Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone http://www.ncat.org/nutrients/hypoxia/hypoxia.html The DEADZONE forms each April, generally grows throughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July.
Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span 5,000 to 8,000-plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/topics/deadzone/index.html
DEAD ZONES How do we HELP? Use modern technology and green farming methods to: Decrease agricultural fertilizer use Decrease runoff of agricultural waste
Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains high concentrations of ____________ which protect us from the suns harmful ______________ radiation. OZONE LAYER ultra-violet http://pubweb.bnl.gov/users/xujun/www/bnl/ozone_layer_1.gif OZONE (O 3 ) http://www.planetguide.net/book/chapter_5/ozone_layer.html
EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Click here to see a movie about the effects of UV radiation WMV, 618K __________________________________ ________________________ of skin __________________________________ Reduces ________________ Disrupts __________________ in oceans Skin cancer Cataracts/blindness Premature aging crop yield food chains
WHAT WE KNOW Scientists have been monitoring the ____________ of ozone in our atmosphere and have discovered a hole in the ozone layer over ____________. depletion Antarctica http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/hole.html Click here to see a movie about the ozone hole WMV, 616K
The annual ozone "hole over Antarctica has occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October) since the early 1980s. Rather than being an actual hole through the layer, the ozone hole is a large area with extremely low amounts of ozone. Ozone levels fall by over 60% during the worst years. http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/facts/hole.html
Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole. Research has shown that ozone depletion also occurs over North America, Europe, Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, and South America. Over the U.S., ozone levels have fallen 5-10%, depending on the season. http://home.casema.nl/daveduijn/globe2.gif
Whats the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbon molecules _______ released from air conditioners, aerosol spray cans, fire extinguishers, and industry ________________ destroy ozone http://www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part3.html (CFCs)
HOW DO WE HELP? 1987- the _______________________ committed signing nations (including USA) to a ____________ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances. CFC production was _________ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty. OZONE DEPLETION MONTREAL PROTOCOL REDUCTION banned
_____________spray cans no longer contain CFC propellants. Gases in ___________________ and _____________ are collected and recycled. THATS WHY... AEROSOL AIR CONDITIONERS http://www.roundrocktexas.gov/images/spray_cans_large.jpg refrigerators
OZONE DEPLETION How do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050. This is the first example of different countries getting together on an environmental issue, agreeing on what to do, doing something, and seeing a positive effect http://www.gifs.net/image/Words/Wow/Wow_rotates/4031
Emissions to Atmosphere Nitrogen oxides Sulfur dioxide Chemical Transformation Nitric acid Sulfuric acid Precipitation Acid rain, fog, snow, and mist Dry Fallout Condensation particulates, gases IndustryTransportationOre smeltingPower generation ACID RAIN Whats the cause?________________________ BURNING FOSSIL FUELS Releases _______________ and ________________ into the atmosphere that react with water to produce ACID RAIN. Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides
ACID RAIN EFFECTS damages buildings and statues damages forests kills fish reduces biodiversity causes illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis
HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels conserve electricity drive less Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels ACID RAIN Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch)
GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range ______________ because the _____________ acts as a natural _________________ blanket. atmosphere http://wwwstatic.bayareawritingproject.org/images/bawp41/earthAtmosphereIMG.gif suitable for life insulating
GREENHOUSE EFFECT Atmospheric gases such as ___________________ NORMALLY trap heat energy from the sun like a greenhouse = _____________________ Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) http://www.acmecompany.com/stock_thumbnails/13808.greenhouse_effect_2.jpg Greenhouse effect methane water vapor CFCs
GLOBAL WARMING- Is it real? Some people say that the Earth has cycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle. Most scientists believe that the increase in global temperatures is the result of human activities that have increased the amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
In 2007 in Paris a U.N.- backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that: 1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal 2. There is a 90% probability the cause man- made. Either way… our planet is getting warmer!
Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's ten warmest years have occurred in the last 15 years of this century. FACTS WE KNOW http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/8/87/280px-Instrumental_Temperature_Record.png
The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. FACTS WE KNOW Graph & glacier pix: http://nsidc.org/sotc/glacier_balance.html polar bears: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34
FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Major_greenhouse_gas_trends.png
WHATS the CAUSE? Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood products Production and transport of fossil fuels Decomposition of organic wastes in landfills Animal sources (methane) Deforestation (trees remove CO 2 from atmosphere) GLOBAL WARMING
Were freezing here in S.D.! Whats so bad about warming up a little?
