Presentation on theme: "Future Challenges For Australia"— Presentation transcript:
1Future Challenges For Australia Future Challenges For AustraliaAustralia In Its Regional And Global ContextsStage 5 Geography Syllabus 5A4
2Syllabus Agenda current and future population trends: growth rates, age structure and spatial distributiongovernment population policies to manage population growthimplications of population trends:ecological sustainabilitypopulation movement and urban planning
3IntroductionAustralia is an isolated continent with one of the lowest population densities and highest living standards in the world. This presents both challenges and opportunities to our country and its leaders.With the current global population of nearly 7 billion set to reach 9 billion by 2050, overpopulation threatens the quality of life for people everywhere.A sustainable and peaceful Australian and world population can only be achieved by balancing the needs of all people with the global environment in which we all live. By developing informed opinions geographers can make decisions that will help create a positive future.
4(a) Learn the Lingo Go to: www.studyismybuddy.com 10G103 Geography tabDownload the learn the lingo documentResearch the meaning of the terms detailed
5Learn the Lingo Key Word Definition Asylum Seeker an individual who seeks refuge in a foreigncountry, usually due to religious or political persecutionDemographythe study of human population characteristicsand patternsEcological SustainabilityFor humans it is the potential for long-term maintenance of well being, which in turn depends on the well being of the natural world and the responsible use of natural resources.Emigrantsomeone who leaves one country to settle inanotherFertility Ratethe average number of babies born to a womanduring her reproductive years
6Lingo continued Key Word Definition Immigrant a person who migrates to another countrypermanentlyInfrastructurefacilities and systems that serve a country,city or area, including transport and communication systems, power plants, hospitals and schoolsLGALocal Government AreaMortality RateThe number of deaths within the populationNet MigrationThe difference between the number of people moving into and out of the countryPopulation Densitynumber of people per unit area, usually people per square kilometreReconciliationthe process of understanding and buildingthe relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous AustraliansGood resources:
7Lingo continued Key Word Definitions Refugee a person who flees their country in search ofrefuge in times of war, famine, political oppression or religiouspersecutionSuperannuationa pension-like program that is organised byemployers for the benefit of their employees to ensure that they have enough money to fund their retirementSpatial DistributionSuburbanisationurban growth caused by the creation ofnew suburbs at the outer edges of the city
8Lingo continued Key Word Definitions Temporary protection visa a visa to Australia for asylum seekerswho arrive in Australia without authorisation and are assessed by the Department of Immigration and Citizenship to be refugees, which allows them to stay a set amount of time
9http://2020. gwsc. vic. edu. au/w/images/6/61/World_Population_Growth The current population of the earth is around 6.7 billion people. By the year 2020, the world population will have risen to about 8 billion people. By the year 2050, the world’s population will have grown to about 10 billion people. If the population continues to grow, we will have reached and gone over the Earth’s carrying capacity
10Australian Demography What is demography?Three main components of demography:Populations sizeStructureDistributionStudying population change involves considering social, economic and environmental issuesThe Australian Bureau of Statistics will be conducting a census in 2011 (held every 5 years)
11(a) Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) The ABS is a very important source of reliable information for studentsGo toNational statisticsPopulation of Australia –The Population ClockSearch for the following information:What is the current population of Australia?How frequently is there a birth?How frequently is there a death?What is the speed of the net gain of one international migrationHow frequently is there a total population increase? And by how much?Find one country with a population growth rate higher than Australia’s and one population with a population growth rate lower than Australia’s. For each country write a paragraph explaining the growth rate.As of 09/02/2011Total population approx 22,557, pm 09/02/2011one birth every 1 minute and 44 seconds,one death every 3 minutes and 44 seconds ,a net gain of one international migration every 2 minute and 47 seconds , leading toan overall total population increase of one person every 1 minute and 30 seconds
12Australia’s Population Growth Australia’s population has grown from 3.8 million in to over 22.5 million in 2011Australia’s current population growth rate is 1.8% (2010) – this means for every 1000 people in Australia that year an extra 18 were added
13Factors Affecting Population Growth 1. The fertility rate – the average number of children born to each woman of child-bearing age2. The mortality rate – the number of deaths within the population3. Net migration – the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants.
