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Unit C Heat & Temperature

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Presentation on theme: "Unit C Heat & Temperature"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit C Heat & Temperature
Science 7

2 After This Unit “I Can...” Investigate and find explanations for how human need for heat has led to technology developments Discuss how human needs cause an increase in use of energy sources Describe thermal energy – what is it? Understand the effect heat has on different forms of matter Apply my understanding of heat and temperature to explain events in nature and human-created devices Analyze issues related to heat technologies and the environment’s ability to support us

3 This Year “I Can...” Ask science-based questions
Design an experiment when given a question Conduct an investigation Analyze and interpret my qualitative and quantitative data Work collaboratively with my peers

4 This Year “I Can...” Show interest in science
Appreciate how different ideas from all over the world mix together to bring about understanding Take my time and consider various approaches to investigations, problems and issues Begin to recognize my impact on the environment Work safely in the science classroom and lab

5 Focusing Questions What heat-related technologies do we use to meet human needs? What are the scientific principles that make these technologies work? What impact do these technologies have on natural resources and the environment?

6 Vocab. Terms Concepts 1 & 2 Sustainability Heat energy
Particle model of matter Kinetic energy Volume Temperature Thermal energy Heat Expand Contract Thermal expansion Conduction Conductor Convection Radiant energy Wave Infrared waves

7 Concept 1 - Technologies
Heat is not a substance It is a form of energy This comes from the movement of the particles that make up all matter Official unit is the Joule (J)

8 Concept 1 - Technologies
Learning Concept Investigate and interpret examples of Heat-related technologies Energy use

9 Concept 1 - Technologies
Since ancient times humans have needed thermal energy (heat) for their survival Understanding heat is important in every day life

10 Concept 1 - Technologies
Our way of life is influenced by climate Heat, science and technology are all linked to how we create and use heat to meet our needs

11 Concept 1 - Technologies
Needs are our basic required conditions that have to be met in order to survive In Canada, heat is linked to shelter, clothing, food, water and physical activity

12 Concept 1 - Technologies
Learning Concept Trace linkages between human requirements and the development of Heat-related materials Heat-related technology

13 Concept 1 - Technologies
Science Log Identify three ways that thermal energy has been used throughout history:

14 Concept 1 - Technologies
Furnaces and air conditioners are technologies which help keep our shelter comfortable and livable The ability to store or cook food and water are related to heat as well

15 Concept 1 - Technologies
Heat-related technology has changed over time As people evolve, so does technology

16 Concept 1 - Technologies
Science Log Identify three ways that thermal energy has been used to make our lives easier:

17 Concept 1 - Technologies
Learning Concept Identify examples of Personal choices in energy resources and technology Society choices in energy resources and technology

18 Concept 1 - Technologies
Science Log Take a mental tour of your home. As you travel from room to room, think about household items that use or make heat. Make a list. Which are wants? Which are needs?

19 Concept 1 - Technologies
Lab #1 – Dissect an Electrical Device

20 Concept 1 - Technologies
Learning Concept Identify and explain uses of devices and systems to Generate ... Transfer ... Control ... Remove ... ... thermal energy

21 Concept 1 - Technologies
Activity #1 – Measuring Temperature page 193, 194, 199, 200, 201

22 Concept 1 - Technologies
Lab #2 – Make Your Own Thermometer

23 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Describe the nature of thermal energy

24 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Thermal energy is heat energy Form of energy that moves from high temperatures to low temperatures When your hands are cold outside in the winter ... Heat is travelling from your hands out to the cold air surrounding you The cold does not flow into your hands from the cold air!

