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Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-1 MANAJEMEN PEMASARAN Asmai Ishak Program Magister Manajemen Universitas Islam Indonesia.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-1 MANAJEMEN PEMASARAN Asmai Ishak Program Magister Manajemen Universitas Islam Indonesia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-1 MANAJEMEN PEMASARAN Asmai Ishak Program Magister Manajemen Universitas Islam Indonesia

2 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-2 Learning Goals 1.Define marketing and marketing management. Define marketing and marketing managementDefine marketing and marketing management 2.Understand marketing orientations Understand marketing orientationsUnderstand marketing orientations 3.Understand the market places Understand the market placesUnderstand the market places 4.Identify changes in the new economy and changes in businesses practices Identify changes in the new economy and changes in businesses practicesIdentify changes in the new economy and changes in businesses practices 5.Describe the marketing planning process Describe the marketing planning processDescribe the marketing planning process 6.Understand the strategic planning carried out in corporate and division level Understand the strategic planning carried out in corporate and division levelUnderstand the strategic planning carried out in corporate and division level 7.Understand the strategic planning carried out in business unit level Understand the strategic planning carried out in business unit levelUnderstand the strategic planning carried out in business unit level

3 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-3 What is Marketing? Marketing Defined: Marketing Defined: Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging value with others Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging value with others Marketing is to establish, develop and commercialize long-term customer relationships, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. This is done by a mutual exchange and keeping of promises (Gronroos, 1989 Marketing is to establish, develop and commercialize long-term customer relationships, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. This is done by a mutual exchange and keeping of promises (Gronroos, 1989)

4 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-4 What are marketed? Places Places Properties Properties Organizations Organizations Information Information Ideas Ideas Goods Services Experiences Events Persons Marketing is about managing profitable customer relationships Attracting new customers Retaining and growing current customers

5 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-5 Who are the markets? Consumer Markets Consumer Markets Business Markets Business Markets Global Markets Global Markets Nonprofit and Governmental Markets Nonprofit and Governmental Markets

6 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-6 Marketing Management Marketing management is the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them. Marketing management is the art and science of choosing target markets and building profitable relationships with them. This definition must include answers to two questions: This definition must include answers to two questions: What customers will we serve? What customers will we serve? How can we serve these customers best? How can we serve these customers best?

7 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-7 Selecting Customers and Creating Value Customer Management Customer Management What customers will we serve? What customers will we serve? Marketers select customers that can be served profitably Marketers select customers that can be served profitably Value Proposition Value Proposition How can we serve these customers best? How can we serve these customers best? Includes the set of benefits or values a company promises to deliver to consumers to satisfy their needs Includes the set of benefits or values a company promises to deliver to consumers to satisfy their needs

8 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-8 Marketing Orientations The Production Concept The Production Concept Management focus on production and distribution efficiency Management focus on production and distribution efficiency Consumers favour Consumers favour Readily available products Readily available products Affordable products Affordable products The Product Concept The Product Concept Consumers favour products offering Consumers favour products offering Highest quality Highest quality Best performance Best performance Most innovative features Most innovative features

9 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1-9 The Selling Concept The Selling Concept Sell what you make Sell what you make Typically for unsought goods Typically for unsought goods Focus on sales transactions Focus on sales transactions Driven by excess capacity Driven by excess capacity Assumes hard sell customers are satisfied Assumes hard sell customers are satisfied The Marketing Concept The Marketing Concept Focus on customer wants and needs Focus on customer wants and needs Delivering satisfaction Delivering satisfaction More effectively than competitors More effectively than competitors More efficiently than competitors More efficiently than competitors

10 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Comparison between Selling and Marketing Concepts Factory Existing products Selling and promoting Profits through sales volume Marke t Customer needs Integrated marketing Profits through satisfaction Starting point Focus MeansEnds The selling concept The marketing concept

11 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc The Holistic Marketing Concept The Holistic Marketing Concept Holistic Marketing Internal Marketing Integrated Marketing Relationship Marketing Socially Responsible Marketing Customer Channel Partners Communications Products & Services Channels Marketing Department Senior Management Other Department Ethics Environment Community Legal

12 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Understanding the Marketplace Needs, wants, and demands Needs, wants, and demands Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Value and satisfaction Value and satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relationships Exchange, transactions and relationships Markets Markets Need State of felt deprivation Example: Need food Wants The form of needs as shaped by culture and the individual Example: Want a Big Mac Demands Wants which are backed by buying power Core Concepts

13 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Understanding the Marketplace Needs, wants, and demands Needs, wants, and demands Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Value and satisfaction Value and satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relationships Exchange, transactions and relationships Markets Markets Core Concepts Marketing offer Combination of products, services, information or experiences that satisfy a need or want Offer may include services, activities, people, places, information or ideas

14 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Understanding the Marketplace Needs, wants, and demands Needs, wants, and demands Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Value and satisfaction Value and satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relationships Exchange, transactions and relationships Markets Markets Value Customers form expectations regarding value Marketers must deliver value to consumers Satisfaction A satisfied customer will buy again and tell others about their good experience Core Concepts