14About The Fertility Rate In Australia Without MIGRATION the fertility rate needs to be 2:1 for one generation to replace the next.Therefore with Australia’s fertility rate at 1.8% and without migration, Australia’s population would gradually decrease in sizeMigration + Babies = PopulationBabies Only = Population
15What Is The Optimum Population? Environmentalists will argue the population is already too great for the resources available and the environment is being degradedOthers argue for an increased population for reasons of national security and economic growth
16To Increase Or To Decrease That Is The Question…….. Australia needs a larger population to prosper in the decades ahead, to avoid economic stagnation, to go forward as a dynamic, globally linked economy, and to ensure high living standards and high-quality jobs. (Steve Bracks Victorian Premier)So what’s in population growth for the average Australian? Nothing, except higher house prices and rents, more congested roads and transport, more pollution and waste, more apartment blocks, more crowds everywhere, more pressure on our parks and nature reserves—AND, of course, less water per capita. (Tim Gosling, freelance science journalist with an interest in population and environment)Class debate – note points on boardWhat do you think?
17(a) Demography Recap What is demography? Why is demography an important aspect of Geography?Which organisation in Australia produces demographic statistics?When did Australia’s population reach 20 million?How does the population growth rate compare with rates in other countries?Which three factors influence population growth rate?What is the fertility replacement rate?What is Australia’s current fertility rate?Outline one argument for increasing the size of population in Australia.Outline one argument for reducing the population size in Australia.Use Geo Focus 2, ABS research
19Changing Population Structure It is predicted that in Australia by 2051:The number of people aged over 65 years will increase from the current 2.5 million to around 7.2 millionThe proportion of people aged over 65 years will grow from the current 13% to 25% of the populationThe proportion of people over 85 years will grow from the current 1.4% to approximately 6%
20Reasons For The Change In The Structure Of Australia’s Population A fall in the fertility rate due to women having fewer childrenThe increase in life expectancy due to improved health and medical careThe fact that the baby boomers (those born ) are now reaching retirement age
21Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers Better educated retirees will have a continued interest in learning,leading to an increased demand for adult education coursesIncreased economic and socialbenefits to the community• Jobs created in adult education• Larger number of skilled volunteersChanging health needs as more people reach greater ages, increasing demand for medical services and aged careStimulus for medical researchMore jobs in health and medical servicesDevelopment of new approaches to provide support for aged people in their own homes
22Challenges and opportunities of retiring baby boomers More people living alone, particularly women, creating possible social isolationIncreased community developmentNew thinking about housing designTransport services and communications technology that are age friendlyMore people entering old age without sufficient financial resources, putting pressure on government to provide pensionsOngoing training and professional development of mature-aged workersMore flexible working conditions to facilitate gradual transition from work to retirementIncreased financial literacy in the population
23Government PoliciesThe local, state and federal government in Australia have developed strategies, plans and policies to support aged communitiesLocal level – action plans are designed to increase awareness, encourage action and improve information about the ageing issueState level – The NSW Ministerial Advisory Committee on Ageing advises the Minister for Ageing on matters affecting the needs and interests of older people in the state, and on the impact of the ageing population
24Government PoliciesFederal level – Compulsory superannuation has been introduced to reduce the number of people that will be dependent on government pensionsThe federal government encourages people to continue working beyond retirement ages
25(a) Australia’s ageing population -Computer Activities Go to website Compare Australia’s changing population structure with other countriesConduct research to find out whether migration is the answer to Australia’s ageing population, and present findings in written or digital formatSelect a developed country other than Australia with an ageing population and research the ways in which they are preparing for the challenge. Suggest one of the strategies that could be used in Australia
26Population Distribution Australia’s population is concentrated in urban areas near the coast.More than 85% of the population already live within 50 kilometres of the coast with the trend continuingThis puts increasing pressure on coastal environments and leaving many inland rural areas in decline – this process is known as ‘sea change’
