Presentation on theme: "Environment - derived Environner, which mean encircle or surrounding. Environment is a complex of many variables, which surrounds man as well as the living."— Presentation transcript:
Environment - derived Environner, which mean encircle or surrounding. Environment is a complex of many variables, which surrounds man as well as the living organisms. Environmental studies describe the interrelationships among organisms,
S COPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Creates awareness among the people to know about various renewable and nonrenewable resources of the region. Potential, patterns of utilization and the balance of various resources available for future are analysed in the study. Provides the knowledge about ecological systems Provides information about biodiversity richness Enables one to understand the causes and consequences due to natural and main induced disasters Helps to evaluate alternative responses to environmental issues Exposes the problems of over population, health, hygiene, etc. and the role of arts, science and technology in eliminating/ minimizing the evils from the society. Tries to identify and develop appropriate and indigenous eco-friendly skills and technologies to various environmental issues. Teaches the citizens the need for sustainable utilization of resources Enables theoretical knowledge into practice and the multiple uses of environ ment.
M ULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH Biology Geology Chemistry Physics Engineering Sociology Health Anthropology Economics Statistics Philosophy Major environmental issues
I MPORTANCE The study enables the people to understand the complexities of the environment and need for the people to adapt appropriate activities and pursue sustainable development, which are harmonious with the environment. The study motivates students to get involved in community action, and to participate in various environmental and management projects. It is a high time to reorient educational systems and curricula towards these needs. Environmental studies take a multidisciplinary approach to the study of human interactions with the natural environment. It integrates different approaches of the humanities, social sciences, biological sciences and physical sciences and applies these approaches to investigate environmental concerns. Environmental study is a key instrument for bringing about the changes in the knowledge, values, behaviors and lifestyles required to achieve sustainability and stability within and among countries.
M AJOR E NVIRONMENTAL I SSUES Mans ambition for limitless enjoyment and comfort - exploitation of natures wealth Reduces natures capacity for self stabilization Mans voracious appetite for resources - has put him on collision course with environment. Major environmental issues threatening mankind are Global warming, water pollution, biomedical wastes, e waste, Hazardous waste, pesticide pollution and loss of biodiversity
G LOBAL WARMING Air pollutants from automobiles
W ATER POLLUTION Polluted tank The Indian homes produces about 75 % of the wastewater, Sewage treatment facilities are inadequate in most cities and almost absent in rural India. Marine pollution Industrial pollution According to CPCB, of the 8,432 large and medium industries in the country, only 4,989 had installed appropriate measures to treat wastewater before discharge.
Drinking water or scrap yard !!!
PALAR RIVER BASIN 120 km length with 4710 area of river basin
The Kudaganaru River which passes through 15 villages in Tamil Nadu is polluted due to the effluents discharged by 17 tanneries in Dindigul.
P ESTICIDE POLLUTION Poisoning from pesticides affects 68,000 farmers and workers every day 25 million workers / year suffer from pesticide poisoning throughout the world. Farmers and agricultural workers are exposed to pesticides directly, especially in developing countries such as Asia.
Major Areas of Pesticide Usage Source: www.hinduonnet.com Major Areas of Pesticide Usage Source: www.hinduonnet.com
P ESTICIDE PATHWAY
I MPORTANT PESTICIDE EPISODES Common plantation workers in Malaysia against the impact of Parquet. IRRI workers in Philippines poisoned by pesticides The communities living in KasarGao, Kerala who have been poisoned by Endosulfan, which was aerially sprayed by the plantation corporation of Kerala, India
B HOPAL D ISASTER
This vapour was a highly toxic cloud of methyl isocyanate. 2,000 died immediately 3,00,000 were injured 7,000 animals were injured, 1000 were killed.
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Samples of various body tissues and stomach contents were analysed for a variety of organic and inorganic chemicals Level of endosulfan seems to be indicative of poisoning. Histopathological report Kidney : Toxic nephritis Liver : Toxic hepatitis
PESCTICIDES IN SOFT DRINKS
S oft drinks are non-alcoholic water-based flavoured drinks that are optionally sweetened, acidulated and carbonated. Some carbonated soft drinks also contain caffeine; mainly the brown-coloured cola drinks.
M AJOR PLAYERS IN INDIA The two global majors PepsiCo and Coca-Cola dominate the soft drink market in India.
C OCO COLA BRANDS Coca-Cola bought local brands-Thumps Up, Limca, sprite, minute made, and Gold Spot from Parle Beverages and soft drink brands Crush, Canada Dry and Sport Cola from Cadbury Schweppes in early 1999
P EPSICO BRANDS
S AMPLE A NALYSIS Soft drinks industry is a classic case as the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) discovered way back in 2003. A laboratory report prepared by CSE detailed some astonishing facts about the extent of pesticide contamination in soft drinks sold in India The samples were analysed by using EPA Method 8081A for organochlorines and EPA Method 8141A for organophosphorus compounds by gas chromatography - capillary column technique.
