Presentation on theme: "HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-4 Charting a course for the Future http://www.claybennett.com/pages2/mistletoe.html."— Presentation transcript:
1HUMAN IMPACT on the BIOSPHERE Chapter 6-4 Charting a course for the Future
2ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DEAD ZONES___________________OZONE DEPLETIONACID RAINGLOBAL WARMINGWASTE
3DEAD ZONES When an ecosystem receives a LARGE input REMEMBER !When an ecosystem receives a LARGE inputof limiting nutrient (ie., fertilizer runoff) thepopulation increases dramatically = ___________ALGAL BLOOM
7Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone The DEADZONE forms each April, generally growsthroughout the summer, reaching a peak in late July.
8Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone At its peak, the nearly lifeless water can span5,000 to 8,000-plus square miles, an area almost the size of New Jersey
9DEAD ZONES How do we HELP? Use modern technology and“green” farming methods to:Decrease agricultural fertilizer useDecrease runoff of agricultural waste
10OZONE LAYER Our atmosphere between 20-50 km contains OZONE LAYEROur atmosphere between20-50 km containshigh concentrationsof ____________which protect us fromthe sun’s harmful______________ radiation.OZONE (O3)ultra-violet
11EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION Skin cancer__________________________________________________________ of skinReduces ________________Disrupts __________________ in oceansPremature agingCataracts/blindnesscrop yieldfood chainsClick here to see a movieabout the effects of UV radiationWMV, 618K
12Click here to see a movie WHAT WE KNOWScientists have beenmonitoring the ____________of ozone in our atmosphereand have discovereda hole in the ozone layerover ____________.depletionAntarcticaClick here to see a movieabout the ozone holeWMV, 616K
13The annual ozone "hole“ over Antarctica has occurred during the Antarctic Spring (October)since the early 1980s.Rather than being an actual holethrough the layer, the ozonehole is a large areawith extremelylow amounts of ozone.Ozone levels fall by over60% during the worst years.
14Ozone depletion is a global issue NOT just a problem at the South Pole.Research has shown that ozone depletionalso occurs over North America, Europe,Asia, and much of Africa, Australia, andSouth America.Over the U.S., ozone levels have fallen 5-10%, depending on the season.
15What’s the cause of Ozone Depletion? Chlorofluorocarbonmolecules _______released fromair conditioners,aerosol spray cans,fire extinguishers,and industry________________(CFC’s)destroy ozone
16OZONE DEPLETION MONTREAL PROTOCOL HOW DO WE HELP?1987- the _______________________ committed signing nations (including USA) to a ____________ in the use of CFCs and other ozone-depleting substances.CFC production was _________ after 1995 in the developed countries, and later in developing countries. Today, over 180 countries have ratified the treaty.MONTREAL PROTOCOLREDUCTIONbanned
17THAT’S WHY . . . AEROSOL _____________spray cans no longer contain _____________spray cansno longer containCFC propellants.Gases in ___________________and _____________ are collectedand recycled.AIR CONDITIONERSrefrigerators
18OZONE DEPLETION How do we help? We can't make enough ozone to replace what's been destroyed, but provided that we stop producing ozone-depleting substances, computer models predict natural ozone production reactions should return the ozone layer to normal levels by about 2050.This is the first example of different countriesgetting together on an environmental issue,agreeing on what to do, doing something,and seeing a positive effect
19Chemical Transformation Emissions to Atmosphere ACID RAINWhat’s the cause?________________________BURNING FOSSIL FUELSChemical TransformationNitric acidSulfuric acidCondensationEmissions to AtmosphereNitrogen oxidesSulfur dioxideDry FalloutPrecipitationAcid rain, fog,snow, and mistparticulates, gasesIndustryTransportationOre smeltingPower generationNitrogen oxidesSulfur oxidesReleases _______________ and ________________into the atmosphere that react with water to produce ACID RAIN.
21ACID RAIN EFFECTS damages buildings and statues damages forests kills fishreduces biodiversitycauses illness & premature death from heart & lung disorders like asthma and bronchitis
22ACID RAINHOW DO WE HELP?Develop a National energy policy that emphasizesuse of alternative renewable energy sourcesCut down on activities that use fossil fuelsconserve electricitydrive lessDrive automobiles with increased fuel efficiencyOR run on alternative fuelsRecycle(uses less energy than starting from scratch)
23GREENHOUSE EFFECT Temperatures of Earth remain within a range ______________ because the _____________acts as a natural _________________ blanket.suitable for lifeatmosphereinsulating
24GREENHOUSE EFFECT Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) methane water vapor CFC’s Atmospheric gases such as___________________NORMALLY trap heatenergy from the sunlike a greenhouse= _____________________Carbon dioxide (CO2 )methanewater vaporCFC’sGreenhouse effect
25GLOBAL WARMING- Is it real? Some people say that the Earth has cycles of warmer/cooler climate change and that this is just part of that cycle.Most scientists believe that the increase in global temperatures is the result of human activities that have increased the amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
261. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“ In 2007 in Paris a U.N.- backed panel of international scientists issued a major announcement on climate change stating that:1. "warming of the climate system is unequivocal“2. There is a 90% probability the cause “man- made”.Either way… our planet is getting warmer!
