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Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change Paul Wallace NEANI.

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1 achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change Paul Wallace NEANI

2 what is behaviour change? Behaviour change is commonly defined as a research-based consultative process for addressing K nowledge, A ttitudes, B ehaviour and P ractices that are intrinsically linked to programme goals.

3 what is energy efficiency? Energy efficiency is getting the most from the energy we use And keeping it where it is needed for as long as possible

4 Change doesnt come easy, however a number of ways to help people change behaviour have been developed One of these is the KABP model

5 K nowledge A ttitudes P ractices B ehaviours KABP model Mass Education Campaigns Feedback

6 Many of the ways in which we use energy at home are the result of behaviours like turning on and off lights and televisions in the rooms we use

7 How we set and adjust our thermostats

8 Our practices in doing our washing, using the tumble dryer and the dishwasher

9 Our choice of light bulb

10 Even the length of showers we take and whether we unplug our mobile phone chargers when they are not in use

11 Habitual Behaviours Turning on/off lights Use of appliances Setting the thermostat Use of hot water

12 One-Off Behaviours These are actions related to occasional decisions, such as insulating a loft or replacing a boiler

13 Impacting these habits and one-off behaviours is difficult It is important to realise that energy is an enabling product, consumers dont turn on their television or light to use energy, they want to be entertained and they want to see. Energy is an intangible necessity that, like toilet paper, we take for granted until it is missing

14 Impacting these habits and one-off behaviours is difficult This is a challenge of any behaviour change program; getting people to notice and care ….

15 Impacting these habits and one-off behaviours is difficult This is a challenge of any behaviour change program; getting people to notice and care about their energy use.

16 16 Consider groceries in a hypothetical store totally without price markings, billed via a monthly statement like £47 for 261 units of food in April. How could grocery shoppers economise under such a billing regime? Kempton & Layne: The consumers energy analysis environment The issue of price, consumption and billing

17 Barriers to energy behaviour change Low prominence of energy efficiency – energy is invisible and saving energy is often a low priority Price of energy efficiency – efficiency measures can be, or are perceived to be, relatively expensive Hassle factor of installing efficiency measures, such as the need to clear out the loft before insulation Aesthetics, for example where people are concerned about the attractiveness of energy saving products Social norms (what other people are doing around you) – norms influence peoples behaviour and can prevent them from adopting a new efficiency measure


19 direct feedback programs that aim to provide real-time feedback to customers on their energy use, typically by devices that interface with the customers electric meter or by a smart meter In Home Display (5 – 15% savings)

20 Direct feedback via smart meter In Home Display

21 indirect feedback, where information on consumers energy use is provided to customers in a processed manner, often through their bill or online (0 – 10% reduction in energy use)

22 programs based on smart metering that can involve time of use tariffs enabled by two-way communication between the energy supplier and the customer (smaller energy savings; peak demand reductions excellent, but overall energy savings low)

23 Overcoming a barrier to energy behaviour change Aesthetics, concern about the attractiveness of energy saving products e.g. low energy lighting – people may think they are ugly and by not using them miss the energy and cost savings they provide

24 A number of interventions have been targeted at overcoming these behavioural barriers to using low energy lighting Phasing out selling conventional light bulbs Changing the labelling to give prominence to lumen - the brightness rather than the wattage – the power used to light the bulb

25 Bulb comparison guide Bulb typeTraditional tungsten (GLS) Compact Fluorescent (CFL) LED Typical purchase price £1.00£3.99£14.99 Typical average life in hours 1000 hours10,000 hours15,000 hours Typical lumens (brightness) 700 lm1250 lm equivalent to 91W GLS bulb 600 lm equivalent to 48W GLS bulb Wattage (power used to light the bulb) 60 watts20 watts9.5 watts Energy saving78% 1 80% 1 Lifetime saving£ £ compared to traditional tungsten filament (GLS) bulb 2 estimate compared to: equivalent GLS bulb including replacing the bulb & price per kWh 17p

26 A couple of examples where behaviour change is having an impact


28 The Student Switch Off is a National Union of Students campaign that encourages students living in university halls of residence to adopt energy-saving actions, such as switching the lights off and not over- filling the kettle.

29 Using inter-hall competitions, prize rewards, peer-to-peer communication and social media, the campaign calculates that it achieved an average reduction in electricity use of 6% at 43 UK Universities in 2011/12.

30 The campaign aims to embed positive habits and reaches students at a stage in their life when they are particularly amenable to changing their habits.


32 Coolbiz is a successful Japanese Government campaign which was reinvigorated in 2011 to cope with power shortages triggered by the Fukushima nuclear crisis

33 Every summer, Coolbiz encourages office workers to ditch their suits and instead wear more appropriate office clothes so that air-conditioners can be set to 28°C – warmer than average – to reduce energy consumption.

34 The CoolBiz campaign has been promoted by clothing retailers and prominent business people wearing cool office clothes. Prior to the campaign office workers did not feel comfortable breaking dress codes. This campaign has removed social barriers and shifted what is socially acceptable in terms of work wear.

35 After months of being told to wear less to keep cool for summer, workers are now being urged to wrap up for winter as the energy- saving Warm Biz campaign gets into gear. The ministry suggests putting on scarves, gloves and leg warmers during the day and an extra layer after the evening bath. Warm Biz was first introduced in 2005 as a follow-up to the Cool Biz campaign during the summer. But it didnt really get much attention until 2011 when the government began promoting it heavily due to fears over a potential electricity shortage following the Fukushima disaster.

36 Behaviour change leading to energy efficiency is a challenge and there is no silver bullet Anyone who has ever made and broken a New Years Resolution can appreciate the challenges in behaviour change. Making a lasting change in behaviour is rarely a simple process, and usually involves a lot of commitment of time, effort and emotion.

37 37 Behaviour change leading to energy efficiency is worth it….. Remember the cheapest unit of energy is the one we dont use!

38 38

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