4What is so important about a healthy home? Housing conditions can affect health both directly and indirectly.Children spend close to % of their time indoors.
5Health effects that are associated with housing conditions Respiratory infectionsAsthmaInjuries and burnsAllergiesPoisoningsNeurodevelopmental and behavioral problemsCancerDeath
6Steps to a healthier home Keep the Home/Building:DryCleanVentilatedSafeContaminant-freeMaintainedPest-freeToday we are going to focus on keeping the home pest-free.
7Why Pest Free? - the health effects of pest exposure More than just a nuisance-pests in the home are a health issue…Cockroaches, flies, fleas, rats and mice carry disease.Roaches and house dust mites can make allergies and asthma worse.Roaches can also bite and crawl into children’s ears.
8Why Pest Free? -the health effects of pesticide exposure Acute health effects of pesticide exposure include:Eye, nose, and throat irritationSkin rashesNausea andAsthma attacks.Long-term effects of pesticide exposure include:CancerBirth defectsCentral nervous system damageRespiratory damage andEndocrine disruption.
9Drawbacks of Conventional Approach to Pest Control Potential liability for property owners and managers (tenant injury from pesticide exposure).Ineffective in controlling pests.Little or no communication between tenant, property manager and pest control operator.
10What is the alternative? -Integrated Pest Management IPM Methods emphasize:Pest Exclusion- block pest entry points, hiding places and passages;Reduction of pest food and water sources- repair leaky plumbing, proper food storage and disposal; andControl existing pests with low-risk control measures- boric acid, baits, and cleaning with borax.Least-toxic pesticides are used only as a last resort…
11How is the pest getting into your building? Cracks around baseboards and under doors.Holes in walls where plumbing or heating ducts come through.Doors or windows left open or damaged screens.Unscreened vents.
12Find their path and block it! Install screens on windows and doors.Install door sweeps.Caulk cracks and crevices in walls, floors, around baseboards and windows.Seal holes around pipes.
13Reduce Pest Food and Water Sources Pests can find food in:Trash cansAppliancesUnsealed food on countertopsDirty dishesPet bowlsPests can get water from:Leaky roofsLeaky plumbing (toilet/sink)Air conditionersSink and tub drainsStanding water in pet bowls/houseplants
16Take Home Message Pest Control = Shared Responsibility Effective pest control requires a partnership between the building owner/property manager, the tenant, maintenance staff and the pest control operator.
17Review QuestionsThere are seven steps to a healthier home- name three of them.True or False Cockroaches can make asthma and allergies worse?Name two health effects or symptoms of pesticide exposure.What are three methods of blocking pest entry points to the home?Name three places in the home pests can find food or water.True or False IPM advocates the use of pesticides prior to blocking pest entry points and reducing food and water sources in the home.
18-What they are -What they eat -Where they live -Prevention and control Cockroaches-What they are-What they eat-Where they live-Prevention and control
19What is a Cockroach Lives in areas where humans provide food and water Active at night (If you see cockroaches during the day, the infestation is serious)Many eggs in each egg caseNymphs look like small version of adults
20German CockroachMedium size (3/4''), bronze, with “racing stripes” behind the headFound everywhere, but likes warmth, moisture, and darknessReproduces quicklyMother carries eggs to term even if she is deadEats almost anything
21Signs of CockroachesLive cockroachesDead cockroachesFrassEgg Cases
22Where cockroaches live Anywhere in a buildingPrefer spots near water but also need food and warmthIn cracks and crevices where their bodies touch surfaces above and below
23What cockroaches eat Crumbs Grease Trash Cardboard glue Just about anything
24Where cockroaches find water SinksCountersFloorsPet bowlsLeaky pipesRefrigerator dripsAC unitsShower stalls
25What’s the problems here? -How would you fix it?
26IPM for Cockroaches Inspect: Prevention and Control What kind? How many?Where are they living?Prevention and ControlSanitationExclusionLeast toxic pesticides
27Inspect Where are they hiding? Monitor Look for evidence where cockroaches would find food, water, or a hiding spot: up, down, behind, and under.MonitorBy placing sticky traps near areas where cockroaches might travel—at corners and near warmth, food, and water.Traps help find cockroaches when and where people can’t.
28Prevention and Control -Sanitation Eliminate hiding spots, food, and water available at night byReducing clutterThrowing away dead cockroachesCleaning frass and areas where there were cockroaches with soap and waterCleaning with Borax (washing floors in kitchen/bathroom)
29Prevention and Control -Exclusion Seal or fix cracks, peeled wallpaper, or holes that cockroaches could get through with:Screens on windows and doorsDoor sweepsSilicone caulkCopper mesh
30Prevention and Control -Least Toxic Pesticides -Exclusion and Sanitation first!-Maintenance staff and residents should never spray pesticides!!Bait Stations (roach motels)The bait needs to be the only food in the area—sanitation first!Won’t work if contaminated by strong- smelling cleaners or other chemicals, pesticide sprays or foggers, or nicotine from cigarette smoke.
