Word Study adj. lonely willing responsible poor careful kind n. loneliness willingness responsibility poverty carefulness kindness
v. kill represent suffer invent write n. killer representative suffering inventor writer
Fill in the blanks. 1. He ________ the importance of protecting the water resources in his speech at the Earth Summit. 2. We hope that women will have true________ of opportunity with men. stressed equality
3. During the interview, the young man asked about the job _____________ as a shop assistant. 4. How many Chinese ______________ will attend the international conference in Stockholm, Sweden? responsibility representatives
5. The chairman ____________ what they said and drew a conclusion that we must take action to save the earth. 6. When I asked her yesterday, she showed great __________ to come and help. summarised willingness
Practice on Page139 access 1) Have you access to the Internet at home? Translation
2) I cant use/gain access to his computer, since I dont know the password. 3) There is a secret access directly to the Palace.
alternative 1) Besides this method, there is no other alternative to solve the problem.
2) I want to go home this Spring Festival. But if I cant buy a ticket, I also have an alternative plan: visit to a museum.
content 1) Im not interested in the contents of this website. 2) She is not content to live a peaceful life.
3) Look through the contents before reading. Per 1) 100 The car is running at a speed of 100 km per hour.
2) 150 We want to hire a secretary who can type not less than 150 words per minute. 3) How much pocket money do you get from your parents per week?
Grammar 1. Conferences like the Earth Summit help people understand that there exist serious problems and that there is still time to take action. 2. Not until we know more will we be able to improve the situation. Inversion
3. Among the speakers was Chinas then Premier Zhu Rongji, who stressed the need for equality and fairness in the world. 4. A better understanding of the environment is necessary, as is the willingness to act.
5. Only by changing how we live can we save the earth. 6. Had I known that air conditioners cause so much pollution, I would never have bought one.
7. Without international cooperation, developing countries cannot prosper, nor will sustainable development be possible.
The word order of each sentence is different from the normal sentence. The word order is not Subject + Verb, but Verb +Subject or Aux/Mod + Subject + Verb.
Explain the structure 1. there exist + S Just like there be, which express a state for existence, it is full inversion. e.g. There is a pen and some books on the table. There stands a beautiful building near our school.
2. Not until + S + V. + Aux/Mod/be + S 3. Prep. phrase + v. + S (full inversion) 4. as/so/neither/nor + aux/mod + S 5. Only + adverbial + Aux/Mod/b + S + V
6. This is a special inversion. In some special forms of unreal conditional clauses including if had/were/ should, if can be left out, and had/should/ were comes before subject.
7. To avoid repetition,nor is placed at the beginning of the sentences which say that people (or thing or situation ) are the same as others that have been mentioned.
Practice Rewrite the following sentences. 1. We did not know much about global warming until we watched the Earth Day programme on TV. Not until we watched the Earth Day progrmme on TV did we know much about global warming.
2. We can save the earth only by learning to live in harmony with nature. Only by learning to live in harmony with nature can we save the earth.
3. I knew that air pollution causes almost three million deaths every year only after the meeting. Only after the meeting did I know that air pollution causes almost three million deaths every year.
4. I will never forget the day when I made a very important speech on the Earth Day Summit. Never will I forget the day when I made a very important speech on the Earth Day Summit.
5. The Earth Summit is not only a place to talk about problems, but also a place to find solutions for the future. Not only is the Earth Summit a place to talk about problems, it is a place to find solutions for the future too.
6. Julia did not believe what he said until she went there and saw the dirty river herself. Not until she went there and saw the dirty river herself did Julia believe what he said.
7. Better education is not only important for improving ourselves but also for developing our society. Not only is better education important for improving ourselves, it is important for developing our society too.
8. Never have I realized that water is so precious. Never did I realize that water is so precious.
1. If I had not listened to the speeches, I would not have realized that many of the things I do every day are bad for the environment. Rewrite the following sentences, using Inversion.
Had I not listened to the speeches, I would not have realized that many of the things I do every day are bad for the environment.
2. I do not buy products that cause pollution. Most people I know do not buy them, either. I do not buy products that cause pollution. Neither do most people I know.
3. If you had not lent Bob any money, nothing would have happened. Had you not lent Bob any money, nothing would have happened.
4. I have never seen such beautiful scenery in my life. Never in my life have I seen such beautiful scenery!
5. If we had known that you were in hospital, we would have come to see you. Had we known you were in hospital, we would have come to see you.
6. She had hardly sat down to have a rest when the doorbell rang and in came Allan. Hardly had she sat down to have a rest when the doorbell rang and in came Allan.
7. If I had not been there when the accident occurred, I would not have believed it. Had I not been there when the accident occurred, I would not have believed it.
8. I realized that I was wrong only after the experiment. Only after the experiment did I realize that I was wrong.
9. The local government decided to move the factories that caused serious pollution only after the meeting. Only after the meeting did the local government decided to move the factories that caused serious pollution.
Not until late last night had he finished writing his report on environmental protection. 10. He had not finished writing his report on environmental protection until late last night.
Ex.1 on P140 2) Hardly were people prepared for the darkness. 3) The water supply is not enough because of lasting drought, neither is the coal supply.
4) Not only do they limit the power supply to business, but also buy coal or electricity from other parts of China. 5) Not until 2006 will the electricity supply shortage be solved.
Homework 1. Master the usage of inversion. 2. Ask the students to preview the next lesson about integrating skills.