Coastal flooding Cartoon from Brookings Register http://healthandenergy.com/images/global2.gif
Whats so bad about warming up a little? http://zfacts.com/metaPage/lib/Atlantic_conveyor.jpg Changes in Gulf Stream http://www.claybennett.com/pages/ocean_temps.html
Whats so bad about warming up a little? More severe storms http://i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2005/WEATHER/08/25/tropical.storm/story.katrina.915p.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina
Whats so bad about warming up a little? Weather extremes Brookings Register http://www.cactus-art.biz/note-book/Dictionary/aaa_Dictionary_pictures/drought.jpg Heat waves and drought
Whats so bad about warming up a little? Changing habitats means loss of species http://www.metro.co.uk/news/article.html?in_article_id=35720&in_page_id=34
Whats the Kyoto Accord got to do with it? The Kyoto Accord is an agreement, aimed at reducing global warming that asks participants to __________ their ________________ emissions to a percentage of their 1990 emission levels _____________. REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS by 2012
PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD (The US has not ratified this agreement) In 1998-Clinton administration signs the Kyoto Accord committing the United States to a 7% reduction in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 emissions levels, to be achieved between the years 2008 and 2012. 2001- Bush administration withdrew the U.S. signature, claiming that the treaty was "fatally flawed". 2008- Australia (last major nation hold out) signed 160 nations have now agreed (not US)
PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, Developing nations dont have to reduce emissions at all India and China, which have ratified the protocol, are not required to reduce carbon emissions under the present agreement despite their relatively large populations. Developed nations (like USA) can meet required reductions by purchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and funding developing countries for climate related studies, projects, and technology
KYOTO is OLD NEWS! Standards set by Kyoto will expire in 2012. United Nations Meeting on Climate Change Met in December 2009 - Copenhagen, Denmark http://unfccc.int/meetings/items/2654.php
Current Status OBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius; the commitment to list developed country emission reduction targets and mitigation action by developing countries for 2020; Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries) The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding in Mexico one year from now.
What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? A ____________________ = the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or product CARBON FOOTPRINT http://www.gifanimations.com/animation/MenuSelection/1/56 http://www.nature.org/initiatives/climatechange/calculator/
The US is no longer the #1 CO 2 emitter http://www.chrismadden.co.uk/eco/china-carbon-footprint.html but... we contribute to the problem.
Even if you dont believe in global warming... Even if countries cant agree on emission levels … we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE... http://matadornetwork.cachefly.net/bravenewtraveler.com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/20080418-planet.jpg
THINGS WE DO TO FIX GLOBAL WARMING make sense anyway! http://www.inkcinct.com.au/Web/CARTOONS/2005/2005-379C--last-fossil-fuel.gif Fossil fuels are a limited resource… eventually they will be gone!
THINGS WE DO TO FIX GLOBAL WARMING make sense anyway! http://healthandenergy.com/global_warming_cartoons.htm Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent on countries that are not friendly to the U.S.
THINGS WE DO TO FIX GLOBAL WARMING make sense anyway! Brookings Register Drilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences
THINGS WE DO TO FIX GLOBAL WARMING make sense anyway! Brookings Register Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences
THINGS WE DO TO FIX GLOBAL WARMING make sense anyway! Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy Images from: http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/R/Renewable_energy.asp
HOW DO WE HELP? Cut down on CO 2 emissions (with or without the Kyoto accord) Develop a National energy policy that emphasizes use of alternative renewable energy sources Cut down on activities that use fossil fuels Drive automobiles with increased fuel efficiency OR run on alternative fuels GLOBAL WARMING Recycle (uses less energy than starting from scratch) Reduce deforestation (plants use CO 2 ) Watch your carbon footprint
WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH? According to the Environmental Protection Agency, the average American produces about 4.4 pounds of garbage a day. That adds up to a approximately 220 million tons of garbage each year for all of us. This only takes into consideration the average household member and does not count industrial waste or commercial trash. http://blog.lib.umn.edu/stau0156/architecture/garbage%20can.jpg
PICTURE THIS: It would bury more than 990,000 football fields under six-foot high piles of waste.. http://www.wisegeek.com/how-much-garbage-does-a-person-create-in-one-year.htm http://wchs.warren.k12.in.us/athletics/Pictures/FOOTBALL%20STADIUM%20&%20PRESSBOX_gif.jpg... and thats just the United States!
