Presentation on theme: "GRENADA Regional Training Workshop Protecting Caribbean Borders from Illegal Trade in Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) Organised by: National Ozone Unit."— Presentation transcript:
GRENADA Regional Training Workshop Protecting Caribbean Borders from Illegal Trade in Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) Organised by: National Ozone Unit (NOU) of Grenada, Energy Division Ministry of Finance & Energy Funded by: Multilateral Fund (MLF) for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol Implementing Agency: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Workshop Objectives Increase awareness of ozone depletion issues and impacts of ozone layer depletion; Familiarize participants with the provisions and phase-out schedules of the Montreal Protocol and the Implementation of licensing and quota systems; Present the revised customs codes which allow for the identification of ozone-depleting refrigerants and ODS- based products; Discuss the role of customs officers and other stakeholders in the control and monitoring of trade in ODS and ODS dependent technologies; Examine illegal trade practices and detection techniques to enhance vigilance and stop ODS smuggling;
Provide an overview of commonly used trade names and labeling for ODS; Examine illegal trade practices and detection techniques to enhance vigilance and stop ODS smuggling; Demonstrate the use of ODS identification equipment; Provide an overview of ASYCUDA World and Functionalities Overview of Risk Management ASYCUDA World and Risk Management Workshop Objectives
Role of Customs Officers and Customs Brokers in Risk Management and Managing Illegal trade in ODS and ODS Products Examine the application of Risk Management to ODS and ODS based products Role of the National Ozone Unit in Risk Management and Managing Illegal trade in ODS and ODS Products Enabling the Risk Management function of ASYCUDA World Establishment of a Caribbean Network for National Ozone Officers, Customs Officers and Customs Brokers Workshop Objectives
Self Introduction & Workshop Expectations
What is the Ozone Layer? Ozone in the atmosphere The Formation of Ozone Ozone Depleting Substances Destruction of the Ozone Layer The Ozone Hole Uses of ODS How is Ozone release into the atmosphere Effects of Ozone Layer depletion Session 1: Ozone Layer Depletion
Ozone: is a gas made up of three oxygen atoms (O 3 ). It occurs naturally in small (trace) amounts in the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere) – Stratospheric (Good) Ozone In the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) near the Earths surface, ozone is created by chemical reactions between air pollutants from vehicle exhaust, gasoline vapors, and other emissions. Tropospheric (Bad)Ozone Stratospheric ozone also affects the temperature distribution of the atmosphere, thus playing a role in regulating the Earths climate What is Ozone?
The Ozone Layer
The Ozone Layer: is a thin shield of gases made up of ozone molecules in the stratosphere km from the earths surface, that circles the earth and absorbs harmful ultra-violet radiation from the sun. UV-B radiation is a highly energetic light that originates from the sun and which has severe impacts on human health and the environment. Stratospheric ozone also affects the temperature distribution of the atmosphere, thus playing a role in regulating the Earths climate What is the Ozone Layer?
Earth Troposphere OZONE LAYER Stratosphere 0 to 10 km 10 to 50 km The natural ozone layer is part of the stratosphere. It shields the earths surface by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun so that only a fraction of UV rays reach the earths surface. Ozone in the Atmosphere
Ozone (O 3 ) UV O O OO O O O Diatomic oxygen (O 2 ) UV radiation strikes the O 2 molecule and splits it, atomic oxygen associates itself with another O 2 molecule to form Ozone. The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere depends on the dynamic balance between how fast it is created and how fast it is destroyed. Atomic oxygen Formation of ozone
Ozone (O 3 ) Diatomic* oxygen, the oxygen we breathe, reacts with UV rays to produce ozone UV OO OO O O O O O O Diatomic* oxygen (O 2 ) Ozone is an unstable molecule. UV radiation not only creates it but breaks it down again, recreating molecular oxygen and free oxygen atoms. The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere depends on the dynamic balance between how fast it is created and how fast it is destroyed. OO 3O 2 2O 2 + 2O 2O 3
O UV radiation strikes the O 2 molecule and splits it, atomic oxygen associates itself with another O 2 molecule to form Ozone. The concentration of ozone in the atmosphere depends on the dynamic balance between how fast it is created and how fast it is destroyed. Formation of ozone Reference:
