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Energy Auditing & Building Science South Point Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Auditing & Building Science South Point Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Auditing & Building Science South Point Hotel, Las Vegas, NV 2013

2 Presenters Richard Benkowski, United Association Frank Spevak, Energy Conservatory Erik Rasmussen, ESCO Group

3 Session Time Line Tuesday 13:30 to 16:45 Introductions What is Building Science Exercise & Handouts Exercise Discussion UA Delta T 13:45 to 16:20 The Building Shell Heat Transfer BREAK 15:00 to 15:20 NEAT Software 16:40 to 16:45 Wednesday 08:00 to 16:00 Blower Door & Infiltration Duct Blaster & Leakage 08:00 to 11:20 Neat Software 09:35 to 09:40 Break 09:40 to 10:00 Neat Software 11:25 to 11:30 Lunch 11:30 to 12:30 Health and Safety CO Heating systems Neat Software 13:20 to 13:25 Combustion Break 14:00 to 14:20 Finalize audit and Discuss

4 Building Science / Energy Audit Building science is the study of a buildings interactions between the structure and its components. A structures occupants, mechanical systems, and the surrounding outdoor environment all play a role in the performance of a building. Energy Audit The process of identifying energy conservation opportunities.

5 Building Science Design & Development Climate Thermal dynamics Insulation Thermal boundary Air leakage Ventilation Heating and cooling Humidity and moisture sources Stack effect and fans

6 WHAT IS ENERGY? THE MEASURABLE QUANTITY OF HEAT WORK LIGHT

7 HEAT ENERGY – BTU/HR

8 WORK ENERGY

9 LIGHT ENERGY

10 Industry Guidelines

11 Industry Scorecards LEED GBCI ASHRAE RESCheck

12 Industry Scorecards NEAT / e+ COMCheck Joe Bidens Home Energy Score DOE

13 Industry Scorecards EPA GreenCHILL Portfolio Manager

14 ASHRAE COMPARISON

15 ASHRAE 90.1 – WHATS NEXT? New ChangeEffective DateReference Section 2010 Min Efficiency Standards up to 63 tons Jan 2010 Federal Section 6 IEER part load metric replaces IPLVJan 2010 Federal Section Addendum y, au Exhaust air energy recovery scope mandated Jan 2010 State Section Addendum e Manual dampers not allowedJan 2010 State Section Addendum b Low leakage economizer dampersJan 2012 State Section Speed Fan requirement for single zone systems > 10 tons Jan 2012 State Section 6, Addendum n Multiple VAV control changes: Re-Heat, DDC, Dehumidification Jan 2012 State Section 6, Addendum b,c,h, bh, bx

16 HIGHER TIER STANDARDS AND GUIDES –LEED (just revised and will be revised again in 2012) –New Building Institute Core Performance Guide –Commercial EnergyStar (being revised) –FEMP (being revised) –CEE - Consortium for Energy Efficiency (being revised) –ASHRAE and ASHRAE (new) –ASHRAE Building Rating System (new) –ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (new) –California Green Building Standards Code (CALGREEN) (new) –GBI - Green Building Assessment Protocol for Commercial Buildings (new) –IECC - International Green Construction Code (IGCC) (new) Go to Carrier.com for up to the minute updates

17 Climate Zones – 2009 IECC

18 FUTURE EFFICIENCY Single Phase Requirements < 5 tons Effective dates: May 1, 2013 for non-weatherized furnaces Jan 1, 2015 for air conditioners & heat pumps, including weatherized furnaces (gas packs) Effective dates of subsequent standards: 2019 for non-weatherized furnaces and 2022 for air conditioners/heat pumps and weatherized furnaces NEW

19 ENERGY STAR / CEE / ASHRAE 189 Multiple higher efficiency standards are being developed and revised –Not mandatory at the state levels –EnergyStar is now required on Federal buildings (Jan 2007), may be required on state buildings –Often tied to rebates

20 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE HUMIDITY AIR CIRCULATION AIR VENTILATION AIR FILTRATION SOUND LIGHT

21 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY AIR CIRCULATION AIR VENTILATION AIR FILTRATION SOUND LIGHT

22 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION AIR VENTILATION AIR FILTRATION SOUND LIGHT

23 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION FPM AIR VENTILATION AIR FILTRATION SOUND LIGHT

24 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION FPM AIR VENTILATION 7.5CFM/PERSON AIR FILTRATION SOUND LIGHT

25 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION FPM AIR VENTILATION 7.5CFM/PERSON AIR FILTRATIONMERV 13 SOUND LIGHT

26 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION FPM AIR VENTILATION 7.5CFM/PERSON AIR FILTRATIONMERV 13 SOUND dBA LIGHT

27 HUMAN COMFORT TEMPERATURE F HUMIDITY 30 – 60%RH AIR CIRCULATION FPM AIR VENTILATION 7.5CFM/PERSON AIR FILTRATIONMERV 13 SOUND dBA LIGHT LUX

28 Mechanical Science

29 Heat Transfer Conduction Radiation Convection

30 WHICH WAY DOES HEAT FLOW?

31 RESIDENTIAL HEAT LOSS

32 AIR INFILTRATION AIR LEAKING OUT OF A 70F HOME WILL BE REPLACED BY 20F AIR INFILTRATION

33 AIR MOVES BY PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL

34 FROM HIGH TO LOW

35 WHAT IS R VALUE? Compared to the U Factor?

36

37 Overall coefficient of heat transfer, given in BTUH per square foot of heat transfer surface area, per degree F temperature difference What is the U Factor ?

