4Love CanalIn 1978, Love Canal, located near Niagara Falls in upstate New York, was a nice little working-class enclave with hundreds of houses and a school. It just happened to sit atop 21,000 tons of toxic industrial waste that had been buried underground in the 1940s and '50s by a local company. Over the years, the waste began to bubble up into backyards and cellars. By 1978, the problem was unavoidable, and hundreds of families sold their houses to the federal government and evacuated the area. The disaster led to the formation in 1980 of the Superfund program, which helps pay for the cleanup of toxic sites.
5Love Canal, New York When Waste is Not Disposed of Properly 1942 to 1958 Hooker Chemicals Disposal Site1953 Sold to Niagara Falls School Board (school, housing)1976 Residents becoming sick1978 Lois Gibbs leads outcry1980 Declared Disaster Site2004 Taken off Superfund List
6Chapter 24 Key Concepts Types and amounts of wastes Methods to reduce wasteMethods of dealing with wastesHazardous waste regulation in the US
7Section 1: Wasting Resources Why should we care about solid waste?How much waste does the U.S. produce?What is in the garbage?The throw away mentality: OUT of SIGHT… OUT OF MIND
8Solid Waste Unwanted or discarded material that is not liquid or gas Out of sight Out of MindNo Waste In NatureTwo Reasons to Be Concerned:Wasted ResourcesCauses huge amounts of air, water, land pollution and soil erosion
9Wasting Resources Industrial and agricultural waste Municipal solid wasteFig p. 533US: 11 billion metric tons/year
10Affluenza In ActionU.S. produces 1/3rd of world’s solid waste and buries ½ of itMost waste from mining, oil, gas, ag., sewage, industryThink about a simple product like a computer…how much waste produced to create it (Life Cycle)
11Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Municipal solid waste refers to solid waste generated by commercial establishment and households and collected by locally mandate government bodies.1.5% of Solid Waste is MSW38% is paper, 12% yard waste, 11% food waste, 10% platicsE-Waste Growing FAST
12MSW Continued… Garbologists findings 50 year old newspapers still readablePork Chops decades oldWHY DO THEY NOT DECOMPOSE????.....what do things need to decompose?The purpose of a landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air. Under these conditions, trash will not decompose much. A landfill is not like a compost pile, where the purpose is to bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly.
13MSW Continued…Enough disposable diapers each year linked together would go to moon and back 7 timesEnough office paper to build a wall 11 feet high between NYC and SFThe United States goes through 2.5 million plastic bottles every hour and only 1 out of 4 is recycled. Enough plastic bottles are thrown away each year in the United States to circle the earth four times.
15Section 2: Producing Less Waste What are our options? Management or PreventionHow can we reduce solid waste?What can you do?
16Producing Less Waste and Pollution Waste management (high waste approach)Waste is part of economic growth, lets manage negativesBurying, burning, shippingWaste prevention (low waste approach)Before product is produced look to minimize life cycleReduce, reuse, recycle
18The Sustainability Six Consume less: Do we Really NEED this?Redesign products to use less resources: How can we make this product using less resources throughout their life cycleRedesign to use and make less pollution: Toxic substances etc.
19The Sustainability Six 4) Develop products that are easier to repair, reuse, remanufacture, compost or recycle5) Design products to last longer6) Eliminate or reduce packaging (nude packaging)
20Planned ObsolescenceA manufacturing decision by a company to make consumer products in such a way that they become out-of-date or useless within a known time period. The main goal of this type of production is to ensure that consumers will have to buy the product multiple times, rather than only once. This naturally stimulates demand for an industry's products because consumers have to keep coming back again and again.
22Section 3: Selling Services not Things How can we copy nature and reduce waste?What is a service flow economy?In a service and flow economy, companies liquidize a service rather than a product. To do so, manufacturers of devices, like air conditioners, loan their physical equipment to houses and other buildings, and consumers pay for the maintenance of the service rather than for the machine itself. This revision of the traditional producer-consumer relationship would encourage a change in how Americans view the acquisition of goods from an indicator of status to the investment in the most reliable and sustainable goods present in the market.
23Solutions: Cleaner Production Ecoindustrial revolution: its goal is to makeindustrial manufacturing processes cleaner and more sustainable by redesigningthem to mimic nature's way of dealing with wasteResource exchange webs: waste of 1manufacturer becomes raw materials for anotherBiomimicry: using less resources to do sameService-flow economy selling servicesnot goods. Renting, eco-leasing, etc.
25Solutions: Selling Services Instead of Things Service-flow economyUses a minimum amount of materialProducts last longerProducts are easier to maintain, repair, and recycleEco-leasing: computers, cell phones, etc.See Individuals Matter p. 538
26Section 4: Reuse What are the advantages and disadvantages of reuse? Should we use refillable containers?What are some other ways to reuse things?
