Presentation on theme: "Reduce Reuse Reclaim and Recycle Appropriate use of land Use water and energy efficiently Enhance human health Strengthen local economies Conserve plants."— Presentation transcript:
Reduce Reuse Reclaim and Recycle Appropriate use of land Use water and energy efficiently Enhance human health Strengthen local economies Conserve plants and animals Sustainable Strategies
Protect agricultural, cultural and archeological resources Build and maintain economically Nice to live in Build it Beautiful Sustainable Strategies
Healthy Indoor Air
Radon * Radon is estimated to cause about 21,000 lung cancer deaths per year, according to EPA's 2003 Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R ). The numbers of deaths from other causes are taken from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Report and 2002 National Safety Council Reports. EPA's 2003 Assessment of Risks from Radon in Homes (EPA 402-R )
Radon Zone 1 counties have a predicted average indoor radon screening level greater than 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) (red zones) Highest Potential Zone 2 counties have a predicted average indoor radon screening level between 2 and 4 pCi/L (orange zones) Moderate Potential Zone 3 counties have a predicted average indoor radon screening level less than 2 pCi/L (yellow zones) Low Potential
What is Radon? A radioactive gas that comes from the natural decay of uranium and is found in nearly all soils.
Radon Radon gets into the home through Cracks in concrete floors Construction joints Cracks in walls Gaps in suspended floors Gaps around service pipes Cavities inside walls The water supply (wells typically)
Radon Radon Resistant Construction Techniques Gas Permeable Layer This layer is placed beneath the slab or flooring system to allow the soil gas to move freely underneath the house. In many cases, the material used is a 4-inch layer of clean gravel. Plastic Sheeting Plastic sheeting is placed on top of the gas permeable layer and under the slab to help prevent the soil gas from entering the home. In crawlspaces, the sheeting is placed under the crawlspace floor. Sealing and Caulking All openings in the concrete foundation floor are sealed to reduce soil gas entry into the home. Vent Pipe A 3- or 4-inch gas-tight or PVC pipe (commonly used for plumbing) runs from the gas permeable layer through the house to the roof to safely vent radon and other soil gases above the house. Junction Box An electrical junction box is installed in case an electric venting fan is needed later.
Volatile Organic Compounds Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short- and long-term adverse health effects.
Health Effects Eye nose and throat irritation Headaches Loss of coordination Nausea Liver damage Kidney damage Central Nervous system damage Cancer
Formaldehyde What is Formaldehyde? Formaldehyde is a low cost and common chemical that has a strong pickle-like odor. It is currently used in thousands of products as an adhesive, bonding agent and solvent.
Formaldehyde Where is it found? Particle board, plywood, paneling, pressed- wood products Urea formaldehyde foam insulation Synthetic fabrics (especially permanent press) Produced through combustion Natural gas Wood Gasoline Tobacco
Formaldehyde Health Effects Vary Eye, nose and throat irritation Coughing, headaches, dizziness, and nausea The effects of long-term exposure are not well known The United States Environmental Protection Agency has listed formaldehyde as a chemical that can possibly cause cancer in people.
Formaldehyde What is an acceptable level in the home? 0.10 PPM or less If a higher level is measured steps should be taken to mitigate the problem
Formaldehyde Methods for lowering levels Remove the source Treat the source Ventilate Control the climate Allow products to off-gas
How are Radon and Formaldehyde Detected? Radon Detection Kits Formaldehyde
Bathroom Exhaust Fans CODE for Baths with bathing or spas facilities: Minimum 80 CFM Intermittent Ventilation required or Continuous Ventilation System at 20 cfm CODE for Toilet Rooms without bathing or spas facilities: 3SF Minimum Window ½ of which must be operable Minimum 50 CFM Intermittent Ventilation
Home Ventilation Institute Recommendations - Baths Bathrooms to 80SF - 80CFM fan (Code) Bathrooms 81sf to 100 sf – 1 cfm per square foot (~ 8 air changes/hour) Bathrooms over 100 sf add the CFM for each fixture Allow 50 CFM per standard toilets, shower and steam shower (put on timer) Allow 100 CFM per Whirlpool, garden and hot tubs HVI recommends continuous ventilations as augmentation to intermittent ventilation
Bathroom Exhaust Fans A toilet in its own enclosure should have its own fan Fans approved for wet areas should be placed over or very near the shower or tub when possible. Bath doors should be undercut at least 3/4 Leave fan on for 20 minutes after use of the bathroom
Ventilation Considerations Fan Type Propeller Fan – Limited air capacity and noisy Axial Fan – Better air movement but still noisy Centrifugal Blower (Squirrel Cage) The best
Humidistat ns Humidistat
Kitchen Exhaust Fans CODE (ASHRAE) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 100 CFM Intermittent Or 25 CFM Continuous
Home Ventilation Institute Recommendations - Kitchens Wall Mount Hoods – 100 cfm per foot of width Island Mount Hoods – 150 cfm per foot of width
Air Flow Rules of Thumb R ule of Thumb 1: Take the hood area (in square feet) and multiply it by 75 to get the CFM (cubic feet per minute) for a wall hood, or multiply it by 100 for an island hood. Rule of Thumb 2: Allow 15 air changes per hour (ACH) for the kitchen. Take the kitchen volume (length x width x height) and divide by 4 to get the required CFM.