31Prevention and Control -Least Toxic Pesticides Insecticidal Dusts-Boric AcidEffective if used correctly.Light dusting instead of piles.Use in walls before fixing them.Under and behind cabinets at turnover or when making large repairs…but clean first!Because dust can become airborne Respirators must be worn when applying and Ventilation Systems should be turned off!
32Prevention and Control -Insecticidal Dusts Incorrect use of insecticidal dust
34Review QuestionsTrue or False cockroaches are most active during the night.What are two signs that a home is infested with cockroaches?Name three places in the home where cockroaches can find water.What tool is used to monitor for cockroaches in a home?Name two ways to eliminate cockroach hiding spots and/or food and waters sources in the home.
35-What they are -What they eat -Where they live -Prevention and Control Bed Bugs-What they are-What they eat-Where they live-Prevention and Control
36What is a Bed Bug A blood-sucking insect Most active at night Usually feeds at nightBed bugs do not transmit disease, but theycause secondary infections after people scratch their bed bug bites; andresult in stress, loss of work, loss of sleep, and financial burden.Adult bed bug feeding on human
37Bed Bug Behavior Hide in cracks and crevices, often in groups. Hitchhike on bags, furniture, wires, or pipes.Cannot fly, jump, or burrow into skin…they crawl.
38Signs of Bed Bugs Bites Blood spots Shed skins Dead bed bugs Live bed bugsBed bugs and fecal spots.Adult bed bug and droppings on mattress.
39Signs of Bed BugsShed skinsBed bug signs on a mattress seam
42Where do bed bugs live? In the building In any crack or crevice where a credit card edge could fitIn anything near where people restBeds, sofas, bedside tables, recliners, picture frames…
43How do bed bugs spread? Through walls along wires and pipes On anything coming from an infested unit:FurnitureBackpacksLaundry
44Inspection is keyA thorough inspection is important to determine how widespread the infestation is.Inspection for bed bugs starts in the place where people sleep and moves out from there to other parts of the roomMattressBox SpringBed Frame/Head BoardOther furniture/storage areasBed bugs may turn up in unexpected places in moderate and large infestations (desks, nightstands, picture frames, etc…)
45Bed bug control If residents find bed bugs they should: Report the problemNot throw the mattress out—cover itNot sprayPrevent carrying the bed bugs to other placesPrepare the unit for control measures
46Bed bug control -Resident’s Role Residents can:Bag and remove all bedding, clothing, and other soft washable items from the infested area in plastic bags.Wash and dry sheets, blankets, clothing, etc…on hot setting.Isolate the cleaned items until bed bugs are gone.Wash headboard and bed frame and other infested furniture with hot water and soap/vinegar.Use a mattress encasement.
47Bed bug control -Mattress encasement Traps live bed bugs inside.Zip, seal, and check for rips.Leave it on for 1-1/2 years (don’t let it rip).
48Bed bug control Residents should never spray or use foggers or bombs Sprays cause the bugs to scatter- making them harder to control
49Bed Bug Control -Pest Control Operator’s Role PCO may:Inspect units (infested and adjacent units)Take apart furniturePut infested items in sealed plastic bags or discard heavily infested itemsUseA Hepa vacuum-to remove bed bugs and debrisHeat or steam- to kill bugsReturn in three weeks for follow up inspections
50Bed bug control -Maintenance Staff’s Role Empty dumpsters weeklyDamage furniture left out for the trash so it can’t be reusedInspect the laundry room weeklyBe very cautious when working in units—never set items on or under beds, recliners, or sofasEliminate bed bug hiding spotsFix peeling wallpaper and paintCaulk or seal cracks and crevices around the room and on furnitureSeal floors or the spaces between floor boards and tiles
51Bed bug control -Manager’s Role Maintain building free of pest harborage (hiding) placesCommunicate with the Pest Control Operator and residentsNotify and assist residents in preparing for the Pest Control Operator visitEnsure all units which are infested (as well as adjacent units) are inspected and IPM strategies are employed by the Pest Control Operator
52Bed bug prevention Launder clothing/bedding frequently Inspect donated/used furniture and clothing carefully and wash thoroughlyResident educationStress to residents that bedbugs are Not a sign of poor hygieneEncourage residents to come forward immediately at first signs of infestation
53Review Questions True or False bed bugs are found only in beds. How do bed bugs get into a multi-family building?True or False bed bugs can only crawl.Once a unit is infested with bed bugs what are three ways residents can assist in controlling them?True or False foggers or bug bombs are effective in controlling bed bugs.Name two ways a manager can help control bed bugs in a multi-family building.
54For more information on low-risk pest control or IPM please contact: Physicians for Social Responsibility-Los Angeles at orAcknowledgements:Presentation was adapted from the National Center for Healthy Housing’s Integrated Pest Management for Multi-family Housing Course