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Useful tips to Save Energy

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1 Useful tips to Save Energy
1. Lighting Turn off the lights when not in use. Take advantage of daylight by using light-coloured, loose-weave curtains on your windows to allow daylight to penetrate the room. Also, decorate with lighter colours that reflect daylight. De-dust lighting fixtures to maintain illumination. Use task lighting; instead of brightly lighting an entire room, focus the light where you need it. Use electronic ballast chokes in place of conventional copper chokes. Use LED Lamps instead of conventional incandescent bulbs. A 16w LED bulb can be as bright as 150w halogen lamp. LED lamp consumes 1/3rd of CFL energy and 1/30th energy of incandescent bulbs. The lifespan of incandescent lamps is around 1000 hours while the lifesplan of CFL is 8,000 hours and lifespan of LED lamps is around 25,000 hours. LED Lamps are Mercury free and their lifetime cycle is unaffected by switching ON and OFF operations. 2.Fans Replace conventional regulators with electronic regulators for ceiling fans. Install exhaust fans at a higher elevation than ceiling fans. For exhaust fans in diary/poultry industry usage of multi fan axial fans leads to low energy consumption with low noise levels. Use BEE star rated energy efficient fans.

2 3.Electric Iron Select iron boxes with automatic temperature cutoff. Use appropriate regulator position for ironing. Do not put more water on clothes while ironing. Do not iron wet clothes. Use BEE star rated energy efficient iron box. 4.Kitchen Appliances Use Efficient electrical appliances. Use always BEE star rated efficient electrical appliances. a) Mixers Avoid dry grinding in your food processors (mixers and grinders) as it takes longer time than liquid grinding. b) Microwaves ovens Avoid baking large sized food items. Unless you are baking breads or pastries you may not need to preheat. c) Induction Stove: Consumes 50% less energy than conventional electric coil/ hot plate. Takes less time to boil water than conventional electric stoves. d) Electric Stove: Turn off electric stoves several minutes before the specified cooking time. Use flat-bottomed pans that make full contact with the cooking coil.

3 e) Refrigerator: Do not open the door of the refrigerator frequently. Make sure your refrigerator or door seals are airtight. Don’t keep your refrigerator or freezer too cold. Avoid putting hot or warm food straight into the fridge. Retire old/inefficient refrigerators and buy new energy efficient star rated energy efficient refrigerators. Don’t leave the refrigerator door open for longer than necessary as cold air will escape. Leave enough space between your refrigerator and the walls so that air can easily circulate around the refrigerator. Use BEE star rated energy efficient refrigerators. 5.Washing Machine: Avoid washing with half loads. Use optimum quantity of water. Use timer facility to save energy. Prefer natural drying over electric dryers. Dry full loads or reduce drying time for partial loads. Use BEE star rated energy efficient washing machines. 6.Electronic Devices: Do not switch on the power when TV and Audio Systems are not in use i.e., idle operation leads to an energy loss of 10 watts/device.

4 7.Air Conditioners: Prefer air conditioners having automatic temperature cut off. Keep regulators at “low cool” position or in energy efficient mode. Make sure that the joints at windows and doors are properly sealed and insulate the room against loss of temperature. Use BEE star rated energy efficient air conditioners. 8.Computers: Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator. Optimize brightness of monitors as bright light consumes more power. Studies have proved that minimum brightness consumes 11 Watts while maximum brightness in monitors consumes as much as 25 Watts. 9.Water Heaters: Set your thermostat at 120 degree Fahrenheit or lower. In addition to the water heaters install solar water heating systems. 10.Solar Rooftop off-grid Lighting systems : Use solar rooftop off-grid Lighting systems (with battery back-up) as unlimited sunlight is available at free of cost everywhere in India.

5 The Domestic sector accounts for 30% of total energy consumption in the country. There is a tremendous scope to conserve energy by adopting simple measures. This information is a guide, which offers easy, practical solutions for saving energy in Home Appliances. Please, take a few moments to read the valuable tips that will save energy & money and ultimately help in reducing our natural resources. It would be useful to know which gadget consumes how much electricity. Economic use of home appliances can help conserve our natural resources. It would be useful to know which gadget consumes how much electricity. Economic use of home appliances can help in reducing electricity bills

