Instructional Technology Practices (PGT 201E) Group Coursework: Multimedia Slide Presentation With PowerPoint Semester 1-2008/2009 Prepared for: Dr.Rozinah Jamaludin Pn. Rohaya Abdullah Prepared by: Noor Inayah binti Abd Aziz (94834) Nur Suhadah binti Khuzaini (94871) Sharifah Nor Aida binti Sayed Ahmad (94906)
ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM INTRODUCTION OF ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGERED AN ECOSYSTEM HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGERED AN ECOSYSTEM IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ECOSYSTEM IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ECOSYSTEM EFFECT OF UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT AND MISMANAGEMENT OF THE ECOSYSTEM EFFECT OF UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT AND MISMANAGEMENT OF THE ECOSYSTEM
Trees are known to have stablish influence on the composition of the atmosphere, the climate and the soil. Nowadays, trees are cut down and forest are cleared at a faster rate than they are replaced. Our ecosystem are now in danger. Many negative effects have begun to affect the life of humans and other organisms. As an individual, you can choose to be a part of nature and care for it or be a destroyer. Which do you choose? Are you aware of the consequences of your choice? INTRODUCTION OF ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM HOMEBACK
HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT ENDANGERD ECOSYSTEM The size of the human population has been rising exponentially. The effect of human activities on the environment is proportional to the size of the human population. Since older days, human hunted, fished and removed trees to make shelters. Humans too kept animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats to graze on vast areas of grasslands, harming the ecosystem. Human cleared much forest to provide a greater area for agriculture. Continue farming on the same piece of land depletes the land of nutrients, thus, forming desert when abandoned by man. HOMEBACK
At present, humans have the population size, technology and cultural inclination to alter the ecosystem. Industrial revolution, expectation of better living conditions and better modes of transport has led to building of factories, larger cities and more roads. Among the activities that endangered ecosystem are agriculture, industrialisation, deforestation and urbanisation. HOMEBACK
IMPACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE ECOSYSTEM Hunting of animals and harvesting of crops cause extinction of flora and fauna. HOME
use of pesticides, herbicides and fertiliser in agriculture lead to population and harm the organisms in the farm. Building of factories for industrial purposes destroys the forest. Release of gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides pollute the air. Increase in number of houses vehicles give rise to air pollution, water pollution and noise pollution HOMEBACK
EFFECT OF UNPLANNED DEVELOPMENT AND MISMANAGEMENT OF THE ECOSYSTEM Development is needed to improve the quality of humans life in the aspects of economy, social, physical, technology and education. Expansion of industries, transport network and other living conditions are carried out at the expense of the environment when they are not properly planned and managed. The effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of the ecosystem include soil erosion, flash flood, landslide, eutrophication and so on. DEFORESTATION process a major threat to our forest. Deforestation is the act of clearing of the forest by cutting down trees for its valuable timber, and for building of roads, houses and other uses including stock rearing and agriculture. When trees are cut down, the soil surface is exposed directly to the force of rainfall. The top most fertile layers gets washed away causing soil erosin. HOME
Eroded soil may be deposited in rivers. During heavy rain, rainwater flow quickly into rivers because there is no retention of water by the roots of the plants. Due to silting in the rivers, the water flow is blocked. Water flows inland causing flash floods in low land areas. Deforestation and unplanned development on slope may cause soil erosin which leads to landslide. Many speciese of organisms are facing extinction threat when their habitats are being cleared. In the forest, water taken in by plants is lost through transpiration. Water vapour condenses and precipitates into rain. When trees are cut down, there is a reduction of transpiration resulting in fewer clouds and lesser rainfall, the area becomes hotter and drier. HOMEBACK
Global warming occurs when the greenhouse gases slow down the loss of infrared radiation from the atmosphere to the spaces. This cases an increase in temperature of the atmosphere. Chorofluorocarbons, which are used in the making of aerosol cans, as coolants in air conditioners, as solvents in electric industry and in polystyrene are responsible for ozone depletion. The use of industrial and agricultural chemicals and dumping of rubbish into river contribute to water pollution. Eutrophication is a result of too much of organic salts being washed into lakes, encouraging the growth of algae. This will block the sunlight from reaching the inner depth of the lake. Heated waste water from industrial plants and building with glass panels and cause thermal pollution. Air pollution is the result of burning of fuels. HOMEBACK
POLLUTION Pollution is an undesirable change in the chemical, physical, or biological characteristics of the nature. Pollutant is any substance that is present an an excessive amount in the environment as a result of human activities. Pollutants have damaging effects on our health. They are also harmful to other living organisms. There are four type of pollutant. Air pollution, water pollution, thermal pollution and noise pollution
TYPES OF POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION THERMAL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION
AIR POLLUTION Air pollution occurs when pollutants including smoke, dirt, dust and poisonous gases are released into the air endangering humans lives and other living organisms. The sources of air pollution are factories, motorised vehicles, burning, agriculture and using of aerosol cans, air conditioner, refrigerator. Pollution also affects agriculture, buildings, and climate. Carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogenoxides form acidic solution when dissolve in water. Sulphur dioxide oxidises and react with water forming sulphuric acid, while nitrogen oxides react with water to form nitric acid. Carbon dioxide forms carbonic acid with water. HOME