25 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Thermal energy can: Change the state of matter Affect the particles that make up matter Transfer from a hotter object to a cooler one

26 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Describe the effect of heat on the motion of particles Explain changes of state Particle Model of Matter

27 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
The Particle Model of Matter has been developed by scientists who study changes in the state of matter

28 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
All matter is made up of particles These particles are too tiny to see without the aid of electron microscopes

29 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
2. The tiny particles of matter are always moving The movement of the particles varies depending on state (gas, solid, liquid) Movement involves a form of energy known as kinetic energy

30 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
3. The particles have spaces between them Different states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) have different amounts of space between them Most amount found in gas, least amount found in solids

31 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
4. Adding heat to matter makes the particles move around faster The faster something moves, the more kinetic energy it has Adding heat (a type of energy) increases the kinetic energy of the particles

32 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Solid state Matter in a solid state has particles attached to one another in all directions Definite shape and volume Volume refers to the amount of space the matter occupies

33 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Solid state Attached means limited movement, and can move around in fixed position Vibrate in place Less kinetic energy than gas or liquid

34 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Liquid State Particles are loosely attached to one another and can slip past each other Liquids take the shape of their container but still have a fixed volume

35 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Liquid State Larger empty spaces which means there is a greater range of movement More kinetic energy than a solid but less than a gas

36 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Gas State Particles are not connected to one another A gas can fill the empty spaces of a container, as it has no set shape Spaces between particles is larger than in a solid or a liquid

37 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Gas State Particles have the greatest freedom of movement Gases have the most kinetic energy compared to a liquid or a solid

38 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Heat changes the speed of moving particles of matter Causes an increase in kinetic energy if heat is transferred in When heat is lost, the kinetic energy of the particles decreases

39 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Distinguish between heat and temperature Explain using kinetic energy Explain using Particle Model of Matter

40 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is Heat is the energy that is transferred from one substance to another due to differences in kinetic energy

41 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Review: thermal energy is energy associated with hot objects The total kinetic energy of all the particles the substance contains

42 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
In the following space, illustrate particle movement in a cup of water: - being held over a candle flame - being held in a freezer

43 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Investigate & describe the effects of heating and cooling on the volume of different materials Identify applications of these effects

44 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Inquiry Activity– Heating & Cooling a Copper Wire

45 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
When materials warm up, the particle model of matter says the particles move faster and further apart It expands, and there is an increase in volume as temperature increases Occurs when heat is transferred to a solid

46 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
When materials cool down, the particle motion is slower Materials contract, or have a decrease in volume, as they cool Happens when heat is transferred from the warm object to the cooler one

47 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Find Out Activity pg 211 – Stretch & Shrink Expansion & contraction of solids

48 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Find Out Activity pg 215 – Bulging Balloons Expansion & contraction of gases

49 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Find Out Activity pg 216 – Race for the Top Expansion & contraction of liquids Demonstration

50 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Understanding how materials expand and contract is critical information for a variety of professions Engineers who design bridges need to consider how the materials will contract in the cold, or expand in the heat

51 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Homemade Hot Air Balloons

52 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Explain how heat is transmitted by Conduction Convection Radiation

53 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Conduction is the flow of energy between substances that are in contact Most common in solids The particles do not move, only the heat does

54 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
If a material allows easy transfer of the energy, it is a conductor An insulator is a material which does not allow the easy transfer of energy Insulators and conductors are often combined to create safe tools

55 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Problem Solving Activity – The Butter Test

56 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Heat is also transferred through matter by convection The flow of heat energy that involves moving liquid or gas particles Because the particles move, convection only occurs in liquids and gases, not in solids

57 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Heat transfer by convection occurs when the particles in a liquid or gas move in circular patterns Convection currents You will have to explain what is happening in the animation, there is no talking ... Refer to page 230 and remember that hot things rise while cool things sink ...

58 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Demonstration – Convection in a Gas Students – inn the drawing indicate the path of the smoke after the splint or incense stick is lit and held above the smoke box

59 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Conduction and convection are two ways to transfer energy Radiation is the transfer of energy by invisible waves (infrared waves) that can travel great distances Radiant energy

60 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
When radiant energy comes in contact with an object, the particles increase their kinetic energy

61 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Inquiry Activity – Heating Different Colored Surfaces

62 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Learning Concept Compare heat transmission in different materials

63 Concept 2 – Thermal Energy
Ice Cube Challenge

64 QUIZ on Concepts 1 & 2 CONCEPT 2 QUIZ 12 multiple choice
2 numerical response 6 marks short answer CONCEPT 2 QUIZ


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