6 The Following table shows the energy consumption of various appliances normally used at home:
Rating (Watts) Operating Hrs/Day Units/ Month Incandescent Bulb 40 6 7 Night Lamp 15 10 4.5 Fluorescent Tube light 60 11 CFL Lamps 14 2.5 LED Lamps 2.17 0.4 Mosquito Repellant 5 Fans 27 Air coolers 175 8 42 Air Conditioners 1500 270 Refrigerator 225 101 Mixer/Blender/Egg beater 450 1 13.5 Toaster 800 0.5 12 Hot Plate 22.5 Oven 1000 30 Electric Kettle 45 Electric Iron Water heater – instant type (10-20 Ltr capacity) 3000 Water heater – storage type (10-20 Ltr capacity) 2000 Immersion rod

7 Appliances Operating Hrs/Day Units/ Month Vacuum Cleaner 700 0.5 11 Washing Machine 300 1 9 Water Pump 750 22.5 TV 100 10 30 Audio system 50 2 3

Demand Side management is a mechanism to influence customer’s CAPABILITY and WILLINGNESS to reduce electricity consumption. Demand Side Management is a utility program aiming to fine-tune consumers’ energy consumption pattern, according to the utility’s energy production and distribution capacity. Demand-side management (DSM) programs consist of the planning, implementing, and monitoring activities of electric utility that are designed to encourage consumers to modify their level and pattern of electricity usage. Demand side management relies on a combination of using high efficiency equipment and efficient use of electricity through good operating practice. Demand Side Management (DSM) is the implementation of policies and measures which serve to control, influence and generally reduce electricity demand. DSM aims to improve final electricity-using systems, reduce consumption, while preserving the same level of service and comfort.

9 OBJECTIVES OF DSM 1: Reliability and Stability
DSM provides enhanced reliability to the energy system by reducing overall demand through energy efficiency and by reducing peak demand through dispatchable programs. It also reduces transmission and distribution costs relative to a supply side resource DSM increases diversity of energy sources 2: Low Cost/Affordability The cost of DSM is technology specific and varies relative to other supply side resources Dispatchable DSM programs can be called when their cost is lower than alternative market purchases Cost-effective resource planning can ensure that DSM is only procured up to the point where it is cheaper than supply alternatives DSM can also help low-income customers reduce their energy costs

10 Types of DSM Programs Following three factors reduce energy consumption (kWh) and peak demand (kW), however, emphasis differs - Energy Efficiency – emphasis is on reducing overall energy consumption and also peak demand over several years. - Peak Load Management – emphasis is on reducing peak demand consistently over a season. - Demand Response – emphasis is on reducing peak demand for short periods of time for a few days during the year.

For promotion of various Energy Efficient / DSM methods in the State following steps were taken: - National Energy Conservation Day observed on 14th December. (G.o.I has enacted The Energy conservation act 2001). - Pilot Solar Street lighting initiated. Earth Hour observed by all the employees of BESCOM in offices and their residences. Public were also requested to participate. (Earth Hour was observed on 23rd March 2013 from 8.30 PM to 9.30 PM by switching off all the unnecessary lights). Many workshops on DSM measures conducted.

Following are the various NGOs / Corporations who involved in saving of Energy Efficient / DSM measures : - BBMP (By using automatic timers) - NGOs (By spreading the awareness programmes) - Industrial / Commercial Advertisers - (By adopting energy efficient measures) - Out door advertising agencies for hoardings (By using energy efficient lighting & dimming hoarding lighting after 10 PM) Energy Auditing of BESCOM Corporate Office done by M/s. Centre for Sustainable Development, Bangalore.

1. BESCOM EFFICIENT LIGHTING PROGRAM A Pilot Project was undertaken during under USAID in Bangalore city as follows - CFL Purchase Options Consumers were encouraged to purchase CFLs directly from suppliers or from BESCOM on a monthly installment basis paid through electricity bills. Benefits derived Estimated that about 1.75 Lakhs additional CFLs were sold during the scheme implementation About 100% increase in sales of CFLS was observed compares to the previous year which resulted in: Reduction in residential demand to an extent of 10.46MWs. This Pilot project encouraged in formulation of Bachat Lamp Yojana in the country. It enforced manufacturers to give one year warranty to the customers This scheme lead to regulation stipulating a minimum power factor of 0.85 for CFLs.

1. a) Bachat Lamp Yojane Scheme:- Bachat Lamp Yojane, a scheme to promote replacement of CFLs in place of incandescent lamps under CDM project promoted by M.o.P., G.o.I., was implemented during 2011. Maximum of 4 CFLs per customer were distributed at a cost of Rs. 15/- per CFL. The difference amount of CFL cost to be obtained by the implementing agency through CDM in the form of trading CERs. M/s. HPL Electric & Power Pvt. Ltd. Was entrusted for two rural Circles namely Bangalore Rural Circle and Kolar Circle covering 4 districts. A total no. of 37,01,368 CFLs were distributed during 2011 as detailed below.