27Unsustainable Growth In Coastal Areas The rapid increase in population in coastal areas is causing severe problems for local councils struggling to provide the necessary infrastructure, particularly water and sanitation.Local services are also put under pressure as the schools, hospitals and transport systems are not able to keep up with the increasing demand
28Interstate MigrationSome states and territories are experiencing much higher growth rates than others.Queensland has the highest growth rate and Tasmania has the slowestThe current trend is for people to move north to take advantage of cheaper housing and better job opportunities as well as climate, lifestyle and retirement
29Rural-Urban migration Reasons people move from small inland communities to larger regional centres and urban areas near the coast include:Changes in farming practices due to new technologyLoss of traditional industriesIncreasing environmental concerns changing land use practicesDecline in rural health and education services due to centralisation of servicesGreater consumer demands with regard to retail and leisure provisions
30(a) Population Distribution Activity Research The Shire of Crookwell and identify the challenges it is facing.Students can create a visual presentation to show either the decline of small inland towns or the growth of coastal developmentsWrite the script for an imaginary radio or TV report in which the interviewer is asking a young person why they are planning to leave their small country town and move to the city.Once you have written the script perform and record the interview.Useful sites
32Sydney’s Natural Resources: WATER the aim is to conserve water by reducing water consumption: Sydney’s population has doubled since but water consumption has tripledBusiness, government and industry account for 30% of water use in SydneyThe benefits of water conservation include:Reduces the amount of water taken from lakes and riversReduces the amount of waste-water createdUses less energy to treat and distribute waterAvoids the need for new dams
33Sydney’s Natural Resources: ENERGY the aim is to reduce energy consumptionSustainable development will need to be based on renewable energy sources as people rely heavily on electrical appliances that provide comfort eg air conditioners
34Sydney’s Natural Resources: LAND New housing developments are occurring and replacing land to grow foodECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINTThis is a measure of the amount of land that it would take to produce the food energy and resources that a person consumes (calculated at 1.7 hectares per person)Average EF for people in Sydney is 7 hectares
35(a) ActivityFind a newspaper article on conservation of water or energy from the last 12 monthsDevelop a dot point summary on this article.Write a media article outlining the challenges that Sydney faces in trying to reduce its ecological footprint.
37TransportThe population in Australia’s urban areas is expected to grow by four million between 2005 and 2030.Sydney Transport – transport by car is increasing and is causing worsening air quality and traffic congestionViable transport alternatives are one of the keys to maintaining the livability of the city.The aim is to provide residential areas nearer to work and leisure facilities and improve public transport to reduce dependence on cars.
38Urban VillageThis modern approach in urban planning seeks to combine a mixture of land uses and housing types in community-sized developments within cities.These urban villages are located at transport hubs and are designed to provide a sense of community where people can live, work and play without having o commute by car.
39(a) ActivityCreate a plan for an urban village to be developed on land formerly used as old railway sidings. Your plan needs to include:a map,illustrations of building designspromotional material.Research the ways a city outside Australia has addressed the challenge of either transport or urban sprawl.
40MigrationAustralia’s Migration Program was initially set up to increase the labour force and improve national security.
41Types of MigrantsMigrants can become permanent or temporary residents of Australia and enter under one of the following categories:Employer sponsoredBusiness peopleFamily membersSkilled workersHumanitarian entrants or refugees
42(a) ActivityUse the abs website (www.abs.gov.au) to find a table showing the main countries of birth of Australia’s population.Select four countries from your table and develop a composite line graph to plot the data. Explain the trends shown in the graph.Develop a poster to illustrate the five types of programs that allow migrants to enter Australia.
44What are Human Rights?Human rights are those rights that all people have because they are human beings.The recognition that all people should be treated in a decent, equal and just manner led to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights on 10 December
45Who is a Refugee?The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (Article 1) defines a refugee as:A person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.
46Asylum-Seeker or Refugee? An asylum-seeker is a person who has arrived in another country seeking safety and is waiting for recognition as a refugee.For this reason there is no such thing as an illegal asylum-seeker.Often these people arrive without documents because they have fled from regimes that would not provide them or they have not had the time nor means to acquire them.
