3Inquiry ActivityIn your journals, list three objects that you are using now or objects that are around you.Observe the objects. Try to determine which resources they might contain. List possible resources for each object.How did you determine the resources that might be in each object?How could you actually test each object to determine what resources it contains?
4RenewableA renewable resource can be replenished over fairly short time spans such as months, years, or decadesCommon examples:Plants and animalsNatural fibersTreesEnergy from flowing water, wind, and the sun
5Nonrenewable Takes millions of years to form and accumulate. Fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are nonrenewable.Important metals such as iron, copper, uranium, and goldHow does earth’s fast growing population effect the availability and demand for resources?
6Fossil FuelsA fossil fuel is an hydrocarbon that may be used as a source of energyThese include coal, oil, and natural gas
7Activity Pick one of the nonrenewable resources listed: CoalPetroleum and natural gasTar sandsOil shaleMineral depositsRecord in your journals how that resource forms, how we extract it, and how we use itYou will present your findings
8CoalFormed when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of yearsThere are four stages of development:Peat – partially decayed plant materialBecomes lignite, a sedimentary rock often called brown coalBecomes bituminous coalLast stage is a metamorphic rock called anthracite or hard coalElectric power plants use more than 70% of the coal mined today.
9Petroleum and Natural Gas Oil and gas form from the remains of plants and animals that were buried in ancient seasSediment protects organic remains from oxidation decayOver millions of years and continual sediment build up, remains transform into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas)
10Tar sandsMixtures of clay and sand combined with water and black, thick tar called bitumenResistant to flow and cannot be pumped out easilyTakes a lot of energy to refine into oilLarge amount of toxic runoff
11Oil shaleRock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogenMined and heated to vaporize the kerogenContains large amounts of mineralsHow might this effect its efficiency?As of now, this is a very unprofitable solution
12Mineral depositsOre is a useful metallic mineral that can be mined at a profitA deposit containing a valuable mineral is worthless if the cost of extracting it exceeds the value recoveredEx. Copper ore to even be considered it must contain a concentration 50 times the amountSome of the most important mineral deposits form through igneous processes and from hydrothermal solutions
13Fun FactHow big do you think the largest gold nugget ever discovered was and where was it found?Found in a mining region of Victoria, Australia in 1869Weighed 210 pounds and at today’s gold prices, worth well over 1 million dollars.Current largest gold nugget (73 pounds) is displayed in Las Vegas.
14Ticket out the doorWhat is the difference between a renewable and nonrenewable resource?What are some of the fossil fuels we discuss?What is the difference between tar sands and oil shale?What are some drawbacks to mining fossil fuels and other resources?
15Warm-up #24 Feb.14We live in the age of fossil fuels. These nonrenewable resources supply nearly 90 percent of the world’s energyBesides using fossil fuels, what are some alternative energy sources?In your opinion what should we try and switch to?
16Alternate Energy Sources The amount of recoverable fossil fuels may last only another 170 yearsIn the meantime, the burning of huge quantities will continue to damage the environment
17Solar energyThe direct use of the sun’s rays to supply heat or electricityTwo advantages:The “fuel” is freeIt is non-pollutingWhile the energy is free, what are some drawbacks to solar energy?Installation and equipment is expensiveDoesn’t work at night and not well on cloudy days
18Nuclear Energy Meets about 7 percent of the energy demand for the US Possible through nuclear fission – the nuclei of heavy atoms such as uranium-235 are bombarded with neutronsThe nuclei then split into smaller nuclei and emit neutrons and heat energyEnergy drives steam turbines to produce electricityWhat are some drawbacks?
19Nuclear energy Drawbacks: 1st – the cost has increased 2nd – there are hazards associated with the disposal of nuclear waste3rd – concern over possible accidentsThree Miles IslandChernobyl
20Wind energyWind energy harnesses the power of wind to generate usable forms of energyNot a new source of energyIt is estimated that in 50 to 60 years, wind power could meet between 5 to 10 percent of the country’s demand
21Hydroelectric powerThe power that falling water generates, known as hydroelectric power, drives turbines to produce electricity5% of the country’s powerWater behind a dam is a form of stored energyDrawback:Sediment buildupAvailable suitable sites
22GeoThermal EnergyHarnessed by tapping natural underground reservoirs of steam and hot water to urn turbines and generate electricityThe steam and hot water from individual wells usually last no more than 10 to 15 years
23Tidal powerHarnessed by constructing a dam across the mouth of a bay with a large tidal rangeThe strong in-and-out flow drives turbines and electric generatorsNot economical if the tidal range is less than 8 meters or if a narrow, enclosed bay isn’t available
24Article EssayGo online and research a type of alternative energy sourceFind a scientific article about that type of renewable energy and read itI want you to write an essay on that article including:What the article is about?How would this source get implemented?Cost effective/actually doableWhat is your opinion?This should be 1 page in lengthCite your source
25Ticket out the doorWhat are some ways we could harness renewable resources?Why will the interest in alternative energy sources probably grow in the future?What are the advantages and disadvantages to using solar energy?
