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Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance.

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Presentation on theme: "Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Onboard/In-Field Automated Fault Detection and Diagnostics a Subcommittee of the Advanced Technology Committee of the Western HVAC Performance Alliance Subcommittee Meeting 9:30am – 12:30pm (PT) December 11, 2012 Call-in: 712/ # Weblink:

2 Agenda 9:30Recap of 2012, Results of Roadmap Prioritization Survey 10:00Presentation of Climacheck Case Study 10:30Presentation of Ezenics and Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings 11:30HVAC Maintenance Behavior: the Customer and the Technician 12:30Adjourn

3 2012 AFDD Subcommittee Accomplishments Roadmap Reviewed and Survey Conducted Title 24 Requirement Passed SCE continued Testing SPC 207 Launched Developed Timeline of AFDD Advancements Presentations – Daihung Yu: Virtual Sensors – Jon Douglas: Residential and Light Commercial Systems – Sean McCaffrey: Case Study – Brian Thompson: Ezenics – Kristin Heinemeier and Claudia Barriga: Maintenance Behavior

4 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard Lack of Availability Research into Residential FDD 1 Research into FDD on Thermostat 3 Research into Non-Microprocessor Units 3 Research FDD for Different System Types 6 Other (please specify) 3 The link between the onboard FDD results and systems or people to act upon it not just getting more overwhelmed. Research into successful applications and case studies reliable economizer FDD

5 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard Lack of Standards Collaboration with CEE 0 Energy Star "Most Efficient" Criteria T24 Standard 2 ASHRAE Standard method of Test for RTU FDD 3 Research Laboratory Methods of Test 3 Inventory Reach Codes 0 Propose Reach Code FDD Requirements 3 Propose ASHRAE Std FDD Requirements 2 Propose ASHRAE Std FDD Requirements T24 Standard 1 Other (please specify) 0

6 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: Onboard Lack of Customer Pull Research into Maintenance Behavior 1 High Performance RTU Challenge 1 Research into Fault Incidence 3 Cost Effectiveness Assessment and Dissemination3 Program Pilot Test 0 Case Studies 2 Research into Market Acceptability 1 Design IOU FDD Program 2 Launch IOU FDD Program 2 Other (please specify) 1 Integrate IOU FDD program into existing CQM prgms

7 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField Lack of Validated Protocols Results from Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator Project 7 Collect and Disseminate Field Data 2 Benchmark and Assess Existing Protocols 6 Create Gap Analysis of Existing Protocols 1 Other (please specify) 2 Options to quickly deal with and meet security & IT needs Answer 1 seems to be part of Answer 3

8 Evaluating Diagnostic Protocols PIER-Purdue Protocol Evaluator: accuracy test for FDD protocols –refrigerant charge –evaporator & condenser airflow –non-condensables –liquid line restrictions –compressor valve leakage Application software/users manual in final development CA T /2013 Installer/HERS RCA spec …performs poorly. Flagging faults in up to 46% of the unfaulted cases, misdiagnosing over 25% of cases with faults, and not detecting faults in 32-55% of the cases with faults present.

9 FDD Evaluator Review Draft Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator report: January Tentative March 1, 2013 in-person WCEC UC/Davis –Review evaluator –Review RCA issues

10 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField Lack of Customer Pull Develop Program for Commercial Buildings 12 Develop Program for Residential Buildings 1 Conduct Human Behavior Projects 3 Other (please specify) 0

11 Results of Roadmap Prioritization: InField Lack of Integration with Existing Systems Answer Options Response Count Work with Manufacturers to Enhance Maintainability 2 Institute Voluntary Industry Agreement to Deliver Changes 2 In-Field FDD and Maintenance Study 7 Work with OEMS to Develop Products 3 Other (please specify) 2 Promote "FDD READY" tag for everything from work order software, to control hardware, to energy rate supply solutions Work with OEMs to reach consenus around use of portable computerized FDD

12 OnBoard Priorities Research FDD for Different System Types Laboratory Methods of Test Research into FDD on Thermostat Research into Non-Microprocessor Units Propose Reach Code FDD Requirements Research into Fault Incidence Cost Effectiveness Assessment and Dissemination

13 InField Priorities Results from Diagnostic Protocol Evaluator Project Benchmark and Assess Existing Protocols Develop Program for Commercial Buildings In-Field FDD and Maintenance Study Conduct Human Behavior Projects Work with OEMS to Develop Products

14 FDD Case Study Presentation ClimaCheck » Sean McCaffrey

15 Ezenics Enterprise Plug n Play Diagnostics and Optimization for Smart Buildings » Brian Thompson Manufacturer Presentation

16 Research Presentation Understanding Maintenance Behavior » Customer: Claudia Barriga » Technician: Kristin Heinemeier

17 Maintenance and Real People Kristin Heinemeier Claudia Barriga

18 HVAC Behavioral Research Initiative

19 Understanding Maintenance Behavior in Residential and Light Commercial End Users. (SCE HTSDA) Lab and Field Usability of In-Home Energy Displays (SCE HTSDA) Behavior and AFDD (SCE HTSDA – Q4 12) Understanding Contractor and Technician Behavior (SCE EM&V) Roadmap for Behavior and Human Factors Research in HVAC (CEC/PIER IA) HVAC Technician Instrument Laboratory (CEC/PIER CIEE) HVAC BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH INITIATIVE PROJECTS

20 Understanding Maintenance Behavior in Residential and Light Commercial End Users Claudia Barriga, Kristin Heinemeier, Laura Flynn, Dina Biscotti Western Cooling Efficiency Center Energy Efficiency Center Southern California Edison

