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WHAT HAPPENS TO LATENT HEAT?. SINKS OF INSOLATION 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the air.

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Presentation on theme: "WHAT HAPPENS TO LATENT HEAT?. SINKS OF INSOLATION 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the air."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHAT HAPPENS TO LATENT HEAT?

2 SINKS OF INSOLATION 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the air.

3 SINKS OF INSOLATION 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the air. 2. GROUND HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the planets surface (continents and oceans)

4 SINKS OF INSOLATION 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the air. 2. GROUND HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the temperature of the planets surface (continents and oceans). 3. LATENT HEAT FLUX. Energy used in changing the state of Water

5 WE NEED TO TRANSFER ENERGY

6 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Warm/cold air exchanges, global/seasonal wind patterns (ADVECTION)

7 WE NEED TO TRANSFER ENERGY 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Warm/cold air exchanges, global/seasonal wind patterns (ADVECTION) 2. GROUND HEAT FLUX. Warm/cold surface water currents in oceans (2/3 rd of global surface. (ADVECTION)

8 WE NEED TO TRANSFER ENERGY 1. SENSIBLE HEAT FLUX. Warm/cold air exchanges, global/seasonal wind patterns (ADVECTION) 2. GROUND HEAT FLUX. Warm/cold surface water currents in oceans (2/3 rd of glabal surface. (ADVECTION) 3. LATENT HEAT FLUX. Change of state of water - vapor, liquid, solid (Condensation/Evaporation; Freezing/Thawing) …. Precipitation (rain/snow)

9 TRANSFER OF LATENT HEAT Formation of rain and snow redistributes latent heat from point where evaporation took place (Input of latent heat of fusion and latent heat of vaporization). To the place where cloud formation and precipitation occurs (release of latent heat to the environment).

10 HOW TO EXTRACT LATENT HEAT FROM WATER VAPOR. Cool the air!

11 HOW TO EXTRACT LATENT HEAT FROM WATER VAPOR. Cool the air! Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air.

12 HOW TO EXTRACT LATENT HEAT FROM WATER VAPOR. Cool the air! Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air. Clausius-Clapeyron relationship

13 HOT FLORIDA AND AIR CONDITIONER!

14

15 Decline in Temperature

16 Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (18 g.km -1 )

17 Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (18 g.km -1 )

18 ENGLAND! Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (10 g.km -1 )

19 ENGLAND! Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (10 g.km -1 )

20 TOO COLD TO SNOW? Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (1 g.km -1 )

21 TOO COLD TO SNOW? Decline in Temperature (20°F) Decline in Moisture As Vapor (1 g.km -1 ) Saskatchewan

22 PUT ON THE FURNACE! 20 below!

23 Very, very low Moisture content

24 Warm to 70°F in the furnace

25 Can now hold more moisture

26 Moisture Deficit (19 g. km -1 )

27 Moisture Deficit (19 g. km -1 )

28 GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS???

29 Q. How to make air cooler?

30 GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS??? Q. How to make air cooler? A.Make it rise in the atmosphere and it will Cool at the lapse rate! (Equation of state of an ideal gas!) Lapse rate = ~6.4°C/km

31 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS THE AIR RISING (AND COOLING)? That is where we will get condensation clouds and precipitation.

32 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS THE AIR RISING (AND COOLING)? That is where we will get condensation clouds and precipitation. GLOBAL CIRCULATION PATTERNS – WHERE IS AIR RISING IN TROPOSPHERE?

33 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH 1. Above the migrating equatorial Low pressure. Inter-tropical Convergence Zone

34 June December

35

36

37

38

39 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH 2. Above the Low pressure zones at 45-60°. Planetary Front

40 MID-LATITUDE~ PLANETARY FRONT. And Seasonal Migration.

41 GLOBAL FURNACES???

42 Q. How to make air warmer?

43 GLOBAL FURNACES??? Q. How to make air warmer? A.Make it descend in the atmosphere and it will cool at the lapse rate! (Equation of state of an ideal gas!) Lapse rate = ~6.4°C/km

44 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS THE AIR DESCENDING (AND WARMING)? That is where we will get evaporation, clear skies and deserts.

45 WHERE IN THE WORLD IS THE AIR DESCENDING (AND WARMING)? That is where we will get condensation clouds and precipitation. GLOBAL CIRCULATION PATTERNS – WHERE IS AIR DESCENDING IN TROPOSPHERE?