38 Heat Flow Thru a Wall

39 Conductivity = k Amount of heat in BTUH flowing through a one inch thickness of a material of uniform consistency when the area of the material is one square foot and when the difference in temperature between the faces of the material is one degree F.

40 Conductivity = k One square foot, one inch thick, one deg F

41 BTU MOVEMENT 71F 1 SQ. FT.70F ONE HOUR 1 BTU

42 Conductance = C Amount of heat in BTUH flowing through an area of one square foot of a material, having a certain specified thickness, when the difference in temperature between the two faces of the material is one degree F.

43 Conductance = C

44 Thermal Resistance = R Defined as the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient. The higher the number of the heat transfer coefficient, the more readily will the material transfer heat and the more rapid the heat flow will be. Resistance is just the opposite of the coefficient of heat transfer.

45 Thermal Resistance = R Which material will have a higher R value? Face brick or common brick?

46 Thermal Resistance = R Which material will have a higher R value? Asphalt shingles or 3/8 plywood?

47 ADDING R VALUES YOU HAVE A CEILING AREA OF 1,000 FT. SQ. - R-38, WITH A PULL- DOWN ATTIC STAIRS WITH A PLYWOOD BOARD ACCESS 10 FT. SQ. - R-0.5. HOW WILL THIS EFFECT MY OVERALL R VALUE?

48 ADDING R VALUES 1,000 FT.SQ. TOTAL 990 FT.SQ.R-38U = FT.SQ.R-0.5U = 2.0 (990 x.0263)+(10 x 2) = 1,000 (26.037)+(20) = 1, =U ,000 U = R-21.7

49 Overall coefficient of heat transfer, given in BTUH per square foot of heat transfer surface area, per degree F temperature difference What is the U Factor ?

50 ADD the R values: R = Total Resistance R T = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4, etc. Calculate the U Factor ?

51 INVERT the Total Resistance: U = 1 / R T Calculate the U Factor ?

52 A wall has the following characteristics: Outside surface coefficient – 0.17 Brick, 4 thick – 0.40 Air space filled with insulation – 5.30 Gypsum wallboard – 0.45 Inside surface coefficient – 0.68 U = ? Calculate the U Factor ?

53 What is the heat flow for the wall (previous slide) that is 10 high 150 long, when the outdoor temperature is 95F and the indoor temperature is 72F? BTUH T = Area x U x (T 1 – T 2 ) Calculate the Heat Flow

54 Three HVAC Fluids Air Water Refrigerant

55 Three HVAC Devices Fans Pumps Compressors

56 HEAT THE TASK OF TRANSFERING HEAT FOUR BASIC SYSTEMS USED 1 - ALL-AIR 2 - ALL-WATER 3 - AIR/WATER 4 - DX H6

57 Change of State H6

58

59 THE TASK OF TRANSFERING HEAT Which process transfers the most heat? 1.50 gallons of 32 degF changing to 416.5# of degF 2.20 gallons or 212 degF to steam at 212 degF 3.30# of 212 degF condenses to 3.6 gallons of water at 80 degF

60

61

62 DISCH. LINE PRESS. DROP SUCTION LINE PRESS. DROP PRESSURE - PSIA ENTHALPY - BTU/LB REFRIG. EFFECT FLASH GAS HEAT OF COMPRESSION CONDENSER INLET PRESSURE & CORRESPONDING SAT. TEMP. EVAPORATOR OUTLET PRESSURE & CORRESPONDING SAT. TEMP. HFHF H A = H B H S = H C HCHC PSPS PCPC PDPD PDPD A Liquid Subcooling A B B C C S E D Compressor Discharge D + P BETWEEN COND. & EVAP. SATURATED LIQUID SATURATED VAPOR A OR A CONDENSER OUTLET B OB B EVAPORATOR INLET C OR C EVAPORATOR OUTLET S COMPRESSOR INLET D COMPRESSOR DISCHARGE D CONDENSER INLET

63 Refrigerant Properties CFCHFC R – Boiling Cond158#260#418#171# 40 Evap37#69#119#35# Sp Vol LH Vapor BTU/# H8

64 Psychrometric Chart H7

65 Air and Water Analysis Evaporative Cooling Humidification Sensible Cooling Cooling and Dehumidification Heating and Dehumidification Dehumidification Heating Heat and Humidify

66 66 Exercise: Heat Transfer You have two sheets 1.Diagram of a commercial HVAC system 2.Mechanical systems recording sheet Objective: Identify and record all heat transfers that occur using this system during the year. H9

67 Heat Transfer Exercise


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