27FACTS WE KNOWGlobal mean surface temperatures have increased °F since the late 19th century.The 20th century's ten warmest years haveoccurred in the last 15 years of this century.
28FACTS WE KNOWThe snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased.Graph & glacier pix: polar bears:
29FACTS WE KNOW Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have increased steadily.
30GLOBAL WARMING WHAT’S the CAUSE? Burning solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), wood and wood productsProduction and transport of fossil fuelsDecomposition of organic wastes in landfillsAnimal sources (methane)Deforestation (trees remove CO2 from atmosphere)
31What’s so bad about warming up a little? We’re freezing here in S.D.!
32Coastal flooding What’s so bad about warming up a little? Cartoon from Brookings RegisterCoastal flooding
33Changes in Gulf Stream What’s so bad about warming up a little? What’s so bad about warming up a little?Changes inGulf Stream
34More severe storms What’s so bad about warming up a little? More severe storms
35Weather extremes What’s so bad about warming up a little? Heat waves and droughtBrookings Register
36Changing habitats means loss of species What’s so bad about warming up a little?Changing habitatsmeansloss of species
37What’s the Kyoto Accord got to do with it? The Kyoto Accord is an agreement, aimed atreducing global warming that asksparticipants to __________ their ________________ emissions to a percentage of their 1990emission levels _____________.REDUCEGREENHOUSE GASby 2012
38PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD (The US has not ratified this agreement)In 1998-Clinton administration signs the Kyoto Accord committing the United States to a 7% reduction in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 emissions levels, to be achieved between the years 2008 and 2012.2001- Bush administration withdrew the U.S. signature, claiming that the treaty was "fatally flawed". 2008- Australia (last major nation hold out) signed160 nations have now agreed (not US)
39PROBLEMS WITH the KYOTO ACCORD ALL countries not required to reduce emissions equally7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia,Developing nations don’t have to reduce emissions at allIndia and China, which have ratified the protocol,are not required to reduce carbon emissions underthe present agreement despite their relatively large populations.Developed nations (like USA) can meet required reductions bypurchasing emission reductions from elsewhere and fundingdeveloping countries for climate related studies, projects, andtechnology
40KYOTO is “OLD NEWS”! Standards set by Kyoto will expire in 2012. United Nations Meeting on Climate ChangeMet in December Copenhagen, Denmark
41Current StatusOBJECTIVE: to keep the maximum temperature rise to below 2 degrees Celsius;the commitment to list developed country emission reduction targets and mitigation action by developing countries for 2020;Proposed $ 30 billion short-term funding for immediate action till 2012 and $100 billion annually by 2020 in long-term financing (still needs to be approved by countries)The challenge now is to turn what is agreed into something that is legally binding in Mexico one year from now.
42What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT? What is a CARBON FOOTPRINT?A ____________________ =the total set of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions caused directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, event or productCARBON FOOTPRINT
43The US is no longer the #1 CO2 emitter but we contribute to the problem.
44Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . . Even if you don’t “believe” in global warming . . .Even if countries can’t agree on emission levels …we should still work to reduce our emissions of global warming gases BECAUSE . . .
45THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway!Fossil fuels are a limited resource…eventually they will be gone!
46THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Our supply of fossil fuels is dependent oncountries that are not “friendly” to the U.S.
47THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Brookings RegisterDrilling for and transporting fossil fuels has negative environmental consequences
48THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Drilling and transporting fossil fuels has negativeenvironmental consequencesBrookings Register
49THINGS WE DO TO “FIX GLOBAL WARMING” make sense anyway! Images from:Innovation and alternative energy technologies for automobiles and power generation are good for our economy
50GLOBAL WARMING HOW DO WE HELP? Develop a National energy policy that emphasizesuse of alternative renewable energy sourcesWatch your carbon footprintCut down on activities that use fossil fuelsDrive automobiles with increased fuel efficiencyOR run on alternative fuelsCut down on CO2 emissions(with or without the Kyoto accord)Recycle(uses less energy than starting from scratch)Reduce deforestation (plants use CO2)
51WHAT DO WE DO WITH OUR TRASH? According to theEnvironmental Protection Agency,the average American producesabout 4.4 pounds of garbage a day.That adds up to a approximately220 million tons of garbage eachyear for all of us.This only takes into considerationthe average household memberand does not count industrial wasteor commercial trash.
52PICTURE THIS:It would bury more than 990,000 football fields under six-foot high piles of waste... . . and that’s just the United States!
53TRASH KILLS It has been estimated that over a million sea-birds and 100,000marine mammals and sea turtlesare killed each year by ingestionof plastics or entanglement.
54PLASTIC IS FOREVER! PLASTIC IS MADE FROM FOSSIL FUELS! PLASTIC IS FOREVER!