15 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Understanding the Marketplace Needs, wants, and demands Needs, wants, and demands Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Value and satisfaction Value and satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relationships Exchange, transactions and relationships Markets Markets Exchange The act of obtaining a desired object from someone by offering something in return One exchange is not the goal, relationships with several exchanges are the goal Relationships are built through delivering value and satisfaction Core Concepts

16 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Understanding the Marketplace Needs, wants, and demands Needs, wants, and demands Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Marketing offers: including products, services and experiences Value and satisfaction Value and satisfaction Exchange, transactions and relationships Exchange, transactions and relationships Markets Markets Market Set of actual and potential buyers of a product Marketers seek buyers that are profitable Core Concepts

17 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Changes in the New Economy Major Drivers of the New Economy Major Drivers of the New Economy Digitization and Connectivity Digitization and Connectivity Disintermediation and Reintermediation Disintermediation and Reintermediation Customization and Customerization Customization and Customerization Industry Convergence Industry Convergence

18 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc How Business Practices Are Changing Organize by product units to organize by customer segments Organize by product units to organize by customer segments Shift focus from profitable transactions to customer lifetime value Shift focus from profitable transactions to customer lifetime value Shift focus from financial scorecard to also focusing on the marketing scorecard Shift focus from financial scorecard to also focusing on the marketing scorecard Shift focus from shareholders to stakeholders Shift focus from shareholders to stakeholders

19 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc How Business Practices Are Changing Everyone does the marketing Everyone does the marketing Build brands through performance, not just advertising Build brands through performance, not just advertising Customer retention rather than customer acquisition Customer retention rather than customer acquisition From none to in-depth customer satisfaction measurement From none to in-depth customer satisfaction measurement From over-promise, under-deliver to under-promise, over-deliver From over-promise, under-deliver to under-promise, over-deliver The New Hybrid The New Hybrid

20 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Table 2-1: Old Economy vs. New Economy Old Economy New Economy Organize by product units Focus on profitable transactions Look primarily at financial scorecard Focus on shareholders Marketing does the marketing Build brands through advertising Focus on customer acquisition No customer satisfaction measurement Overpromise, underdeliver Organize by customer segments Focus on customer lifetime value Look also at marketing scorecard Focus on stakeholders Everyone does the marketing Build brands through behavior Focus on customer retention and growth Measure customer satisfaction and retention rate Underpromise, overdeliver

21 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc The Marketing Planning Process Make the ProductSale the Product Design product Procure Make PriceSell Advertise /Promote Distribute Service A. Traditional Physical Process Sequence Choose the ValueCommunicate the Value Cust. segmen tation Product develop ment Pricing Sales force Sales pro- motion Adverti sing Provide the Value Market selection/ focus Value position ing Service develop ment Sourcing making Distributing servicing B. Value Creation and delivery sequence

22 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Generic Value Chain

23 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Core Business Processes in the Value Chain The market sensing process The market sensing process The new offering realization process The new offering realization process The customer acquisition process The customer acquisition process The customer relationship management process The customer relationship management process The fulfillment management process The fulfillment management process

24 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Strategic Planning: Three Key Areas and Four Organization Levels Marketing plan central instrument for directing and coordinating the marketing efforts for the product line Strategic marketing plan lays out the target markets and the value proposition that will be offered Strategic marketing plan lays out the target markets and the value proposition that will be offered Tactical marketing plan specifies the marketing tactics, including product features, promotion, merchandising, pricing, channels, and services Tactical marketing plan specifies the marketing tactics, including product features, promotion, merchandising, pricing, channels, and services The Level of Organization Corporate Corporate Division Division Business Unit Business Unit Product Product

25 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning All corporate headquarters undertake four planning activities All corporate headquarters undertake four planning activities Defining the Corporate Mission Defining the Corporate Mission Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) Assigning resources to each SBU Assigning resources to each SBU Planning new businesses, downsizing, or terminating older businesses Planning new businesses, downsizing, or terminating older businesses

26 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Defining the Corporate Mission Defining the Corporate Mission Mission statements define which competitive scopes the company will operate in Mission statements define which competitive scopes the company will operate in Industry scope Industry scope Products and applications scope Products and applications scope Competence scope Competence scope Market-segment scope Market-segment scope Vertical scope Vertical scope Geographical scope Geographical scope

27 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Mission/Vision: a statement of organizations purpose – what it wants to accomplish Mission should be market oriented, what does it mean? Whats the different between market oriented companies and customer oriented companies Customer oriented companies: only focus on the expressed needs of the customers and developing goods and services that satisfy those needs Market oriented companies: commit to understand the latent and expressed needs of the customers, and to understand the capabilities and plans of their competitors through the process of acquiring and evaluating market information in a systematic and anticipatory manner