27Warm-up #25 Feb.15Water, air, and land resources are essential for life. You need clean air and water everyday. What’s more, soil provides nutrients that allow plants – the basis of our food supply – to grow.How do people use – and sometimes misuse – these vital resources?
28The water planet Water covers 71 percent of Earth’s surface Ocean’s functions:Currents regulate and moderate climateVital to the water cycleHabitat for marine organismsEach day people use fresh water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and growing foodHowever reserves are relatively smallLess than 1% of the water on the planet is usable fresh water
29Freshwater pollution There are two types of sources: Point source pollutionNonpoint source pollutionPoint source comes from a known and specific location, such as factory pipesNonpoint source does not have a specific point of origin.
30Nonpoint sourceRunoff – the water that flows over the land rather than seeping into the groundOften carries nonpoint source pollutionCarry waste oil from the streetsSediment from construction sitesPesticides off farm fields and lawnsWater pollution has many adverse health effects.
31Types of water pollution Disease organisms- bacteria virusesOrganic chemicals – oil, gasoline, plastic, pesticidesInorganic chemicals – acids, toxic metalsPlant fertilizer – soluble compounds with nitrateSediment – soilRadioactive substances – radon, uraniumWastes that remove oxygen from water – manureWhat are the adverse effects from these types of water pollutions?
32Earth’s blanket of airThe chemical composition of the atmosphere helps maintain life on EarthShields us from harmful solar radiationAir pollution changes that chemical compositionFossil fuelsPower plants
33Global warmingWhat era or revolution has led to an increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?Industrial revolutionThe increase has altered the carbon cycle and contributed to the unnatural warming of the lower atmosphereChlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)Air conditioners, plastic foam
34Land resources Estimated 500,000 mines in the US Mining tears up Earth’s surface and destroyes vegetationCauses soil erosion and creates pollutionDeforestation
35Warm-up #26 Feb.16Each year, Americans throw out about 30 million cell phones, 18 million computers, 8 million TV sets, and enough tires to circle the earth about 3 timesWith 6 percent of the worlds population, we use about 1/3 of the world’s resources, and a produce a 1/3 of its garbage.What are some ways to reduce garbage and create less pollution?
36Protecting Resources Conservation – is the careful use of resources. Pollution prevention means stopping pollution from entering the environmentBetween the late 1940s and 1970, many incidents occurred that triggered public responseSevere air pollution killed hundreds and sickened thousandsOil spills killed wild lifeOhio’s polluted Cuyahoga River caught fire and burned for days
37Keeping water clean and safe Starting in the 1970s, the government passed several laws:1972 – Congress passed the Clean Water Act (CWA)Safe surface water increased from 36% to 62% in 30 years1974 – Safe Drinking Water ActSet maximum contaminant levels for a number of pollutants
38Protecting the air 1970 – Congress passed the Clean Air Act Established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)Carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulatesPollutants have decreased 24%
39Caring for land resources Protecting land resources involves preventing pollution and managing land resources wiselyFarmers now use many soil conservation practices to prevent loss of topsoil and preserve fertility.Contour plowingStrip croppingSelective cutting conserves forest resourcesCompost – is partly decomposed organic material that is used as a fertilizer.
40DumpingSince 1977, sanitary landfills have largely replaced open dumps and old-style landfills.The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 has decreased illegal dumpingThe 1980 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act mandates the cleaning up of abandoned hazardous waste sites.Recycling – is the collecting and processing of used items so they can be made into new products
41Warm-up #27 Feb.22 Nuclear Fusion (not fission) The nuclei of smaller atoms combine and form larger nucleiOn the sun, energy is released when hydrogen nuclei combine and form helium nucleiCan only take place at temperatures more than 15 million degrees CelsiusHow could this be more beneficial than nuclear fission? Think about where we would get the hydrogen.
42Warm-up # Feb.23Biomass energy - biological material from living, or recently living organisms, can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as biofuelSOURCES: garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases, and alcohol fuelsHow might this be beneficial?