Over 580 geothermal systems with over 2,800 tons of capacity. In the first quarter of 2011, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) recipients reported creating/retaining 4,494 jobs. 15

16 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Program Accomplishments
Biomass Program The Biomass Program works with industry, academia, and our national laboratory partners on a balanced portfolio of research in biomass feedstocks and conversion technologies. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts geared toward the development of integrated biorefineries, the Biomass Program is helping transform the nation's renewable and abundant biomass resources into cost competitive, high performance biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. Key FY12 Program Activities Feedstocks ($16.0M): Enable competitive feedstock supply by: 1) reducing dry herbaceous feedstock logistics cost from $36.10 in 2011 to $35 per dry matter ton (in $2007) and 2) initiating algal feedstock, cultivation, and handling activities. Conversion Technologies ($117.0M): Reduce cellulosic ethanol conversion cost to meet 2012 cost target via cost reductions in enzyme and pretreatment. Integrated Biorefineries ($25.0M): Validate 15 million gallons of annual advanced biofuel production capacity in demonstration- and commercial- scale biorefineries in support of RFS2 goals. Analysis and Sustainability ($10.0M): Quantitative assessments including: feedstock resources, life- cycle GHG emissions, biofuel production costs, and water impacts to target Biomass Office R&D. Biopower ($22.5M): Initiate a competitive solicitation for co-firing biomass with coal and biomass densification RD&D, including a feedstock supply assessment to ultimately add 30MW new generation by 2016. Cellulosic Biofuels Reverse Auction ($150.0M): Create a production incentive to reduce risk and encourage investment through demonstrated cash flow. Recent Program Accomplishments Supported 29 innovative biorefineries, which are projected to contribute at least 100 million gallons of advanced biofuels by , and for which each DOE dollar leverages $1.70 in private funding. Most of these biorefinery projects are either in construction or will be by the end of 2011. Validated sustained operations at a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery with 1.4 million gallons per year (MGY) capacity. Completed ethanol blend testing for vehicle model years and newer, supporting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency waiver decisions on E15 in 2010 (for model years 2007 and newer) and 2011 (for model years 2001 – 2006) Helped reduce feedstock logistics costs from $46 per dry ton to $38 per dry ton (on an oil-equivalent basis, about a $10 – 15 per barrel reduction in feedstock costs).

17 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Program Accomplishments
Geothermal Technology Overview: The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) develops innovative geothermal energy technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. Through research, development, and demonstration efforts that emphasize the advancement of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), GTP is working to provide the United States with an abundant, clean, renewable baseload energy source. Key FY12 Program Activities Enhanced Geothermal Systems ($61.5MM): Initiate R&D effort to validate tools, methodologies , predictive models and the use of carbon dioxide as a geofluid.This will focus on R&D of technologies that decrease near-field EGS LCOE to 18 cents/kWh in 2012. Low Temperature Coproduced Resources ($14.0M): Initiate R&D to improve overall system power output that will establish a LCOE baseline for resources coproduced with oil or gas with the aim of reducing LCOE to 8-10 cents/kWh by 2016. Systems Analysis ($5.0M): Complete the Geothermal Vision Study to determine impacts of a high geothermal deployment scenario in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey, complete the sedimentary basin resource assessment to establish valid resource estimates encouraging industry investment. Innovative Exploration Technologies ($15.0M): Will conduct RD&D in remote sensing, geochemistry and advanced geophysical techniques and establish a baseline for site exploration costs. Permeable Sedimentary Resources ($6.0M): Assess feasibility of scalable innovative systems to achieve low risk energy production. Develop integrated subsurface and power conversion systems through field-scale projects. Recent Program Accomplishments In partnership with TerraGen Power, a 2 megawatt low temperature bottoming plant was built and commissioned at Beowawe in northern Nevada. The plant achieves a nearly 20 percent increase in electrical capacity – from about 12 megawatts to 14 megawatts. In partnership with Energent Corporation, DOE is developing and field testing a variable phase turbine that has the potential to generate 30% more power from low temperature geothermal resources than current state of the art power conversion technologies. Demonstrated that geothermal brine can be a source of lithium and other strategic minerals that can be used in batteries. Funded 24 resource exploration projects through ARRA to help confirm up to 400 megawatts of new geothermal resources by 2014 and reduce the risks and costs of geothermal exploration. Through an FY 2008 award, GE Global Research fabricated an electronics platform which can operate at 300˚C (approximately 570˚F). The technology can convert temperature to frequency without using active cooling or flasking technologies. The silicon carbide based tool will ultimately be able to measure pressure, fluid flow, and down hole tool orientation in addition to temperature.