27What is REUSE?Cleaning and using the material over and over again increasing the lifespan of the product
28Junkyards and salvaging wood from old homes etc.
36Section 5: Recycling What is recycling? What is composting? How should we recycle solid waste?How much waste paper is being recycled?How feasible is recycling plastics?Why isn’t more reused and recycled?
37What is recycling? Reprocessing solid waste into new useful products 5 Categories in US Household RecyclingPaper ProductsGlassAluminumSteelSome plastics
38Types of Recycling Primary (closed-loop) Secondary (open loop) There are three levels of recycling, primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary recycling is taking the recycled material and putting it back into the same product; secondary recycling is using the material in some other end product; tertiary recycling requires breaking the material down into its original components.Preconsumer wastePostconsumer wasteFig p. 539
39Characteristics of Recyclable Materials Easily isolated from other wasteAvailable in large quantitiesValuable
40Recycling Rates Switzerland, Japan 50% U.S. 30% up from 6.4% in 1960 60-80% is achievable
44Recycling MethodsCentralized recycling of mixed waste (Materials-Recovery Facilities, MRFs)Pros/Cons of MRFsSource separation: separate waste at homePay-as-you-throw (PAUT): pay for waste, notrecycling
47Wastepaper Recycling Easy to recycle Removing ink, glue coating and reconverting into pulp42% of world tree harvest is for paperCurrently U.S. recycles 49% of waste paperMaking paper has big enviro impact
48How plastics are madeRecycling plastic is difficult chemically and economically10% in U.S. recycledDifferent resinsLow cost of oilBiodegradable plastics (bioplatics) offer hope
50Economics of Recycling Paper, aluminum, steel are easy to recycle and make easy economic senseCRITICS: 1) plenty of landfill space, 2) Glass and plastic expensive to recycleEmploys 1.1 million people
51Why we don’t recycle more Enviro Costs not included (externalities)Too few government subsidiesTipping fees at landfills cheapPrice fluctuations for goodsOften don’t PAUTLife cycle costs often not factored in
56Dioxinsrefers to a group of toxic chemical compounds that share certain chemical structures and biological characteristicscan be released into the environment through forest fires, backyard burning of trash, certain industrial activities, and residue from past commercial burning of wastebreak down very slowly and past releases of dioxins from both man-made and natural sources still exist in the environmentcause a number of adverse health effects, including cancer
57Burning Wastes Mass burn incineration Air pollution Waste to energy Fig p. 546
58Burning Waste Japan and Switzerland over 50%, U.S. about 16% More than 280 project canceled in U.S. due to high costs, concern among citizens, air pollution etc.
59Burying Wastes Open dumps Sanitary landfills Leachate collection Monitoring wellsEmit greenhouse gases (CO2 and methane)
65Section 7: Hazardous Waste What is hazardous waste?What can we do with hazardous waste?How can we detoxify waste?What are advantages and disadvantages of burying hazardous wastes?What are Brownfields?
66What is Hazardous Waste? Any discarded solid or liquid that is toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive enough to explode or release toxic fumes.80-90% from developed countries72% from Petro-Chem22% mining
67Hazardous Wastes: Types Contains at least one toxic compoundCatches fire easilyReactive or explosiveCorrodes metal containers
69Not Hazardous Wastes under RCRA Radioactive wastesHousehold wastesMining wastesOil and gas drilling wastesLiquids containing organic hydrocarbonsCement kiln dust<100 kg (220 lb) per month
70Case Study: Bhopal India 1984 World’s worst industrial accidentUnion Carbide pesticide plant explosionToxic cloud settled over region killing 23,000120,000 to 150,000 suffer chronic illnesses related to accident
79One example of many in Camden: http://www. state. nj
80Case Studies: Lead Lead poisoning major problem in children Primary Sources of LeadLeaded gasoline (phased out by 1986)Lead paint (banned in 1970)Lead in plumbingProgress is being made in reducing lead
85Case Studies: DioxinsPotentially highly toxic chlorinated hydrocarbonsSources of DioxinsWaste incinerationFireplacesCoal-fired power plantsPaper productionSewage sludge
86Section 9: Hazardous Waste Regulation in the U.S. What is RCRA?What is Superfund?
87Hazardous Waste Regulation in the United States Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA)Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund)National Priority ListPolluter-pays principle
88RCRA 1976 Passed By Congress: amended 1984 ID Hazardous Waste and set standardsCompanies that deal with Haz. Waste over 220 lbs. must get permitsCradle to Grave tracking and submit proof to EPA
89CERCLA Commonly called Superfund Passed in 1980 (NJ Congressman leaders)Established tax on on chemicals to1) ID abandoned dumps sites2) Clean up groundwater3) Establish NPL list for cleanups
91CERCLA Responsible parties must pay If no party can be found clean ups down using $ from tax on oil and chemical companies (tax expired 1995)1,250 NPL sites…113 in NJAbout 72% clean up underway avg. $20 million per site