21 Methods Survey of Residential End Users Sample – 270 Southern California Residents – Random Sample from SCE territory Online Survey Residents – Knowledge about AC and maintenance – Attitudes towards AC and maintenance – Attitudes towards the environment – Preferences for FDD alert systems

22 Regularly maintains Air Conditioner143 (53%) Has had (ever) the AC professionally serviced193 (71.5%) Has had professional service within the last year 97(35.9%) Has been offered an HVAC maintenance agreement 140 (51.9%) Currently has an HVAC maintenance agreement 33 (12.2%) Characteristics of Sample Regarding AC Maintenance

23 H OW WOULD YOU KNOW THAT YOUR AC NEEDS REPAIRS OR MAINTENANCE ? R ESPONSE C ATEGORIES R ESPONSES (N = 270) Not Cooling192 (71.1%) Not turning on (Fan, Blower, Motor)109 (40.4%) Makes atypical noises 96 (35.6%) Unusual Smells 20 (7.4%) High Energy Bills/System running constantly 23 (8.5%) Alert (Light in Thermostat) 18 (6.7%) Scheduled Professional Maintenance11 (4.1%)

24 FDD A LERT T YPE (N = 270) Light alerting fault + specific fault information153 (56.7%) Flashing light indicating fault117 (43.3%) Beeping sound indicating fault 100 (37.0%) Green light indicating proper operation 100 (37.0%) Numerical rating of AC performance (e.g. at 75%) 86 (31.9%) Light alerting fault + risk information 81 (30.0%) Light alerting fault + optimization opportunities info72 (26.7%) Light alerting fault + automatic message to HVAC technical service43 (15.9%) Preferred FDD Alert Type

25 Simulated In Home Energy Displays with Specific vs. General Alerts and Recommendations

26

27 )

28 I think this should be vertical and tagged at both ends, with color coding for bad stuff (red bad, green good)

29

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31 Methods Focus Groups of Small Business Owners Four Focus Groups in 2 SCE territory locations participants per group Attitudes towards AC and maintenance Attitudes towards Utilities Energy Efficiency Programs Attitudes towards the Environment

32 Key Findings K EY FINDING 1: S MALL BUSINESS OWNERS ARE NOT CONVINCED THAT REGULAR HVAC MAINTENANCE SAVES MONEY. Recommendations: Show customers approximate (or best yet, actual) energy savings on bill that result from active participation in maintenance programs. Develop tools or techniques to field test AC unit efficiency before and after measures are implemented. K EY FINDING 2: S MALL BUSINESS OWNERS DO NOT UNDERSTAND HOW TO PROPERLY MAINTAIN HVAC EQUIPMENT. Recommendation: Create a guide for small businesses owners to use as a screening tool to find good contractors and as a double check for existing contractors. K EY F INDING 3: S MALL BUSINESS OWNERS DO NOT LIKE COMPLICATED REBATE PROGRAMS. Recommendation: Streamline rebate process or encourage contractors to take on the role of rebate collectors to minimize inconvenience to small business owners. Another idea is to provide the rebate as a credit on the utility bill.

33 Covertly Observed 13 Maintenance Technicians Requested service, maintenance, and energy tune-up. Two faults: Airflow <250cfm/ton Registers closed Post-Observation Interview Maintenance Technician Observation Study

34 Tech # Invite Type Years of Exp. Service Duration Service Price Certified Prog. Part. Nat'l Chain Owner :02 $ :50 $ :02 $ 75NATE,NCI :40 $ 79NATE :00 $ :23 $ :30 $ :35 $ 85NATE :57 $ :16 $ :42 $ :33 $ :00 $ 149NATE,NCI Technician Characteristics

35 Task Description Technicians Number of Techs. Attempt Number of Techs. Correct Thermostat 65 Registers 54 Air Filter 92 Temp Split 62 Furnace 52 Electrical 91 Line and Duct Insulation 91 Ext. Static 21 Airflow 21 Ducts 90 Condenser Coil 70 Motor Amps 70 Biologicals 60 Refrig. Chg. 50 Evaporator Coil 00 Total Attempts Total Correct

36 Tasks Completed Correctly by Service Duration and Technician Characteristics

37 TechnicianCostRecommendation 21 $650New supply ducts 31 New supply ducts and UV light 43 $150New capacitor for condenser and fan 54 $129Add up to 3 pounds of refrigerant 80 N/A 96 N/A 33 $1,236 Hard-start and run capacitors, UV bulb, Schrader core replacement 72 $1,194UV lamp, blower fan, contactor, air filter for two systems 87 $445New condenser fan motor 99 N/A 22 Add 1 pound of refrigerant 65 $156Replace contactor 79 Improve airflow and add refrigerant charge Average$566 Recommendations by Technicians

38 Technical performance was below the standards of ACCA 4 and Quality Maintenance goals. Yet, technicians were more knowledgeable than their technical performance scores would suggest This study does not provide evidence that lack of training or certification is creating the problem. Technician Observation Conclusions

39 Technicians work hard to achieve their perceived company and customer goals: Company Goals Their companys goal is to sell and accomplish as many service calls as possible in one day. Customer Goals Customers are interested in only two things: in the equipment working when needed, and in spending as little time and money as possible to achieve that goal. Technician Observation Conclusions

40 These goals are closely tied both to the industrys traditional practices around maintenance services and to common connotations of the word maintenance. Industry transformation should include a way to make technicians see the non-traditional goals of quality technical performance as consistent with the goals of their employers and their customers. Technician Observation Conclusions

41 A new category of service other thanmaintenance or tune-up, is required…perhaps optimization. Solid data on benefits, both for the industry at large and for individual buildings, is key.

42 Discussion…

43 Thank you! Mark Cherniack Kristin Heinemeier Jerine Ahmed Anthony Hernandez KC Spivey 43


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