28 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Table 4.1: Product-Oriented versus Market-Oriented Definitions of a Business Company Product Definition Market Definition Missouri-Pacific Railroad We run a railroad We are a people-and- goods mover Xerox We make copying equipment We help improve office productivity Standard Oil We sell gasoline We supply energy Columbia Pictures We make movies We market entertainment Encyclopaedia We sell encyclopedias We distribute Information Carrier We make air conditioners and furnaces We provide climate control in the home

29 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Some Criteria for Effective Mission Statement: Not too broad Not too broad Realistic Realistic Fit with the current market environments Fit with the current market environments Based on the organization distinctive competencies Based on the organization distinctive competencies Motivating Motivating Visionary Visionary

30 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) Establishing Strategic Business Units (SBUs) Three characteristics of SBUs Single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned for separately Single business or collection of related businesses that can be planned for separately Has its own set of competitors Has its own set of competitors Has a manager who is responsible for strategic planning and profit Has a manager who is responsible for strategic planning and profit

31 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc The Growth-Share Matrix The Growth-Share Matrix Relative market share Relative market share Four Cells Four Cells Question Marks Question Marks Stars Stars Cash Cows Cash Cows Dogs Dogs SBU Strategies SBU Strategies SBU Lifecycle SBU Lifecycle Corporate and Division Strategic Planning

32 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning The General Electric Model The General Electric Model

33 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Table 4-2: Factors underlying Market Attractiveness and Competitive Position in GE Multifactor Portfolio Model: Hydraulic-Pumps Market Market Attractiveness Overall market size Annual market growth rate Historical profit margin Competitive intensity Technological requirements Inflationary vulnerability Energy requirements Environmental impact Social-political-legalWeight Must be acceptable 1.0 Rating = (1-5) Value Business Strength Market share Share growth Product quality Brand reputation Distribution network See text for complete table

34 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Critique of Portfolio Models: Critique of Portfolio Models: Focus on classifying current business but provide little advice for future planning Focus on classifying current business but provide little advice for future planning Many policies of business units are determined at the corporate level Many policies of business units are determined at the corporate level Too much emphasis on market share growth or growth through entry into new attractive market – even unrelated ones. Merger and acquisition are the results of this approach. Too much emphasis on market share growth or growth through entry into new attractive market – even unrelated ones. Merger and acquisition are the results of this approach. Planning New Businesses, Downsizing Older Businesses Planning New Businesses, Downsizing Older Businesses

35 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Intensive Growth (Ansof Matrix) Intensive Growth (Ansof Matrix)

36 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Corporate and Division Strategic Planning Integrative Growth Integrative Growth Diversification Growth Diversification Growth Downsizing Older Businesses Downsizing Older Businesses

37 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Business Unit Strategic Planning Business Mission Business Mission SWOT Analysis SWOT Analysis External Environment Analysis (Opportunity and Threat Analysis) External Environment Analysis (Opportunity and Threat Analysis) Marketing Opportunity Marketing Opportunity Buying opportunity more convenient or efficient Buying opportunity more convenient or efficient Meet the need for more information and advice Meet the need for more information and advice Customize an offering that was previously only available in standard form Customize an offering that was previously only available in standard form

38 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Business Unit Strategic Planning Marketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA) Marketing Opportunity Analysis (MOA) Can the benefits be articulated to a target market? Can the benefits be articulated to a target market? Can the target market be reached with cost- effective media and trade channels? Can the target market be reached with cost- effective media and trade channels? Does the company have the critical capabilities to deliver the customer benefits? Does the company have the critical capabilities to deliver the customer benefits? Can the company deliver these benefits better than any actual or potential competitors? Can the company deliver these benefits better than any actual or potential competitors? Will the rate of return meet the required threshold of investment? Will the rate of return meet the required threshold of investment?

39 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Figure 4-7: Opportunity and Threat Matrices

40 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Business Unit Strategic Planning Internal Environmental Analysis (Strength/Weakness Analysis) Internal Environmental Analysis (Strength/Weakness Analysis) Goal Formation Goal Formation Strategic Formulation Strategic Formulation Strategy Strategy

41 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Business Unit Strategic Planning Porters Generic Strategies Porters Generic Strategies Overall cost leadership Overall cost leadership Differentiation Differentiation Focus Focus Operational Effectiveness and Strategy Operational Effectiveness and Strategy Strategic group Strategic group Strategic alliances Strategic alliances

42 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Marketing Alliances Marketing Alliances Product or service alliances Product or service alliances Promotional alliances Promotional alliances Logistical alliances Logistical alliances Pricing collaborations Pricing collaborations Partner Relationship Management, PRM Partner Relationship Management, PRM Program Formulation and Implementation Program Formulation and Implementation Feedback and Control Feedback and Control Business Unit Strategic Planning

43 Copyright © 2003 Prentice-Hall, Inc Product Planning: The Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan Contents of the Marketing Plan Contents of the Marketing Plan Executive Summary Executive Summary Current Marketing Situation Current Marketing Situation Opportunity and issue analysis Opportunity and issue analysis Objectives Objectives Marketing strategy Marketing strategy Action programs Action programs Financial projections Financial projections Implementation controls Implementation controls


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