These are chemical substances that have the potential to react with and destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. ODSs basically contain chlorine, fluorine or bromine atoms. Have long atmospheric life ( years depending on the type of ODS) The ability of these chemicals to deplete the ozone layer is referred to as their ozone depletion potential (ODP). Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs)
They are man-made chemicals. Once released into the air these ozone-depleting substances degrade very slowly. In fact, they can remain intact for years (100 – 400 yrs) as they move through the troposphere until they reach the stratosphere. There they are broken down by the intensity of the sun's UV rays and release chlorine and bromine molecules, which destroy ozone. Scientists estimate that one chlorine atom can destroy 100,000 ozone molecules over time. Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs)
Ozone Depleting Substances Most significant – Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Invented in 1920s Were seen as miracle chemicals Very efficient Non-toxic, non poisonous Cheap Easy to manufacture Easy to store * Already phased out (2010)
Some HCFCs (lower ODP than CFCs) H C F F Cl HCFC-22 (CHF 2 CL) H F F F C C Cl HCFC-123 (C 2 HF 3 CL 2 ) Chlorodifluoroethane Dichlorotrifluoroethane
H C F F Cl UV CHF 2 Cl HCFC-22 Cl Cl· H C F F CHF 2 UV Radiation releases chlorine from HCFC
Destruction of the Ozone Layer by HCFCs UVB UV energy removes chlorine atom from HCFC molecule + Free Chlorine radical breaks the bond in the ozone (O 3 ) molecule Creates chlorine monoxide and diatomic oxygen Diatomic Oxygen is released into atmosphere Free Atomic Oxygen atom in atmosphere reacts with chlorine monoxide Breaks bond in chlorine monoxide molecule Produces diatomic oxygen and free chlorine radical Cycle begins again Cl· Cl O O2O2 O O Cl· A little chlorine can destroy a lot of ozone Cl· Free chlorine or bromine atoms react with ozone to form chlorine or bromine monoxide, stealing one oxygen atom and converting the ozone molecule into oxygen. Chlorine or bromine monoxide molecules react with free oxygen atoms, giving up their stolen oxygen atom to form more molecular oxygen and free chlorine or bromine atoms The newly-freed chlorine or bromine atoms start the process afresh by attacking another ozone molecule. In this way, every one of these atoms can destroy thousands of ozone molecules significantly depleting the layer by retarding the ozone formation process.
The Ozone Hole Rather than being a literal hole through the layer, the ozone hole is a large area of the stratosphere with extremely low amounts of ozone. The existence of the ozone hole first became public knowledge in 1985 – this played an important role in the introduction of the International Agreement called the Montreal Protocol, to protect the ozone layer. Special factors found only over Antarctica helps to create this phenomenon we refer to as the ozone hole. The harsh winters of the south pole creates a polar vortex which isolates a large mass of Antarcticas stratosphere. The air literally freezes and ice clouds are formed.
The Ozone Hole In spite of the absence of sunlight the chlorine atoms continue to attack ozone molecules. When the sun returns in the spring the depletion process is speeded up, resulting in very fast destruction of ozone until the polar vortex breaks up dispersing the air towards the equator. This heightened activity creates the effect of an Ozone hole over the south pole during spring. Ozone depletion occurs all over the atmosphere. However, the sudden, intense activity over the South Pole is the cause of the Ozone Hole.
The Largest Ozone Hole on record Sept 24, 2006
This graphic shows the ozone hole over Antarctica in blue. The depletion in 2012 was smaller than any time in the past 10 years. Ozone Hole Shrinks to Record Low
November 22, 2013 November 21, 2013 November 20, 2013 November 19, 2013 November 23, 2013 Latest Ozone Hole Observations (NASA)
Uses of ODS Refrigerants: Domestic, commercial, and transport refrigerators; air- conditioning systems; motor vehicle air-conditioners. Blowing agents: Prior to regulatory controls, CFC-11 foam blowing agent for the manufacture of different types of foam plastics. Cleaning solvents: CFC-113, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride for electronic assembly production processes, precision cleaning & general metal degreasing during manufacture. Also for dry cleaning & spot cleaning in textile industry. Propellants: CFC-11, -12, -113, -114 for aerosols like deodorants, shaving foam, perfumes, window cleaners, lubricants, & oils. Sterilants: Mixtures of CFC-12 & ethylene oxide used for medical sterilisation. Fire extinguishers: Halons & HBFCs (now replaced by Foam & CO 2 ) Fumigants: Methyl bromide, widely used as a pesticide for soil fumigation to protect crops. Also for exempted pre-shipment & quarantine applications. Feedstock: HCFC & carbon tetrachloride are used as feedstock for chemical synthesis.