55PACIFIC OCEAN GARBAGE GYRE Covers an area twice the size of TEXASEstimated to containover 100 million tonsof debrisSee a video
56We Can’t Just Keep Piling it up in Landfills We have to:_____________REDUCE,REUSE,RECYCLEPlastic recycling video
57QUOTES This we know... the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to earth. All things are connected,like the blood which connects one family.Whatever befalls the earth befalls the children ofthe earth. Man did not weave the web of life –he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does tothe web, he does to himself.~ Chief Seattle, 1854
58If you want to see an endangered species, get up and look in the mirror. ~ John Young, former Apollo astronautA true conservationist is a man who knows that the world is not given by his fathers, but borrowed from his children. ~ John James Audubon,It's not easy being green. ~ Kermit the FrogUnless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, Nothing is going to get better. It's not ~ Dr. Seuss, The Lorax
59WE NEED TO START CONSIDERING THE EFFECTS ON OUR PLANET WHEN WE MAKE DECISIONS!
60SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS NATURE OF SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the nature andorigin of scientific knowledge9-12.N Students are able to evaluate a scientific discovery to determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influence scientific investigations and interpretationsRecognize scientific knowledge is not merely a set of static factsbut is dynamic and affords the best current explanations.Discuss how progress in science can be affected by social issues.
61SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS NATURE OF SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Understand the nature andorigin of scientific knowledge9-12.N Students are able to describe the role of observation and evidence in the development and modification of hypotheses, theories, and laws.Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.Evaluate the scientific accuracy of information relevant to a specific issue
62SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to oneanother and the environment.9-12.L Students are able to identify factors that can cause changes in stability of populations, communities, and ecosystems.Predict the results of biotic and abiotic interactions.Examples:Fluctuation in available resources(water, food, shelter) Human activity Response to external stimuli
63SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS EARTH SCIENCE: Indicator 1: Analyze the various structures andprocesses of the Earth system.9-12.E.1.2. Students are able to describe how atmospheric chemistry may affect global climate.Examples: Greenhouse Effect, ozone depletion, ocean’s effects on weather9-12.E Students are able to assess how human activity has changed the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.Examples: forest cover, chemical usage, farming, urban sprawl, grazing
64SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY: Indicator 1: Analyze various implications/effects ofscientific advancement within the environment and society.9-12.S Students are able to evaluate and describe the impact of scientific discoveries on historical events and social, economic, and ethical issues.Examples: nuclear power, global warming, and alternative fuels
65SOUTH DAKOTA ADVANCED SCIENCE STANDARDS LIFE SCIENCE: Indicator 3: Analyze how organisms are linked to oneanother and the environment.9-12.L.3.1A. Students are able to relate genetic, instinct, and behavior patterns to biodiversity and survival of species. (SYNTHESIS)Relate the introduction of non-native species to the disruption of an ecosystem.Examples: zebra mussels
66SOUTH DAKOTA CORE SCIENCE STANDARDS TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT, & SOCIETY: Indicator 2: Analyze the relationships/interactionsamong science, technology, environment, and society.9-12.S Students are able to describe immediate and long-term consequences of potential solutions for technological issues.Examples:environmental, power and transportation, energy sources, issues9-12.S Students are able to analyze factors that could limit technological design.Examples: ethics, environmental impact, manufacturing processes, operation, maintenance, replacement, disposal, and liability9-12.S Students are able to analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in using, conserving, or recycling resources.Examples: agriculture, energy
67Core High School Nature of Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:given a scientific discovery, evaluate how different societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a scientific discovery narrative, determine and describe how societal, cultural, and personal beliefs influenced the investigation and its interpretation;High school students performing at the BASIC level:describe the role of observation in the development of hypotheses, theories, and laws and conduct student investigations;given a scientific discovery narrative, identify the cultural and personal beliefs that influenced the investigation.
68Core High School Life/Earth Science Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:predict the effect of an interruption in a given cycles;predict how human activity may change the land, ocean, and atmosphere of Earth.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:predict how life systems respond to changes in the environment;describe how various factors may affect global climate;explain how human activity changes the land, ocean, and atmosphere of EarthHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:describe one factor that may affect global climate;give an example of human activity that changes the land, ocean, or atmosphere of Earth
69Core High School Technology, Environment, Society Performance Descriptors High school students performing at the ADVANCED level:modify a technology taking into consideration limiting factors of design;given a narrative of a scientific discovery, defend a position on the impact of the ethical issues.High school students performing at thePROFICIENT level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify and evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of scientific issuesevaluate factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, analyze and describe the benefits, limitations, cost, and consequences involved in its use, conservation, or recyclingHigh school students performing at the BASIC level:given a narrative of a scientific discovery, identify the immediate consequences of scientific issues;identify ethical roles and responsibilities concerning a given research project;identify factors that could limit technological design;given a narrative description of a resource, describe a benefit and limitation involved in its use, conservation, or recycling.