18 Key FY12 Program Activities
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program Focus/New Directions: Develop cost competitive hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for diverse applications to meet long-term goals of $30/kW for transportation, $750/kW for stationary power, and $2-4/gge for hydrogen production and delivery. Key FY12 Program Activities Fuel Cell Systems R&D (45.5M): Consolidates the former Distributed Energy, Transportation Fuel Cell Systems, Fuel Cell Stack Component R&D, and Fuel Processor R&D subprograms. Key goals include: Hydrogen Fuel R&D ($35.0M): Will focus on production and storage materials R&D to achieve a 25% reduction in electrolyzer capital cost by 2012, reducing the total hydrogen cost to less than $5/gge compared to $6/gge in 2009. Manufacturing R&D ($2.0M): Will develop low-cost, high-volume, continuous in-line MEA quality control measurement technologies in 2012, on track to develop continuous fabrication and assembly processes for polymer electrolyte membranes by 2016. Safety, Codes and Standards ($7.0M): Will determine and demonstrate hydrogen storage system testing procedures to enable publication of a Global Technical Regulation by 2012. Systems Analysis ($3.0M): Will determine technology gaps, economic/jobs potential, and quantify 2012 technology advancement. Technology Validation ($8.0M): Will collect real-world data from fuel cells operating in forklifts, backup power, vehicles, and buses including 2012 projects with DOD (e.g. Hawaii). Recent Program Accomplishments Supported projects that: Reduced the cost transportation fuel cells by more than 30 percent since 2008 and more than 80 percent since 2002 – to $51/kilowatt. Demonstrated 152 fuel cell electric vehicles and 24 hydrogen stations – these vehicles have traveled more than 3 million miles, demonstrating up to 2500-hour durability (more than 75,000 miles of driving), up to 59 percent efficiency (more than twice the efficiency of conventional gasoline engines), and a driving range of more than 250 miles. The Program also independently validated an additional vehicle to be capable of 430 miles on a single fill of hydrogen. Developed advanced gas diffusion layer manufacturing processes that have reduced cost by more than 50 percent and quadrupled manufacturing capacity since 2008. Made several key advances in renewable hydrogen production technologies, including reducing electrolyzer costs by 80 percent since 2001 and 15 percent in the last year – to $350 per kilowatt (compared to 2012 target of $400 per kilowatt); and demonstrating potential to exceed the 10 percent solar-to-hydrogen efficiency target for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production (greater than 16 percent efficiency observed at lab-scale).

19 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Accomplishments
Solar Energy Overview: The Solar Energy Technologies Program focuses on developing cost-effective solar energy technologies that have the greatest potential to benefit the nation and the world. A growing solar industry also stimulates our economy by creating jobs in solar manufacturing and installation. Key FY12 Program Activities Photovoltaic R&D ($336.6M): The “SunShot” goal of $1/W is mandatory (nominally 5-6 cents / kW-hr) if U.S. is to regain PV manufacturing competitiveness. Collaborative effort amongst Office of Science, ARPA-E and EERE to develop modules, power electronics. Advanced PV R&D (long-term) to explore innovative concepts and materials in laboratory-scale devices to achieve transformational cost reductions. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) ($50.0M): R&D to develop next generation components, thermal storage that can provide a up to a 75% capacity factor, and advanced high temperature technologies to enable CSP to compete in intermediate and baseload power markets. Systems Integration ($43.4M): Component development including inverters, DC-AC converters, module racking, and other hardware. Modeling and simulation to address unique solar grid integration issues associated with high penetration. Develop and implement codes and standards. Market Transformation ($27.0M): Focused on reducing non- hardware balance of system costs by supporting key implementation projects and partnerships with states, utilities, local governments and other stakeholders. Recent Accomplishments Supported research through the Photovoltaic Incubator Program that resulted in the production of a world record 27 percent efficient single junction solar cell by Alta Devices. Supported research at the National Renewable Energy Lab that beat (by 6.5 percent) a previously held record by demonstrating an percent efficient low-indium thin film (CIGS) solar cell. Leveraged $1.2 billion in private capital for solar energy start-ups from $59 million of DOE funding since 2007, through earlier rounds of the Incubator program. In April 2011, Solar Junction, a current awardee, was certified as having created a 43.5 percent peak efficiency solar cell, the world’s most efficient to date. 19

