Presentation on theme: "ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE THE COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN CARBON THEY CAN BE FOUND IN PRODUCTS MADE FROM LIVING THINGS OR THINGS THAT ARE ARTIFICIALLY."— Presentation transcript:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ARE THE COMPOUNDS THAT CONTAIN CARBON THEY CAN BE FOUND IN PRODUCTS MADE FROM LIVING THINGS OR THINGS THAT ARE ARTIFICIALLY PRODUCED. THEY ARE PART THE SOLID MATTER OF EVERY ORGANISM ON EARTH. RAW MATERIALS FOR MOST MANUFACTURED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS COME FROM PETROLEUM OR CRUDE OIL.
MANY ORGANIC COMPOUNDS HAVE SIMILAR PROPERTIES IN TERMS OF HAVING MELTING POINTS, BOILING POINTS, ODOR, ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, AND SOLUBILITY. MANY HAVE LOW MELTING AND LOW BOILING POINTS THEY TEND TO HAVE STRONG ODORS DONT CONDUCT ELECTRIC CURRENT AND DONT DISSOLVE IN WATER.
Carbon Atoms Carbon atoms act as the backbone of a skeleton or the molecules of these compounds. Carbon compounds include gases such as, propane; liquids such as, olive oil; and solids such as, cotton. Mixtures of compounds can be found in food, paper, and shampoo.
organic compounds organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. the term is used because scientists once thought that organic compounds could only be produced by living things. but, now scientists know that they can also be artificially produced.
many organic compounds have similar properties in terms of melting points, boiling points, odor, electrical conductivity, and solubility. many organic compounds have low melting points and low boiling points. as a result they have strong odors.
hydrocarbons the simplest organic compounds are hydrocarbons. a hydrocarbon is a compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon. Methane, the main gas in natural gas, and it is used to heat homes Propane
STRUCTURE OF HYDROCARBONS By: Athena the awesome Caden the grey Marleen the sparkles
CARBON CHAINS A hydrocarbon may be straight, branched or ring shaped They can be straight or branched
STRUCTURE FORMULA A structure formula shows the kind, number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
Carbon can form a single or double bond with oxygen Structural formulas represent a double bond with a double dash between two elements A triple bond is indicated by a triple dash Double and Triple bonds
Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons By Andrew Martin Penny Kibbe Jaquie Macias
Saturated Hydrocarbons Saturated Hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons (molecules with only Hydrogen and Carbon Atoms) in which all bonds are single bonds It has the maximum number of atoms in the valence field All saturated hydrocarbons end in the suffixes –ane
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons in which at least one or more bonds are double or triple All unsaturated hydrocarbons end in the suffix –ene or –yne.
Simplest unsaturated Hydrocarbon and Function The simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond is ethene (C2H4) Fruits produce ethene gas because it helps the fruit ripen. The simplest hydrocarbon with one triple bond is ethyne (C2H2), also known as acetylene. Acetylene torches are used for welding.
Substituted Hydrocarbons And compounds containing halogens
Hydrocarbons contain only one carbon and one hydrogen Carbon can form stable bonds with several other elements Substituted hydrocarbon- atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon Hydrocarbons include- halogen-containing compounds, alcohols, and organic acids
One or more halogen atoms replace hydrogen atoms Halogen family includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine Freon is used as a cooling liquid in refrigerators and air conditioners
Substituted Hydrocarbons Substituted Hydrocarbons are where atoms of other elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon. If you change on hydrocarbon it becomes a completely different compound. The carbon can bond with many other elements like oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens
Compounds Containing Halogens In some substituted hydrocarbons one or more halogens replace hydrogen atoms. Halogen family includes fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Freon is used as a as a cooling agent in refrigerators.
Alcohols An alcohol is a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups. They have high boiling points and dissolve well in water When a hydroxyl group is substituted for one hydrogen atom in ethane, the result is ethanol. Ethanol is produced naturally by the action of yeast or bacteria on the sugar stored in corn.
Organic Acids An organic acid is a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more carboxyl groups. A carboxyl group is written as –COOH You can find organic acids in many foods
Esters An ester is a compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid. Many esters smell like fruit Esters are responsible for the smell of many fruits Some esters are used in medicines like aspirin
* In chapter 8, our science textbook explains carbon compounds. Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon within them. It also talks about hydrocarbon, isomers, the carboxyl group, monomers, and so on.
* An ester is a compound made by chemically combining alcohol and an organic acid.
* Very large molecules made of a chain of smaller molecules bonded together is a polymer. The prefix poly means many and mono means one.
* Some polymers are made by many living things. Examples are sheep growing wool and cotton fibers from cotton seeds. Synthetic polymers are made in factories. Nylon or polyesters are synthetic polymers.