12Spatial DiffusionSpatial Diffusion can be made more difficult as a result of physical barriers (mountains, deserts, rain forests, distances, large bodies of water)Spatial Diffusion can be made easier as a result of technology:Transportation methods like ships, trains, roadways, air travel, etc.Communication methods like internet, , phones, tv, radio, etc.
13Spatial DiffusionAmerican Popular Culture has seen its spread all over the world!MusicMovies (Hollywood ---- Bollywood)Companies (McDonalds)Food (McDonalds, Coca Cola, and many others)
14Diffusion (SCARCITY)Not every country has enough resources to satisfy all that their people need and/or want.We don’t have enough oil (need)We don’t have enough coffee (want)We like foreign cars and technologySome countries don’t have enough foodSome countries have disasters causing shortages……
15Diffusion (Global Trade) SCARCITY results in a NEED FOR TRADE!Some countries specialize in what they have a lot of OR what they are very good or efficient at.Good trade relations USUALLY result in the need to cooperate.INTERDEPENDENCE is the outcome!
16THINK OF DISEASES, REVOLUTIONS, ETC. WHEN IT COMES TO SPATIAL DIFFUSION, THE REGION OF CONTACT IS ALWAYS IMPACTED IN SOME WAYIT IS NOT ALWAYS POSITIVE, BUT THERE IS AN IMPACTSOMETIMES THE IMPACT IS NOT EXPECTEDTHINK OF DISEASES, REVOLUTIONS, ETC.
17Examine the physical processes that affect the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere
18Physical Processes (LITHOSPHERE) All the stony parts of the Earth.Includes the basins.PLATE TECTONICS- Movement of plates as well as the flow of magma.Mountains, Valleys, Faults, Earthquakes, etc.Rain Shadow Effect
23Atmosphere and Biosphere Atmosphere = layer of gasses surrounding the Earth.Biosphere = Any place on Earth that supports life.Ecosystems = community of living and nonliving things that depend on one another.
24Analyze how the character of a place is related to its political, economic, social, and cultural elements.
25Character of Place (Social) There are subgroups within each society.FamilyClassesSocioeconomic (wealth)AncestryEducationJobsEtc.
26Character of Place (Cultural) LanguageReligionEconomic ActivitySocial GroupsCustomsHolidaysTechnologyEtc.
27Character of Place (Political) How does a place maintain order, create laws and enforce them?Unitary (centralized)Federal (Divided between national and regional/local)Autocracy- Power held by one personDemocracy- Power held by the people
28Character of Place (Economic) How are economic decisions made? Who controls the resources? What, how, and for whom are things that will be produced?Traditional- Based on custom/traditionMarket- Supply and demand (what people want and what companies will make).Profit motive (free enterprise; capitalism)
29Economics ContinuedCommand Economy- The government makes the decisions. Not as much freedom for individuals.COMMUNISM- Strict government control over everythingSocialism- Some private ownership, but the goal is equal distribution of wealth and resources; Major decisions still made by government.
30Locate and describe human and physical features that influence the size and distribution of settlements.
31Settlement (physical) WATERFoodIrrigation for farmingTransportationEnergy/PowerAccess to other placesAlso consider CLIMATE, RESOURCES, etc.
32Settlement (Physical) Physical Geography also creates barriers to where people live. People won’t live….Harsh climates (too cold; desert)Rain forests (hot and humid)MountainsEtc.
33Settlement (History) Hunters and Gatherers (Nomads) Constantly searching for food and resourcesFound water sources, settled downAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONPeople figured out how to cultivate land, plant and replant on same landCities centered around these areas
34UrbanizationPeople moved from farming/rural areas to the cities seeking….Better jobsBetter housingBetter healthcareOther things as well
37Explain how political, economic, social, and environmental push and pull factors impact the flows of human immigration; AND how physical geography affects the routes and flows of human immigration.
38PULL FACTORS What is “pulling you” towards the place you are going to? Jobs and economic freedomReligious freedomNew form of governmentOther things, like land, hope, availability of resources, climate
39PUSH Factors Why do you want to “leave”… what is pushing you out? Government policies and lack of religious freedoms…some are forced outDisease and famine? Irish and potatoesLack of jobsNo landAnd many other things that are “bad”
41GENERAL THEME:People tend to migrate from DEVELOPING countries to DEVELOPED countries….DEVELOPING DEVELOPED
42Compare the ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the physical environment, including the influences of culture and technology.
43Modifying the Environment Humans can modify the environment:We level forests to build roads for transportation, housing, business…We build dams on rivers to control flooding and help irrigate the fields.New Orleans has build levees to protect it from water.
45Aswan High Dam/Deforestation of the Amazon/The New Orleans Levee System
46Adapting to the Environment How do humans adapt to the environment?In Houston, it is hot…we install air conditioners to keep cool.In Egypt, the farmers set up near the Nile River to take advantage of the annual floods for their farms.
48Depending on the Environment How do humans DEPEND on the environment?We need heat and rain to grow crops.Some places depend on certain minerals to mine and make money.Some places need trees to burn for fuel.Some places have great soils for farming.ETC
49Environment Hinders Humans How does the environment HINDER (hurt) humans?In Pakistan, flooding is killing people and destroying homes…In New Orleans, Houston, Galveston, and other Gulf Cities…Hurricanes have taken lives and destroyed property.Droughts in Africa have caused the desert to grow, and people to starve.