20 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Program Accomplishments
Wind Energy Overview: Improve cost, performance, and reliability of land and offshore utility wind; facilitate wind energy’s rapid market expansion; and address potential barriers to integrating wind into the electric transmission system. Key FY12 Program Activities Technology Development and Testing ($107.8M): This includes detailed testing and analysis of wind turbine drivetrains and blades to improve reliability, manufacturing processes and materials, aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. Developing higher resolution capacity factor (Cf) prediction models to improve annual energy production (AEP) and lower the cost of energy. Using high performance computing assets Offshore Wind: This will support and accelerate responsible deployment of the first U.S. offshore wind energy projects. R&D will focus on validation testing, innovative integrated direct drive turbines and deepwater platform systems. This will help lower capital costs, increase energy capture, reduce risk and bring U.S.-developed technologies to the global market. DOE will partner with industry, states and research institutions on offshore demonstration projects to mitigate technical, environmental, commercial, and regulatory challenges. Technology Application ($19.0M): Systems Integration: Develop operational strategies to mitigate wind variability, support planning for new transmission facilities to access remote renewable resources, and develop enhanced wind resource characterization information and capabilities by: (1) Exploration of new methods to ensure power system reliability under high penetration wind scenarios. (2) Advance recently executed MOU with NOAA via public-private partnerships for improved wind energy forecasting and modeling of complex wind plant inflow. Recent Program Accomplishments Funded wave tank testing of innovative off-shore wind energy technologies by a University of Maine led consortium, resulting in the world’s most comprehensive analysis of deepwater floating support structures to date. 25 percent of 695 patents assigned to leading wind energy organization cite one or more of the 112 DOE-funded patents or papers. Built the nation’s first large wind blade test facility capable of testing longer blades than any other facility in the world. The facility has the capacity to test blades up to 90 meters in length, suitable for wind turbines up to 15 megawatts. Worked with several small wind industry partners to develop commercially available, award-winning small wind generation systems. Created a wind energy test facility at Clemson University that will enhance the performance, durability, and reliability of utility-scale wind turbines. It will feature power analysis equipment capable of performing highly accelerated life testing of land-based and offshore wind turbine systems rated at 5-15 megawatts.

21 Key FY12 Program Activities Recent Program Accomplishments
Water Power The Water Power Program works to improve the performance, lower the costs, and accelerate the deployment of innovative water power technologies. Greater use of the nation's abundant water resources for electric power generation will help stabilize energy costs, enhance energy security, and improve our environment. Key FY12 Program Activities Conventional Hydropower ($19.6M): Complete 25 facility upgrade feasibility studies that will lead to select detailed engineering studies to capture 100 MW of additional incremental hydropower by Increase generation with small hydro and pumped storage hydro technologies, and sub-hourly gird modeling. Complete and validate advanced fish friendly turbine designs. Develop hydro-optimization toolbox to increase energy generation per fixed amount of water. Continue basin scale planning initiative in support of DOE/DOI MOU. Marine and Hydrokinetic ($17.8M): Develop, deploy and test at least 10 wave, tidal, ocean current and/or river in-stream energy systems in open water conditions to establish baseline cost of energy and performance by FY 2013 and reduce cost of energy for all marine and hydrokinetic technologies. Develop comprehensive standards governing device design and performance measurement, as well as test facilities, data acquisition instrumentation, and sensors measuring flow, load, and acoustics, to validate device performance , and provide high-quality economic and environmental performance data to enable developers to secure private sector financing for project development. Recent Program Accomplishments In partnership with industry, utilities, and city governments, seven new hydroelectric facility upgrades were launched – the first hydropower improvement projects undertaken in over 20 years. Funded development of an advanced hydroelectric turbine with dramatically improved fish passage rates without sacrificing power conversion efficiency. Awarded 27 cost-shared grants to marine and hydrokinetic technology developers to advance commercial readiness of this emerging technology sector. Conducting resource assessments to more precisely quantify the energy generation potential of all U.S. water resources, including conventional hydroelectric supplies as well as new resources derived from waves, ocean/tidal/river currents, and ocean thermal power. Executed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between DOE, the Department of Interior, and the Army Corps of Engineers. Developed three state-of-the art marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) Technology Design Tools that simulate the behavior and performance of MHK device types in complex marine environments (covering tidal/ocean current, and wave resources).

22 Facilities and Infrastructure
National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Golden, CO Mission The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the nation's primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development (R&D). NREL develops renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices, advances related science and engineering, and transfers knowledge and innovations to address the nation's energy and environmental goals. R&D Expertise NREL's focused R&D capabilities are positioned to advance national energy goals by developing innovations to change the way we power our homes and businesses, and fuel our cars. Renewable electricity Renewable fuels Integrated energy system engineering and testing Strategic energy analysis NREL's innovative technologies have also been recognized with 45 R&D 100 awards Strategy NREL has forged a focused strategic direction to increase its impact on the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) and our nation's energy goals by accelerating the research path from scientific innovations to market-viable alternative energy solutions.

23 Clean Innovative Energy Solutions Securing America’s Future
“Our future as a Nation depends on making sure that the jobs and industries of the 21st century take root here in America.  And there is perhaps no industry with more potential to create jobs now – and growth in the coming years – than clean energy”. President Obama October 2010

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