47Processing of asylum-seekers Handled by the Department of Immigration and CitizenshipIf they arrive in an authorised manner eg visa, they are generally allowed to remain in the community while their applications are processedIf they arrive in an unauthorised manner they are confined in detention centres until they are granted a visa to remain in Australia, or they leave the country, voluntarily or otherwise.
48Temporary v Permanent Visas Asylum-seekers entering the country without authority receive a 3 year temporary protection visa if their application for refugee status is successfulHumanitarian grounds – permanent protection visas can be granted to people on humanitarian grounds and enables family to be reunited.
49(a) ActivityFind a website that deals with issues concerning refugees in Australia and:Analyse the site in terms of reliability, accuracy, bias and ethics.Demonstrate the site to the class giving an oral account of your analysis.Find a newspaper article that relates to a concept in the slides.
50The Pacific Solution The Tampa incident occurred in 2001 Afghan asylum-seekers were rescued from a sinking Indonesian boat in international waters.The Australian government refused to allow the ship to proceed to Christmas Island for processingAfter negotiations the people were transferred to the Pacific island of Nauru
51The Pacific SolutionDiverting asylum-seekers to Pacific islands is known as the ‘Pacific Solution’.The Australian government provided Nauru with an aid package worth $20 million in return for agreeing to accept these peopleNew law – asylum-seekers can only apply for refugee status if they reach the mainland otherwise they reside in a detention facility on Christmas Island
52Detention CentresImmigration Transit Accommodation Centres have been set up in Brisbane, Melbourne and Adelaide for those spending a short time in detention and regarded as a low-security riskHandout – Refugees and detention centres in Australia (GF2 Teacher Resource p29-30)
53Detention Centres - activities INTERNET ACTIVITYResearch the treatment of refugees in one developed country and compare the treatment there with the treatment provided by Australia.Develop an annotated map of Australia to illustrate the location of Australian detention centres. Describe the distribution of Australian detention centres.Compose a letter to the editor of a national newspaper expressing your opinion on the detention of asylum- seekers.
55DefinitionThe process of understanding and restoring a relationship, especially between Australian Indigenous peoples and the wider communityReconciliation is a community-based movement involving Indigenous and non-Indigenous AustraliansHandout – Indigenous Land Rights (GF2 Teacher Resource p19-20)
56Reconciliation in Australia Is based on three main ideas:RECOGNITION that Indigenous people are the traditional owners of the land and have a unique relationship with the physical environmentJUSTICE – Past government policies have been detrimental to Aboriginal populations eg Stolen generation leading to social problemsHEALING – improving living conditions and quality of life for all Australians, but especially the disadvantaged
57Reconciliation today The Current Situation Individuals promoting reconciliation include:Peter Garrett (politician)John Williamson (singer/songwriter)Cathy Freeman (athlete)Pat Dodson (priest)
58Reconciliation today The Current Situation Groups and organisations involved in reconciliation include:Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR)Reconciliation AustraliaNSW State Government ensure fair representation of Aboriginal people on decision-making bodies and ensure policies and services are relevant and accessible to all people including Indigenous groupsFederal government (Rudd) formally apologised for the wrongs committed by white Australians towards the Indigenous people
59Responses to Reconciliation Other Nations experiencing Indigenous and reconciliation issues include:New ZealandBolivia
60(a) ActivityResearch how New Zealand and/or Bolivia have dealt with the issues of reconciliation and Indigenous peopleDesign a reconciliation flag for Australia.Explain the relevance of all components in your flag.Identify an individual or group involved in reconciliation.Conduct research to express their perspective on the issue.
61Strategies for the Future Reconciliation will not be a reality until Indigenous disadvantage is improved.More progress and decision-making needs to be made in the areas of Indigenous health, education, housing, employment and land ownership.Self-determination is the right to administer one’s own community which the Aboriginal community requested in the 1980’s. This proposal has been declined up to this point in time.