Presentation on theme: "What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? What are some examples of each?"— Presentation transcript:
What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? What are some examples of each?
In your journals, list three objects that you are using now or objects that are around you. Observe the objects. Try to determine which resources they might contain. List possible resources for each object. 1. How did you determine the resources that might be in each object? 2. How could you actually test each object to determine what resources it contains?
A renewable resource can be replenished over fairly short time spans such as months, years, or decades Common examples: Plants and animals Natural fibers Trees Energy from flowing water, wind, and the sun
Takes millions of years to form and accumulate. Fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are nonrenewable. Important metals such as iron, copper, uranium, and gold How does earths fast growing population effect the availability and demand for resources?
A fossil fuel is an hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energy These include coal, oil, and natural gas
Pick one of the nonrenewable resources listed: Coal Petroleum and natural gas Tar sands Oil shale Mineral deposits Record in your journals how that resource forms, how we extract it, and how we use it You will present your findings
Formed when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of years There are four stages of development: Peat – partially decayed plant material Becomes lignite, a sedimentary rock often called brown coal Becomes bituminous coal Last stage is a metamorphic rock called anthracite or hard coal Electric power plants use more than 70% of the coal mined today.
Oil and gas form from the remains of plants and animals that were buried in ancient seas Sediment protects organic remains from oxidation decay Over millions of years and continual sediment build up, remains transform into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas)
Mixtures of clay and sand combined with water and black, thick tar called bitumen Resistant to flow and cannot be pumped out easily Takes a lot of energy to refine into oil Large amount of toxic runoff
Rock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen Mined and heated to vaporize the kerogen Contains large amounts of minerals How might this effect its efficiency? As of now, this is a very unprofitable solution
Ore is a useful metallic mineral that can be mined at a profit A deposit containing a valuable mineral is worthless if the cost of extracting it exceeds the value recovered Ex. Copper ore to even be considered it must contain a concentration 50 times the amount Some of the most important mineral deposits form through igneous processes and from hydrothermal solutions
How big do you think the largest gold nugget ever discovered was and where was it found? Found in a mining region of Victoria, Australia in 1869 Weighed 210 pounds and at todays gold prices, worth well over 1 million dollars. Current largest gold nugget (73 pounds) is displayed in Las Vegas.
1. What is the difference between a renewable and nonrenewable resource? 2. What are some of the fossil fuels we discuss? 3. What is the difference between tar sands and oil shale? 4. What are some drawbacks to mining fossil fuels and other resources?
We live in the age of fossil fuels. These nonrenewable resources supply nearly 90 percent of the worlds energy Besides using fossil fuels, what are some alternative energy sources? In your opinion what should we try and switch to?
The amount of recoverable fossil fuels may last only another 170 years In the meantime, the burning of huge quantities will continue to damage the environment
The direct use of the suns rays to supply heat or electricity Two advantages: The fuel is free It is non-polluting While the energy is free, what are some drawbacks to solar energy? Installation and equipment is expensive Doesnt work at night and not well on cloudy days
Meets about 7 percent of the energy demand for the US Possible through nuclear fission – the nuclei of heavy atoms such as uranium-235 are bombarded with neutrons The nuclei then split into smaller nuclei and emit neutrons and heat energy Energy drives steam turbines to produce electricity What are some drawbacks?
Drawbacks: 1 st – the cost has increased 2 nd – there are hazards associated with the disposal of nuclear waste 3 rd – concern over possible accidents Three Miles Island Chernobyl
Wind energy harnesses the power of wind to generate usable forms of energy Not a new source of energy It is estimated that in 50 to 60 years, wind power could meet between 5 to 10 percent of the countrys demand
The power that falling water generates, known as hydroelectric power, drives turbines to produce electricity 5% of the countrys power Water behind a dam is a form of stored energy Drawback: Sediment buildup Available suitable sites
Harnessed by tapping natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water to urn turbines and generate electricity The steam and hot water from individual wells usually last no more than 10 to 15 years
Harnessed by constructing a dam across the mouth of a bay with a large tidal range The strong in-and-out flow drives turbines and electric generators Not economical if the tidal range is less than 8 meters or if a narrow, enclosed bay isnt available
Go online and research a type of alternative energy source Find a scientific article about that type of renewable energy and read it I want you to write an essay on that article including: What the article is about? How would this source get implemented? Cost effective/actually doable What is your opinion? This should be 1 page in length Cite your source
1. What are some ways we could harness renewable resources? 2. Why will the interest in alternative energy sources probably grow in the future? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages to using solar energy?