TRASH KILLS http://lh4.ggpht.com/abramsv/SBAxRydox-I/AAAAAAAAPOs/IWuOgznte9Q/fish_story_003.jpg http://www.mindfully.org/Plastic/Ocean/Sea-Plastic-LN-PG5oct05.htm http://saveourshores.org/files/md/Distorted-Turtle.jpg It has been estimated that over a million sea-birds and 100,000 marine mammals and sea turtles are killed each year by ingestion of plastics or entanglement.
http://lowcarbonhome.info/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/plastic-garbageii.jpg PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS! PLASTIC IS FOREVER!
PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE See a video http://earthfirst.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/floating-trash.jpg Covers an area twice the size of TEXAS Estimated to contain over 100 million tons of debris http://www.jadedthea.com/images/PacificGyre.gif http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lt-MivNezes&NR=1
We Cant Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills We have to: _____________ REDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE Plastic recycling video
QUOTES This we know... the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to earth. All things are connected, like the blood which connects one family. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the children of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life – he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself. ~ Chief Seattle, 1854
If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror. ~ John Young, former Apollo astronaut A true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children. ~ John James Audubon, 1785 - 1851 It's not easy being green. ~ Kermit the Frog Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, Nothing is going to get better. It's not. ~ Dr. Seuss, The Lorax
WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS! http://www.claybennett.com/pages/earth_d5.html http://www.chrismadden.co.uk/eco/hourglass.html
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.N.1.1. Students are able to evaluate a scientific discovery to determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influence scientific investigations and interpretations NATURE OF SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the nature and origin of scientific knowledge Recognize scientific knowledge is not merely a set of static facts but is dynamic and affords the best current explanations. Discuss how progress in science can be affected by social issues.
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.N.1.2. Students are able to describe the role of observation and evidence in the development and modification of hypotheses, theories, and laws. NATURE OF SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the nature and origin of scientific knowledge Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models. Evaluate the scientific accuracy of information relevant to a specific issue
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.3.1. Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems. Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions. Examples: Fluctuation in available resources (water, food, shelter) Human activity Response to external stimuli LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another and the environment.
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.E.1.2. Students are able to describe how atmospheric chemistry may affect global climate. Examples: Greenhouse Effect, ozone depletion, oceans effects on weather 9-12.E.1.3. Students are able to assess how human activity has changed the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. Examples: forest cover, chemical usage, farming, urban sprawl, grazing EARTH SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures and processes of the Earth system.
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.S.1.2. Students are able to evaluate and describe the impact of scientific discoveries on historical events and social, economic, and ethical issues. Examples: nuclear power, global warming, and alternative fuels TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY: Indicator 1: Analyze various implications/effects of scientific advancement within the environment and society.
SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.L.3.1A. Students are able to relate genetic, instinct, and behavior patterns to biodiversity and survival of species. (SYNTHESIS) Relate the introduction of non-native species to the disruption of an ecosystem. Examples: zebra mussels LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to one another and the environment.
SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS 9-12.S.2.1. Students are able to describe immediate and long-term consequences of potential solutions for technological issues. Examples: environmental, power and transportation, energy sources, issues 9-12.S.2.2. Students are able to analyze factors that could limit technological design. Examples: ethics, environmental impact, manufacturing processes, operation, maintenance, replacement, disposal, and liability 9-12.S.2.3. Students are able to analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in using, conserving, or recycling resources. Examples: agriculture, energy TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY: Indicator 2: Analyze the relationships/interactions among science, technology, environment, and society.
Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation; High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations; given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.
Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles; predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment; describe how various factors may affect global climate; explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth High school students performing at the BASIC level: describe one factor that may affect global climate; give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level: modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design; given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues. High school students performing at the PROFICIENT level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issues evaluate factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recycling High school students performing at the BASIC level: given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues; identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project; identify factors that could limit technological design; given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.