How are ODS released into the stratosphere? Traditional use of cleaning solvents, paint, fire extinguishing equipment and spray cans; Venting and purging during servicing of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems; Use of methyl bromide in soil fumigation; Disposal of ODS containing products and equipment such as foams or refrigerators and; Leaking refrigerant circuits.
Human Health Damages DNA which suppresses immune system resulting in increase in infectious diseases Skin Cancer (melanoma, the most fatal of all skin cancers) Eye Cataracts Plants & Trees Reduces crop production, damage to seeds Reduces quality of crops Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
Eye Cataracts A child with amblyopia in the left eye due to a congenital cataract.
Cancer of skin No Melanoma
Cancer of skin Melanoma
Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion (Contd) Aquatic Organisms Damage to plankton, aquatic plants, fish larvae, shrimp, crabs Affects marine food chain Materials Degrades paints, rubber, wood, & plastics, especially in tropical regions Damages could be in billions of US dollars
Examples of the Degradation of Paints and Rubber
Contributes to Global Warming Negative impacts of global warming on agriculture, health & environment far outweigh any positives Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
How You Can Protect Yourself from Harmful UV-B Rays Cover up – wear long sleeve shirts and long pants Wear hats – broad rim Wear sunglasses with UV Protection Use sun screen with an SPF of at least 15 Seek shade – UV index is highest between 10:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. Educate yourselves
Session 4: Role of Customs Officers and other Key Stakeholders Who are the key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations Checklist for Customs Officers
The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations Customs officers Customs Brokers National Ozone Unit Ministry of Trade Pesticide board Attorney Generals Office Police & Coast Guard Bureau of Standards Customs Brokers General Public Government laboratory National ozone & climate committees Other law enforcement agencies
Customs is the first line of defence. The authority to intercept illegal trade is vested in the Comptroller. Police is responsible for arrest and the Coast Guard has the authority to board vessels and conduct searches. The Bureau of Standards has the authority to enforce labelling standards as required under the Act. They can also engage in joint inspection of premises with other agencies. The Pesticides Control Board has authority to issue licenses to import Methyl Bromide, which is an ODS. They will need to coordinate this with the NOU. The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations
Role of Brokers: Accurate completion of Customs Declarations with particular attention being paid to HS Classification Payment of Customs Duties Examination and Clearance of goods Engages the Department of Trade (Import Licence) Engages the National Ozone Unit (Permit to Import) The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations
The NOUs main responsibilities include: Implementation of the Country Programme and Institutional Strengthening Programme Implementation of the Hydrofluorocarbons Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP), which often includes recovery and recycling programmes and training programmes for refrigeration technicians and Customs officers. Preparation of proposals for policies, strategies, laws, regulations, incentives and agreements with the private sector and other measures for national ODS phaseout. The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations
The NOUs main responsibilities include: Consultation and co-ordination with stakeholders and organisation of stakeholder meetings as necessary. Advice and support to industry, the services sector and end users on the different phase-out options for ODS. Promotion of public awareness programmes Data collection and reporting, as required by the Montreal Protocol. The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations
The Attorney Generals Office is responsible for drafting the regulations and any amendment. The Government Laboratory may be called upon to conduct tests on samples of products. The advisory bodies will advise the NOU on all matters related to the phase out of ODSs The key players in implementing the Montreal Protocol Regulations
Checklist for Customs Officers Compare the packing list, bill of entry, & the country of origin to ensure they match. Ensure the customs code on the entry matches the description on the invoice. Compare the invoice & the bill of lading to the outward bound ships manifest. Verify the country of origin. Is the country a party to the Montreal Protocol & its amendments? Verify that the importer & place of business actually exist. Contact the licensing agency to verify that the importer is licensed to import that specific material. Note the quantity, source, & destination of the ODS. These will serve as important clues that may provide indicators to prohibit illegal importations.
Checklist for Customs Officers Verify that the container number actually exists. Discovery of fictitious container numbers have led to the disclosure of illegal trade. Review all the necessary documents, if there is something that doesnt match, it may be an illegal shipment. Inspect the merchandise. Check packaging, size, & shape and label on container. Identify the name & description of the chemical, which should match ALL paperwork. Seize/detain the material if the importer does not have the import/export license. Coordinate this seizure/detention with the customs officer, environment agency, & the prosecution agency. Anyone involved with the seizure may be called to testify in court, so take good notes.