46 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH 1. Above the High pressure zones at 30°. Sub-tropical anticyclones

47 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE

48 Mojave

49 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Sahara

50 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Middle East

51 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Gobi

52 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Atacama

53 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Kalahari

54 SUB-TROPICAL HIGH PRESSURE Great Australian

55 Fig. 2 The zonal height structure over ocean of observed climatological annual mean RH from AIRS (2002–2007) (color scale), with model mean projected changes in cloud amount from the CMIP3 model archive (contour lines, 0.5% intervals, dashed for cloud loss). J T Fasullo, K E Trenberth Science 2012;338: Published by AAAS Troposhere

56 Fig. 3 (A) Median change in simulated top-of-atmosphere net shortwave flux as a function of latitude under 21st-century warming in CMIP3 SRES A1B projections.

57 Tropopause 0° 30°S 30°N 45-60°N 45-60°S LOW HIGH LOW HIGH 2. Above the Polar High pressure zones. Polar deserts

58 BOREAL POLAR DESERTS

59 Estimate Annual Precipitation Antarctica mm Gainesville 48

60 GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS II ??? Q. How to make air cooler?

61 GLOBAL AIR CONDITIONERS??? Q. How to make air cooler? A.Make it rise by putting a barrier across the path that the surface global winds want to travel. Orographic Precipitation

62 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!!

63 OceanContinent

64 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient

65 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient Saturated Air

66 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient Forced to rise and cool over mountain chain

67 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient AIR CONDITIONER! Clouds and heavy precipitation. May be snow

68 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient Descending air, warming, able to hold more moisture AIR CONDITIONER! Clouds and heavy precipitation. May be snow FURNACE! Dry, evaporation, clear skies

69 CENTRAL AIR (Heating and Cooling)!! HIGHLOW Pressure Gradient W. Washington Temperate Rainforest E. Washington Near desert Irrigation

70 WASHINGTON STATE HIGH 30°N LOW 45-60°N 49°N Olympia Range Cascade Mountains Olympia Range Cascade Mountains

71 WASHINGTON STATE HIGH 30°N LOW 45-60°N 49°N

72 WASHINGTON STATE HIGH 30°N LOW 45-60°N 49°N

73 WASHINGTON STATE HIGH 30°N LOW 45-60°N 49°N WINDWARDLEEWARD RAINSHADOW

74 PERU ANDES

75 PERU HIGH 30°S LOW 0° ANDES

76 PERU HIGH 30°S LOW 0°

77 PERU HIGH 30°S LOW 0° Southeast Trades

78 PERU HIGH 30°S LOW 0° Sechura Desert Furnace Leeward Rainshdow

79 PERU HIGH 30°S LOW 0° Sechura Desert Furnace Eastern Andes Air Conditioner Windward Amazon headwaters

80 Annual Precipitation Topography Annual Sunshine 2.5 hrs/day 4.7 hrs/day

81 WHAT ABOUT FLORIDA?

82 20 – 30° GLOBAL DESERTS! HELLO! 30°N

83 North Atlantic Anti-cyclone and Gyr

84 H Cold Current (Canary) Warm Current (Gulf Stream)

85 North Atlantic Anti-cyclone and Gyr H Cooler Air Warmer Moist Air

86 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic

87 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic WARM MOIST TROPICAL AIR WARM MOIST TROPICAL AIR

88 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic WARM MOIST TROPICAL AIR WARM MOIST TROPICAL AIR

89 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea

90 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 90°F 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O

91 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Warmer Air (90°F) Rises 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O

92 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Warmer Air (90°F) Rises Moist Sea Breeze 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O

93 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Moist Sea Breeze Temps decline as air rises – Lapse Rate 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O

94 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Moist Sea Breeze Max Moisture Content Declines - Condensation 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 50°F 10 ppt H 2 O 5km up

95 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Moist Sea Breeze Condensation releases latent heat vaporization. Warms air – Rises even more, etc. etc. 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 50°F 10 ppt H 2 O 5km up

96 FLORIDA Gulf of MexicoNorth Atlantic ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 90°F Moist Sea Breeze 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O 80°F 30 ppt H 2 O CONVECTION

97 FLORIDA AND S.E. NOT UNIQUE Gulf Stream Kuro Siwo Brazil Current Mozambique Current E. Australian Current

98 SAME PRINCIPLE – DIFFERENT LATITUDE! Gulf Stream Alaska Current ?

99 WHY NOT CALIFORNIA?

100 CALIFORNIA North Pacific ZONE OF EXCESS ENERGY (26-30°N) – Land warms faster than sea 60°F 15 ppt H 2 Sea Breeze 50°F 10 ppt H 2 O 5km up Cold California Current

101 COLD CURRENT + ANTICYCLONE = DESERT (Big time!) California Current Humboldt Current W. Australian Current Canary Current Benguela Current


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