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University of Khartoum Institute of Environmental Sciences Dip/ M

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1 University of Khartoum Institute of Environmental Sciences Dip/ M
University of Khartoum Institute of Environmental Sciences Dip/ M.Sc in Environmental Sciences Semester 2 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION COURSE By: Dr. Zeinab Osman Saeed

2 Lecture 8 Presented by: Dr. Zeinab Osman Saeed
الرحمن الرحيم بسم الله Biosphere pollution Lecture 8 Presented by: Dr. Zeinab Osman Saeed

3 The Biosphere The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. From the broadest biophysiological point of view, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

4 The Biosphere geochemists define the biosphere as being the total sum of living organisms (the "biomass" or "biota" as referred to by biologists and ecologists). In this sense, the biosphere is but one of four separate components of the geochemical model, the other three being lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. The narrow meaning used by geochemists is one of the consequences of specialization in modern science. Some might prefer the word ecosphere, coined in the 1960s, as all encompassing of both biological and physical components of the planet.

5 Air pollution The presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants in such quality and for such duration as is injurious, or tends to be injurious, to human health or welfare, animal or plant life.’ It is the contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances. Air pollution can cause health problems and it can also damage the environment and property. It has caused thinning of the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere, which is leading to climate change.

6 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects Ozone A colorless gas that is the major constituent of photochemical smog at the Earth's surface. In the upper atmosphere (stratosphere), however, ozone is beneficial, protecting us from the sun's harmful rays. Ozone is formed in the lower atmosphere as a result of chemical reactions between oxygen, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight. Sources: include vehicles, factories, landfills, industrial solvents. It can irritate the respiratory system. It can also reduce the yield of agricultural crops and injure forests and other vegetation. Ozone is the most injurious pollutant to plant life.

7 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects Carbon Monoxide Odorless and colorless gas emitted in the exhaust of motor vehicles and engines where there is incomplete fossilfuel combustion. Automobiles, buses, trucks, small engines, and some industrial processes. Reduces the ability of blood to deliver oxygen to vital tissues, affecting primarily the cardiovascular and nervous systems.;

8 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Nitrogen Dioxide Light brown gas at lower concentrations; in higher concentrations becomes a component of brown urban haze. Result of burning fuels in utilities, industrial boilers, cars, and trucks. One of the major pollutants that causes smog and acid rain. Can harm humans and vegetation when concentrations are sufficiently high

9 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Particulate Matter Solid matter or liquid droplets from smoke, dust, fly ash and condensing vapors that can be suspended in the air for long periods of time. Industrial processes, smelters, automobiles, burning industrial fuels, woodsmoke, dust from paved and unpaved roads, construction, and agricultural ground breaking. These microscopic particles can affect breathing and respiratory health, causing increased respiratory disease and lung damage, and possibly premature death.

10 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Sulfur Dioxide Colorless gas, odorless at low concentrations but pungent at very high concentrations. Emitted largely from industrial, institutional, utility and apartment-house furnaces and boilers, as well as petroleum refineries, smelters, paper mills, and chemical plants. One of the major pollutants that cause smog. Can also, at high concentrations, affect human health, especially among asthmatics, and acidify lakes and streams.

11 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Lead Lead and lead compounds can adversely affect human health through either ingestion of lead-contaminated soil, dust, paint, or direct inhalation. Transportation sources using lead in their fuels, coal combustion, smelters, car battery plants, and combustion of garbage containing lead products. Elevated lead levels can adversely affect mental development, kidney function, and blood chemistry. Young children are particularly at risk.

12 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects Toxic Air Pollutants Includes pollutants such as arsenic, asbestos, and benzenes. Chemical plants, industrial processes, motor vehicle emissions and fuels, and building materials. Known or suspected to cause cancer, respiratory effects, birth defects, and reproductive and other serious health effects.

13 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Stratospheric Ozone Depleters chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform rise to the upper atmosphere where they destroy the protective ozone layer. Industrial household refrigeration, cooling and cleaning processes, car and home air conditioners, some fire extinguishers, and plastic foam products. Increased exposure to UV radiation could potentially cause an increase in skin cancer, cataracts, suppression of the human immune response system, and environmental damage

14 Major air pollutants Pollutant Sources Effects
Greenhouse gases Gases that build up in the atmosphere that may induce global climate change or the “greenhouse effect.”They include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion. Methane comes from landfills, livestock, coal mines, and rice paddies. Nitrous oxide results from industrial processes, Increased global temperature, increased severity and frequency of storms and other “weather extremes,” melting of the polar ice cap, and sea-level rise.

15 Sound Pollution Noise, by definition, is unwanted sound The natural environment contains many sources of noise - wind, volcanoes, oceans, and animal sounds are all familiar. Man-made noises - from machines, automobiles, trains, planes, explosives and firecrackers, etc. - are more contentious. Both kinds of noise affect sleep, hearing, communication, as well as mental and physical health.

16 Sound Pollution Noise is an inescapable by-product of the industrial environment, which is increasing with advances in industrialization and urbanization. Even in non-industrial areas, noise from such activities as printing, auto- repair, grinding, affects those living in the immediate surroundings.

17 Sound Pollution Noise causes irritation, constricts the arteries, and increases the flow of adrenaline and forces the heart to work faster. Continuous noise causes an increase in the cholesterol level resulting in permanent constriction of blood vessels, making one prone to heart attacks and strokes.

18 Sound Pollution Noise travels through air and hence it is measured in ambient air quality level. Noise is measured in decibels. Experts believe that continuous noise levels in excess of 90 decibels can cause loss of hearing and irreversible changes in nervous systems. The World Health Organization [WHO] has fixed 45 decibels as the safe noise level for a city..

19 Waste and Water Pollution
When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits.

20 Waste and Water Pollution
Most of today’s cleaning products are synthetic detergents and come from the petrochemical industry. Most detergents and washing powders contain phosphates, which are used to soften the water among other things. These and other chemicals contained in washing powders affect the health of all forms of life in the water.

21 Waste and Water Pollution
The effects of water pollution are not only devastating to people but also to animals, fish, and birds. Polluted water is unsuitable for drinking, recreation, agriculture, and industry. It diminishes the aesthetic quality of lakes and rivers. More seriously, contaminated water destroys aquatic life and reduces its reproductive ability. Eventually, it is a hazard to human health.

22 Thank you

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