Center for Science and Environment (CSE) found a cocktail of 3 to 6 pesticides in all samples. The average amount of pesticide is 24 times higher than B.I.S. standard. Pepsi contained 30 times higher residues on an average. Coca cola contains 27 times higher residue on an average. The brand break-up of the pesticide content shows that Coca cola contains the most pesticide content and Pepsi Cafechino has the least pesticide content
Market leaders Coca-Cola and Pepsi had almost similar concentrations of pesticide residues. At the same time CSE also tested two soft drink brands sold in the US, to see if they contained pesticides. They didnt. This only goes to show the companies were following dual standards.
The brand break-up in ppb (parts per billion) are as follows: Pepsi Cola - 15.2 ppb Coca cola - 13.4 ppb Seven Up - 12.5 ppb Thums Up - 10.9 ppb Mirinda Orange - 10.7 ppb Duke Lemonade - 10.9 ppb Mirinda Lemon - 8.1 ppb Limca - 6.7 ppb Fanta - 9.1 ppb Mountain Dew - 7.0 ppb
Among the total pesticide found in 18 cities in India, Kolkata is on the top and Guwahati is in the bottom of that list. Kolkata has a pesticide content in cold drinks of about 51.7 ppb. It has been shown time and again that these pesticides can be used to kill bacteria in bathrooms. The acidic content of these drinks are harmful to the human body.
H AZARDOUS W ASTE In India, generation of hazardous waste into the tune of 6-7 million tones /year. The major hazardous waste in India is petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, paints, dyes, fertilizers, chlor-alkali and other different industries
H AZARDOUS WASTE Dumping of Tannery Sludge
B IOMEDICAL W ASTE
Amalgams -poison in the making A dentist could generate around 80 gms mercury/month 51 kgs of mercury released from amalgams each year in Delhi
M ERCURY IS MORE POISONOUS AND D ANGEROUS THAN L EAD AND A RSENIC.
E W ASTE Large household appliances - Refrigerators Air conditioners, computers & Stereo systems, Mobile phones. Its volume increases by 3-5% per annum Differs from normal municipal waste stream. Major pollutants are Heavy metals – Hg, Pb, Cd, Cr (VI) and Flame retardants – Polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).
Lead to water !!! Is India graveyard for e-waste ???
E W ASTE – I NTERNATIONAL S CENARIO 20-50 MT / yr of WEEE are generated world-wide. USA accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation. EU - 5 to 7 million tonnes per annum or about 14 to 15 kg per capita and is expected to grow at a rate of 3% to 5% per year. India's e-waste generation is growing at the rate of 15per cent and is expected to cross 800,000 tonne mark by 2012. In developed countries, currently it equals 1% of total solid waste generation and is expected to grow to 2% by 2010.
W HY IS E W ASTE A P ROBLEM ? ( CON T …) In the US in 2005, 42 million computers were discarded 25 million in storage 4 million recycled 13 million landfilled 0.5 million incinerated
e wastes Computer peripherals Discarded cables House-holds Battery parts
W HY IS E W ASTE A P ROBLEM ? RapidTechnologyChangesIncreasedConsumerElectronicPurchases More eWaste More Hazardous Materials Land filled IncreasingHumanHealthRisks
W HAT A RE T HE T OXIC C OMPONENTS ? Electronic Waste Recycling www.news.bbc.co.uk
W HY IS E W ASTE IN L ANDFILLS C ONTROVERSIAL ? E Waste constitutes 40% of lead and 70% of heavy metals in landfills Daily Cover Refuse Cell Leachate Collection Plastic Liner Clay Barrier
W HY IS E W ASTE IN L ANDFILLS C ONTROVERSIAL ? ( CON T ) The uncertain science of landfills Inconsistent data regarding dose levels & exposure route Rudimentary e Waste recycling could create more environmental hazards than land filling http://www.pc-recycling.com /
These are 500 times more poisonous gases than pollution from other means
The poisonous gases !!!
Incineration plant oberhausen, Germany
W ASTE N EAR W ATER Lead to water !!!
Is this what we leave for next generation ???
L OSS OF B IODIVERSITY Biodiversity loss last 200 years 100 sp mammals 160 birds Habitat destruction Habitat fragmentation Habitat degradation and pollution Introduction of exotic species Disease Over exploitation Shifting or Jhum cultivation