Spatial Diffusion Spatial Diffusion can be made more difficult as a result of physical barriers (mountains, deserts, rain forests, distances, large bodies of water) Spatial Diffusion can be made easier as a result of technology: –Transportation methods like ships, trains, roadways, air travel, etc. –Communication methods like internet, email, phones, tv, radio, etc.
Spatial Diffusion American Popular Culture has seen its spread all over the world! –Music –Movies (Hollywood ---- Bollywood) –Companies (McDonalds) –Food (McDonalds, Coca Cola, and many others)
Diffusion (SCARCITY) Not every country has enough resources to satisfy all that their people need and/or want. –We dont have enough oil (need) –We dont have enough coffee (want) –We like foreign cars and technology –Some countries dont have enough food –Some countries have disasters causing shortages……
Diffusion (Global Trade) SCARCITY results in a NEED FOR TRADE! Some countries specialize in what they have a lot of OR what they are very good or efficient at. Good trade relations USUALLY result in the need to cooperate. INTERDEPENDENCE is the outcome!
WHEN IT COMES TO SPATIAL DIFFUSION, THE REGION OF CONTACT IS ALWAYS IMPACTED IN SOME WAY –IT IS NOT ALWAYS POSITIVE, BUT THERE IS AN IMPACT –SOMETIMES THE IMPACT IS NOT EXPECTED THINK OF DISEASES, REVOLUTIONS, ETC.
Examine the physical processes that affect the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
Physical Processes (LITHOSPHERE) All the stony parts of the Earth. Includes the basins. PLATE TECTONICS- Movement of plates as well as the flow of magma. –Mountains, Valleys, Faults, Earthquakes, etc. Rain Shadow Effect
Atmosphere and Biosphere Atmosphere = layer of gasses surrounding the Earth. Biosphere = Any place on Earth that supports life. Ecosystems = community of living and nonliving things that depend on one another.
Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.
Character of Place (Social) There are subgroups within each society. There are subgroups within each society. Family Classes Socioeconomic (wealth) Ancestry Education Jobs Etc.
Character of Place (Cultural) Language Language ReligionReligion Economic ActivityEconomic Activity Social GroupsSocial Groups CustomsCustoms HolidaysHolidays TechnologyTechnology Etc.Etc.
Character of Place (Political) How does a place maintain order, create laws and enforce them? Unitary (centralized) Unitary (centralized) Federal (Divided between national and regional/local)Federal (Divided between national and regional/local) Autocracy- Power held by one personAutocracy- Power held by one person Democracy- Power held by the peopleDemocracy- Power held by the people
Character of Place (Economic) How are economic decisions made? Who controls the resources? What, how, and for whom are things that will be produced? Traditional- Based on custom/traditionTraditional- Based on custom/tradition Market- Supply and demand (what people want and what companies will make).Market- Supply and demand (what people want and what companies will make). Profit motive (free enterprise; capitalism)
Economics Continued Command Economy- The government makes the decisions. Not as much freedom for individuals. COMMUNISM- Strict government control over everything Socialism- Some private ownership, but the goal is equal distribution of wealth and resources; Major decisions still made by government.
Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements.
Settlement (physical) WATER WATER Food Irrigation for farming Transportation Energy/Power Access to other places Also consider CLIMATE, RESOURCES, etc.Also consider CLIMATE, RESOURCES, etc.
Settlement (Physical) Physical Geography also creates barriers to where people live. People wont live…. Harsh climates (too cold; desert) Rain forests (hot and humid) Mountains Etc.
Settlement (History) Hunters and Gatherers (Nomads) Hunters and Gatherers (Nomads) Constantly searching for food and resources Found water sources, settled downFound water sources, settled down AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION People figured out how to cultivate land, plant and replant on same land Cities centered around these areas
Urbanization People moved from farming/rural areas to the cities seeking…. People moved from farming/rural areas to the cities seeking…. Better jobs Better housing Better healthcare Other things as well
Explain how political, economic, social, and environmental push and pull factors impact the flows of human immigration; AND how physical geography affects the routes and flows of human immigration.
PULL FACTORS What is pulling you towards the place you are going to? –Jobs and economic freedom –Religious freedom –New form of government –Other things, like land, hope, availability of resources, climate
PUSH Factors Why do you want to leave… what is pushing you out? –Government policies and lack of religious freedoms…some are forced out –Disease and famine? Irish and potatoes –Lack of jobs –No land –And many other things that are bad
BERINGIA LAND BRIDGE http://instaar.colorado.edu/QGISL/bering_land_bridge/downlo ads/beringlandbridge1l.mov
GENERAL THEME: People tend to migrate from DEVELOPING countries to DEVELOPED countries…. DEVELOPING DEVELOPED
Compare the ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology.
Modifying the Environment Humans can modify the environment: –We level forests to build roads for transportation, housing, business… –We build dams on rivers to control flooding and help irrigate the fields. –New Orleans has build levees to protect it from water.
Aswan High Dam/Deforestation of the Amazon/The New Orleans Levee System
Adapting to the Environment How do humans adapt to the environment? –In Houston, it is hot…we install air conditioners to keep cool. –In Egypt, the farmers set up near the Nile River to take advantage of the annual floods for their farms.
Depending on the Environment How do humans DEPEND on the environment? –We need heat and rain to grow crops. –Some places depend on certain minerals to mine and make money. –Some places need trees to burn for fuel. –Some places have great soils for farming. –ETC
Environment Hinders Humans How does the environment HINDER (hurt) humans? –In Pakistan, flooding is killing people and destroying homes… –In New Orleans, Houston, Galveston, and other Gulf Cities…Hurricanes have taken lives and destroyed property. –Droughts in Africa have caused the desert to grow, and people to starve.