WATER POLLUTION Discharging industrial wastes, agriculture wastes, domestic wastes and sewage into rivers. Ontribution to water pollution. Thus causing the water to be un safe for humans consumption as well endangered the lives of aquatic organisms. HOME
Heavy mental such as mercury and cadmium from industries are toxic. Eating fish contaminated with mercury may caused death, blindness and even paralysis. On the other hand, eating food contaminated may caused weakened or deformed bones. BACK
EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION:- EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS
EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH Raw sewage is likely to contain pathogens. The vibrio bacteria cause cholera whereas salmonella bacteria cause typhoid disease. Excess unused fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides washed away by rain water into rivers from the farms are dangerous to human. Dioxin a type of herbicides, may cause miscarriages in women, physical and mental abnormalities in children, increase the risk of cancer and skin disorder. HOME
EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS Rubbish and oil floating on the surface of the water reduces the penetration of light and diffusion of oxygen from atsmosphere. Aquatic plants and animal may die due to lack of oxygen and light. Bacteria feeds on sewage. They grow and multiply quickly using a lot of oxygen from the water. Other aquatic organisms die as a result of decreasing of oxygen concentration. Pesticides, insecticides and herbicides present in the water may poison the fish. HOME
Oil spill is a threat to the aquatic lives. Oil will stick onto the feathers of birds, thus preventing them for flying. When the birds try to clean their feathers they may swallow the oil and this may kill them. It also causes death to birds through hypothermia. Oil will cover the gills of fishes thus affecting their respiration. Mineral salt from sewage and fertilisers deposited in lakes or lower reaches of rivers encourage the growth of algae and aquatic plants. BACK
The densely populated algae and aquatic plants cover the water surface to a point where light is unable to penetrate into the water. The submerged algae and aquatic plants in the lake are unable to photosynthesis and will die due to the lack of oxygen. Decomposition of these dead organism by saprophytic bacteria causes a decrease in oxygen content in the water.
The whole process is called eutrophication Eutrophication increases the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value in the water. BOD is the amount of oxygen needed by microorganisms to decompose the organic matter in the water. The higher the BOD the more polluted the water.
THERMAL POLLUTION Thermal pollution is caused by the discharged of warm water from industries, generators in power station, reactor stations and reflection of heat from glass building resulting in excess heat in the environment. Many industries use water foe cooling the machines. Electricity generating stations use steam to drive the turbines. The warm water is discharged to rivers at a higher temperature of 10c. Warm water holds less oxygen. This effects the life of a aquatic organisms. Many aquatic organisms move away from the water. Some may even die. HOME
NOISE POLLUTION When the surrounding noise level reaches 80 dB or more, it causes discomfort and affects the human health. WHO recommends a noise level of not more than 55 dB. When someone is exposed to a noise level to 80 dB or more or along period of time, he may suffer from headache, emosional and mental disturbances and in certain cases, may cause defness. Sources of noise pollution are, vehicles, jet planes, construction sites, entertainment outlets and machines. HOME
GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER GREENHOUSE EFFECT Energy from the sun reaches the earth through radiation. Some of this radiation is absorbed by the earth to warm the surfaces of sea and land, as the earth warms up, heat in the form of infrared radiation is emitted back to the space. However, much of this radiation is prevented from escaping to the space by certain gases such as carbon dioxide,methane. These gases particularly carbon dioxide absorb the infrared radiation. As a result the heat is radiated back to the Earth surface, warming the earth further. http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse / http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/greenhouse /
GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER This effect is similar to a greenhouse used in farming, it is usually found in temperature countries, whereby the glass of the greenhouse traps the heat of the sun to keep the soil and air warm The phenomena of over warming of the earth air known as a greenhouse effect. The increase in carbon dioxide levels are due to combustion of fossil full, mainly coal and deforestation and open burning. Some scientist predicted that the earth temperature could rise 1.5oc to 4.50c by 2030.
GREENHOUSE EFFECT AND THINNING OF THE OZONE LAYER With the thinning of the ozone layer, more UV radiation reaches the earth surface. The following are the effects of ozone depletion on the environment, include increase in surrounding temperature, change in wind directions, change in climate. On plants, damage to crops due to over exposure to UV, and damage of the phyto plantons. On human health, they will get skin cancer, cataract, and weakened immune system
THE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ARE:- Rise in a see level due to melting to ice Flood in low lands Climatic change Drought Dry and interfile soil
THE IMPORTANCE OF PROPER MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES AND THE ECOSYSTEM Development activities must be properly managed to protect the plants and animals and to maintain a stablebalanced ecosystem. measures that taken include, implementation of lows to reduce pollution, use of technology, formal and informal education stressing on the concept of recycling to conserve nonrenewable resources, reducing and reusing, preservation and conservation to reduce environmental pollution and to protect plant and animal species, especially those in danger of extinction, biological control to reduce excessive usage of prestices, and efficient use of energy and using renewable energy, for example solar energy, hydroelectric power and wind power.