Presentation on theme: "APHY201 5/31/2014 1 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics A systems internal energy can be changed by doing work or by the addition/removal of heat: ΔU."— Presentation transcript:
APHY201 5/31/ The First Law of Thermodynamics A systems internal energy can be changed by doing work or by the addition/removal of heat: ΔU = Q - W W is negative if work is done on the system Compression of the gas What is the state of the system? Described by P, V, T, m, U
APHY201 5/31/ Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law Isothermal: T = constant ΔU = 0 W = Q Adiabatic: Q = 0 ΔU = -W
APHY201 5/31/ Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law If pressure is constant then W = Fd = PAd = P ΔV
APHY201 5/31/ Thermodynamic Processes and the First Law The total work done during a process is equal to the area under the PV diagram
APHY201 5/31/ The Second Law of Thermodynamics Heat can flow spontaneously only from a hot object to a cold object. A reversible process is one that is always in equilibrium and can return to its initial conditions along the same path Most natural processes are irreversible Sets an upper limit on efficiency of heat engines
APHY201 5/31/ Heat Engines Heat engines convert U into other useful forms of energy – mechanical, electrical, … ΔU cycle = 0 Q H = W + Q L Automobile engines
APHY201 5/31/ Heat Engines The efficiency of a heat engine is Carnot (ideal) engine Reversible processes Too slow for real engines
APHY201 5/31/ Refrigerators, Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps A heat engine in reverse.
APHY201 5/31/ Refrigerators, Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps
APHY201 5/31/ (a) The work done by a gas at constant pressure is found from Eq (b) The change in internal energy is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics
APHY201 5/31/ Find the exhaust temperature from the original Carnot efficiency, and then recalculate the intake temperature for the new Carnot efficiency, using the same exhaust temperature.