Rule of Thumb 3: Allow 1 CFM per 100 BTU's per hour (BTUH) heat output. Take the output of the oven and cooktop (if together or close) and divide by 100 to get the required CFM. Rule of Thumb 4: (this applies to commercial type ranges) Allow 100 CFM per linear foot of hood. Take the perimeter of the hood and multiply it by 100 to get the required CFM. Which rule of thumb is the best one to use? The most popular rules of thumb are #1 and #3. We typically use rule of thumb #1 when we size fans.
Why Ventilate? To provide enough air to keep occupants health To remove odors To dilute indoor pollutants To lower relative humidity
Negative Aspects Typical home Gas furnace – vents to outside Gas Hot Water Heater – vents to outside 2 bath fans – vent to outside 1 kitchen ventilator – vents to outside What happens when the home is winterized, windows closed, doors closed and all of these ventilators are running?
Gas Hot Water Heater
Hot Water Heater Vent
-Negative Pressure Where does the makeup air come from?
Hot Water Heater Vent
Negative Pressure What happens when we tighten the house up?
Heat Recovery Ventilator
ERV Energy Recovery Ventilator Energy Recovery Ventilator Used in the southern states where humidity is a problem Works the same as a HRV but ~ 9% of the stale air mixes with the fresh air to adjust humidity.
Example 1 Dry Bulb 73° Relative Humidity 50%
In the zone
Example 2 Dry Bulb Temp. 78° Relative Humidity 70%
Example 2 Dry Bulb Temp. 78° Relative Humidity 70% Requires a wind speed of 250 FPM (250*60)/5280 MPH = 2.84
Energy and Power Power is the INSTANTANEOUS use of energy Think of it as POTENTIAL use, whether it is running or not (engine, light bulb) Btu/h Watts, Kilowatts (Watts = Volts x Amps) the amount of voltage across a circuit x the current through the circuit Energy is USE of power over TIME (heat energy) Btu/h x hours = Btu Watts x hours = Watt hour (Kilowatt x h = kWh)
FUELS Natural Gas - Piped in under pressure Liquid Propane (LP) Stored in home tank Fuel Oil Electricity Coal Wood
Forced Air Furnaces Gas AFUE - annual fuel-utilization-efficiency rating measured as a percentage The higher the percentage, the more heat the furnace can ring from each therm of gasand the lower the environmental impact of its emissions. The lowest allowed is 78% The most efficient models have an AFUE of about 97 percentor near-total efficiency.
Energy Star Qualified Minimum AFUE of 85% to 90%
Standard Efficiency Furnace Steady State Efficiency or Combustion Efficiency ~80% Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiently (~65%)
Standard Efficiency Furnace Incomplete Combustion 0.5 On-Cycle Stack Loss 20% to 25% Pilot Light Loss 6% Off Cycle Loss 0-10% Jacket Loss 0-0.2% Cycling Losses 0-10% Duct Losses 0-40% Actual Heating System Delivered? 40%-65%
High Efficiency Furnace Steady State Efficiency or Combustion Efficiency ~90% Annual Fuel Efficiency (AFUE Rate) ~90%
High Efficiency Furnace Incomplete Combustion 0.5 On-Cycle Stack Loss <10% Pilot Light Loss 0% Off Cycle Loss 0% Jacket Loss 0-0.2% Cycling Losses 0-10% Duct Losses 0-40% Actual Heating System Delivered? 70%-90%
Two Measures of Efficiency in Heat Pumps HSPF – Heating SEER - Cooling
Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) BTUs produced/watt-hours Heat Pumps manufactured after 2005 must have a HSPF of at least 7.7 The Most efficient have a HSFP of 10
Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) Power output/Power input The higher the number the more efficient All Air Conditioning units sold after January 2006 must have a SEER rating of at least 13. Energy Star central air conditioning must have a SEER rating of 14 Window air conditioners are exempt from this rating Updating from a 9 SEER rated system to a 13 can save 30% on your energy consumption
Pros and Cons of Heat Pumps Electrically Powered Can be used in conjunction with a forced air furnace Not well suited in extremely cold climate Noise
Radiant Floor Heat Three types Radiant Air Floors Electric Radiant Floors Hot Water (Hydronic)
Radiant Floor Heat Types of installation Wet Installations Large thermal mass of a concrete slab floor lightweight concrete over a wooden subfloor Dry Installations Where the installer "sandwiches" the radiant floor tubing between two layers of plywood or attaches the tubing under the finished floor or subfloor.
Radiant Floor Heat Air Heated Radiant Floors Not recommended for residential applications Electric Radiant Floors -
Electric Radiant Heat - Wet Installation
Hydronic Radiant Heat
Wet Installation PEX piping in Concrete (thick slab)
Wet Installation Thin Slab Application Gypcrete over plywd
Heat Pump and Air Handler Heat Pump Air Handler Air Cleaner Thermostat
Heat Pump and Furnace Indoor Cooling Coil Heat Pump Furnace Air Cleaner Thermostat
Air Conditioner and Furnace Air Conditioner Furnace Indoor Cooling Coil Thermostat Air Cleaner
Air Conditioners and Air Handlers Thermostat Air Conditioner Air Handler Air Cleaner
Whole House Ventilation
Ceiling Fans Sizing Ceiling Fans Largest dimension of room Minimum Fan Diameter 12 feet or less36-inches feet48-inches 16 – 17.5 feet52-inches feet56-inches 18.5 feet2 fans
Heating Degree Days Heating Degree Days are a measure of how cold your climate is. If the average outside temperature for a day is 1 degree less than the inside temperature (68°), then you would accumulate 1 degree day on that day. nline/ccd/nrmhdd.txt nline/ccd/nrmhdd.txt