Water, air, and land resources are essential for life. You need clean air and water everyday. Whats more, soil provides nutrients that allow plants – the basis of our food supply – to grow. How do people use – and sometimes misuse – these vital resources?
Water covers 71 percent of Earths surface Oceans functions: Currents regulate and moderate climate Vital to the water cycle Habitat for marine organisms Each day people use fresh water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and growing food However reserves are relatively small Less than 1% of the water on the planet is usable fresh water
There are two types of sources: Point source pollution Nonpoint source pollution Point source comes from a known and specific location, such as factory pipes Nonpoint source does not have a specific point of origin.
Runoff – the water that flows over the land rather than seeping into the ground Often carries nonpoint source pollution Carry waste oil from the streets Sediment from construction sites Pesticides off farm fields and lawns Water pollution has many adverse health effects.
Disease organisms- bacteria viruses Organic chemicals – oil, gasoline, plastic, pesticides Inorganic chemicals – acids, toxic metals Plant fertilizer – soluble compounds with nitrate Sediment – soil Radioactive substances – radon, uranium Wastes that remove oxygen from water – manure What are the adverse effects from these types of water pollutions?
The chemical composition of the atmosphere helps maintain life on Earth Shields us from harmful solar radiation Air pollution changes that chemical composition Fossil fuels Power plants
What era or revolution has led to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Industrial revolution The increase has altered the carbon cycle and contributed to the unnatural warming of the lower atmosphere Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Air conditioners, plastic foam
Estimated 500,000 mines in the US Mining tears up Earths surface and destroyes vegetation Causes soil erosion and creates pollution Deforestation
Each year, Americans throw out about 30 million cell phones, 18 million computers, 8 million TV sets, and enough tires to circle the earth about 3 times With 6 percent of the worlds population, we use about 1/3 of the worlds resources, and a produce a 1/3 of its garbage. What are some ways to reduce garbage and create less pollution?
Conservation – is the careful use of resources. Pollution prevention means stopping pollution from entering the environment Between the late 1940s and 1970, many incidents occurred that triggered public response Severe air pollution killed hundreds and sickened thousands Oil spills killed wild life Ohios polluted Cuyahoga River caught fire and burned for days
Starting in the 1970s, the government passed several laws: 1972 – Congress passed the Clean Water Act (CWA) Safe surface water increased from 36% to 62% in 30 years 1974 – Safe Drinking Water Act Set maximum contaminant levels for a number of pollutants
1970 – Congress passed the Clean Air Act Established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulates Pollutants have decreased 24%
Protecting land resources involves preventing pollution and managing land resources wisely Farmers now use many soil conservation practices to prevent loss of topsoil and preserve fertility. Contour plowing Strip cropping Selective cutting conserves forest resources Compost – is partly decomposed organic material that is used as a fertilizer.
Since 1977, sanitary landfills have largely replaced open dumps and old-style landfills. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 has decreased illegal dumping The 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act mandates the cleaning up of abandoned hazardous waste sites. Recycling – is the collecting and processing of used items so they can be made into new products
Nuclear Fusion (not fission) The nuclei of smaller atoms combine and form larger nuclei On the sun, energy is released when hydrogen nuclei combine and form helium nuclei Can only take place at temperatures more than 15 million degrees Celsius How could this be more beneficial than nuclear fission? Think about where we would get the hydrogen.
Biomass energy - biological material from living, or recently living organisms, can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuel SOURCES: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuels How might this be beneficial?