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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 38 Conservation Biology

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Do Now: Read the introduction in the green book ( ) Answer the following questions in complete sentences What happened in 1967 that allowed the Key Deer Species to rebound? Since 1967, what threats have affected the Key Deer population? What is the biodiversity crisis?

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38.1 Habitat destruction, introduced species and overexploitation are major threats to biodiversity Threats 1)Alteration of habitat – Most major, implicated in 73% of extinct, endangered, and vulnerable species – Examples Agriculture Development Forestry Mining Pollution – Amount is reaching 50%

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6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38.2 Biodiversity is vital to human welfare Reasons Biophilia – Our connection to life forms and nature – We depend on many species for food, clothing, shelter, oxygen, and soil – Medicines Large changes in biosphere – Risking our own species Policy makers tend to underestimate value of natural services ( 33 trillion/year) We extract more than our fair share of resources

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8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 2)Introduced species Intentionally introduced plants for agriculture and ornamental purpose Starlings, rock doves pigeons, and house sparrows US has about 50,000 species that cause 150 billion in damage Causes loss of native species 3)Overexploitation Whales, bison, tortoise, fish stocks, dolphin, turtles, and seabirds

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38.3 Technology and the population explosion compound our impact on habitats and other species Technology Benefits human health Increases impact on environment If more people live developed lifestyles resources will be depleted Biomagnification Pollution concentrates in upper levels due to organisms consuming more biomass Examples: DDT

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero LE 38-4 Herring gull eggs 124 ppm Smelt 1.04 ppm Lake trout 4.83 ppm Zooplankton ppm Phytoplankton ppm Concentration of PCBs

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human impact chart HW Count off by seven Research the topic that corresponds to your number Fill in the chart for your section Lesson plan: Do Now: – Get into groups based on your number – Organize a section of the board based on your topic Present: 5 mins per group Conclusion Activity: Create a post card about one of the human impacts on the environment

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Human Impact Chart: Topic 1) Human population and Industrialization Causes: burning fossil fuels, increase automobiles, increase need for food and water Impact: Decrease forest for farming, decrease water, increase hydrocarbons, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur oxide particles Solution: Alternate power (solar, wind, geothermal, hydrogen, water) decrease consumption of resources, decrease population growth

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 2: Global Climate Change Causes: increase in CO2 due to burning fossil fuels and clearing forests Increase methane given off by oil, gas wells, rice paddies, bacteria (gut of cows) Increase of nitrous oxides from fertilizers, animal waste and decomposition CFCs: refrigerant (Freon) Impact: Green House Effect: lets UV rays through to the Earth and traps them Side note* green house effect is a natural and essential occurrence Change of global temperature can cause intense weather patterns Polar ice caps melting, sea level rising Solution: decrease emissions, alternate fuel source, protect forest, decrease human population

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero LE 38-5b Global warming: CO 2 lets sunlight through but retains the heat radiated from Earth. CO 2 in the atmosphere CO 2 Human activities and natural processes add CO 2 to the atmosphere, increasing the effect. Photosynthesis removes CO 2 from the atmosphere, decreasing the effect.

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 3: Acid Rain Causes: Atmospheric CO2, SO2, and NO2 combines with water to produce weak carbonic acid Normal rain is 5.6, some urban areas have Burning coal and fossil fuel Impact: Kills lakes and forests, small invertebrates and decomposers, decrease agriculture, damages infrastructure, degrades drinking water and increases cancer Solution: reduce burning of fuel

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 4:Photo-Chemical Smog Sources: Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react with sunlight to produce O3 and peroxylacetyl nitrate From burning fuels, paints and solvents Impact: Increase O3 affects respiration and nervous systems O3 is damaging to plants Solution: Eco Friendly paint, decrease burning fuel

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 5: Ozone Depletion Cause: Chlorine atoms combine with ozone and strips away oxygen one by one One atom of chlorine destroys 100,000 molecules of ozone Chlorine comes from the breakdown of CFCs CFCs are found in refrigerators, air conditioners, cleaning agents, production of plastics, and spray propellants Impact: Ozone protects land animals from UV radiation (water protects ocean life) Increases mutation rates, cancer, cataracts, depressed immune systems, impaired tree and plant growth Solution: Stop using and making products that are made with CFCs

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 6:Water Cause: Recipient of waste, offshore mining and shipping Impact: Death of marine life Solution: Decrease waste by recycling, increase efficiency of waste management, alternative fuel sources

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Topic 7: Soil Cause: Top soil from increased farmlands are carried away by wind and rain (estimated all will be lost by the middle of next century) Desertification due to overgrazing and over farming Impact: Soil erosion= loss of productivity, compensated by fertilizer, pesticides, and fossil fuel energy Over 240,000 square miles of once productive land has become desert in the last 50 years Solution: Decrease consumption, decrease population, decrease deforestation, use sustainable farming practices

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38.5 Some locations in the biosphere are especially rich in biodiversity Biodiversity hot spots – Locations: Tropical Increased solar energy Longer growing season More time for speciation, other places start over

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings – Description: Small areas with many endangered or threatened species Have large concentrations of endemic species (not found anywhere else) Highly sensitive to habitat degradation Provide an opportunity to protect many species in very limited areas Migratory species may require international protection

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition – Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon Lectures by Chris Romero LE 38-9a Equator

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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25 CONSERVATION OF POPULATIONS AND SPECIES 38.6 Two ways to study endangered populations are the small-population approach and the declining-population approach Definitions: – Endangered: in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range – Threatened: likely to become endangered Population fragmentation is one of the most harmful effects of habitat loss

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27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Small-population approach – Attempts to prevent extinction vortex – Identifies minimum viable population size – Focuses on preserving genetic variation Declining-population approach – Follows logical series of steps to halt population declines Confirm that species is in decline Determine species' environmental requirements Develop hypotheses for causes of decline Test most likely hypotheses first Apply results of diagnosis to management of threatened species

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29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings 38.7 Identifying critical habitat factors can guide conservation efforts Preserving critical habitat may help endangered species recover – Example: red-cockaded woodpecker Management for one species can affect other species negatively or positively Human demands conflicting with habitat preservation must be considered

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33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Power of Renewal Article Energy source DescriptionStatusPriceAdvantageDisadvantage Solar- Thermal Ocean Wave Wind Geothermal Solar- Photovoltaic Renewable Transportatio n Fuels Questions: 1)Before reading the article, describe which energy source you think is the best. (write three reasons) 2)After reading the article, describe which energy source you think is the best. (support with three reasons from the article)

34 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings MANAGING AND RESTORING ECOSYSTEMS 38.9 Sustaining ecosystems and landscapes is a conservation priority Landscape ecology – Application of ecological principles to the study of a collection of ecosystems – Goal to study human land-use patterns to make biodiversity conservation a priority

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Edges between ecosystems are prominent features of landscapes – Have distinct features and species – Human-caused edge communities may be dominated by few edge-adapted species Movement corridors can connect fragmented habitats – May be important in preserving biodiversity – Can promote dispersal and prevent inbreeding – Can sometimes be harmful

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39 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The study of how to restore degraded habitats is a developing science Restoration ecology uses ecological principles to return degraded ecosystems to conditions similar to their natural state Bioremediation uses living organisms to detoxify polluted ecosystems – Removes harmful substances Bioaugmentation uses organisms to add essential materials to degraded ecosystems

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42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sustainable development is an ultimate goal Sustainable Biosphere Initiative – Aims to acquire the information necessary to develop, manage, and conserve the Earth's resources in a responsible manner Sustainable development also requires education and political commitment Humans must seek ways to be more accommodating with other species and with the biosphere


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