15 H/H as per corporate office BESCOM
DATE SL. No. Division H/H as per corporate office BESCOM H/H as per sub-division office BESCOM Total H/H visited responded and not responded due to premises locked for other reasons H/H Distributed 11 Watt 18 Watt Total CFLs Remarks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 KOLAR 182784 161965 154464 144356 76125 428858 504983 Completed on KGF 196022 168459 159555 152429 79510 490527 570037 CHIKKABALLAPURA 199534 175385 143812 134228 55031 462756 517787 Completed on TOTAL KOLAR CIRCLE 578340 505809 457831 448247 210666 RAMNAGAR 239718 183841 156587 138665 102150 444211 546361 Completed on YELAHANKA 159964 147674 133910 52225 470025 522250 Completed on CHANDAPURA 145696 147884 143451 133016 52925 469825 522750 Completed on NELEMANGALA 244491 207898 150046 134154 51520 465680 517200 TOTAL BNAGALORE RURAL CIRCLE 829439 699587 597758 557667 258820 TOTAL 469486

2. BESCOM EFFICIENT IRRIGATION PUMP SETS PROGRAM A Pilot Project was conducted during as follows: Innovative Bescom Efficient Irrigation Pump Sets Program scheme supported by International Copper Promotion Council (India) and launched. The official suppliers were(selected through tender) M/s Kirloskar Brothers Ltd M/s KSB Pumps Ltd M/s Crompton Greaves Ltd A total number of nos of submersible pumpsets were replaced by Energy Efficient IP Sets under the scheme.

2.a) Agriculture Demand Side Management, WENEXA-USAID M/s ENZEN Global Solutions, an ESCO was engaged for replacement of existing IP sets in Doddaballapura on 11 KV feeders under USAID - WENEXA. This ESCO Agriculture Demand Side Management model was designed by BESCOM in association with USAID-PA Consulting. BESCOM was able to successfully establish a system of appointing ESCO and has been awarded with “National Power Award-2009” under category “ENERGY EFFICIENCY, CONSERVATION AND DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT” for Agriculture Demand Side Management initiative. This pilot is the first of its kind in India to undertake Agriculture Demand Side Management under ESCO model. A total number of 277 inefficient Pump sets at metered locations in Doddballapura Sub-Division were replaced by High Energy Efficient PumpSets . Energy Savings : 28.1 Million Units from April 2011 to April 2013.

18 Energy Savings of Agricultural Demand Side Management
Month Trued up baseline energy consumption (kWh) Actual energy consumption (kWh) Energy savings (kWh) % saving Apr-11 162,134 135,930 26,204 16% May-11 335,380 273,370 62,010 18% Jun-11 336,183 278,283 57,900 17% Jul-11 302,390 229,515 72,875 24% Aug-11 191,799 151,245 40,554 21% Sep-11 332,833 290,654 42,179 13% Oct-11 316,641 225,741 90,901 29% Nov-11 332,551 227,940 104,611 31% Dec-11 497,185 333,297 163,888 33% Jan-12 569,438 362,164 207,273 36% Feb-12 540,746 343,179 197,567 37% Mar-12 551,017 354,688 196,329 Apr-12 483,270 338,506 144,764 30% May-12 448,238 288,655 159,584 Jun-12 427,575 284,991 142,584 Jul-12 382,650 241,505 141,145 Aug-12 319,760 211,686 108,075 34% Sep-12 295,778 192,573 103,205 35% Oct-12 355,391 222,017 133,375 38% Nov-12 327,019 232,264 94,755 Dec-12 475,719 301,937 173,782 Jan-13 505,816 327,306 178,510 Feb-13 444,399 275,636 168,763 Mar-13 4,83,339 2,69,359 2,13,980 4% Apr-13 3,98,338 2,54,578 1,43,761 May - 13 4,02,493 2,40,154 1,62,339 40%

3. Solar Water Heaters: Government of Karnataka has issued Order No : EN396/NCE dated for the use of Solar Water Heaters as mandatory for the buildings constructed in sites measuring more than 1200sft area. Circulars and instructions have been issued to the field officers to educate and bring in awareness about the advantage of installing Solar Water Heating systems as per above circular.

20 Notification No. K. E. R. C/COS/D/07/10 Dated:01. 07
Notification No. K.E.R.C/COS/D/07/10 Dated: published in Karnataka Gazette dated: Government of Karnataka has issued the notification no: EN 396 NCE 2006 Dt: wherein the solar water heating system is mandatory for categories of buildings mentioned below: Industries where hot water is required for processing or for auxiliary purposes. Hospitals and Nursing homes including government hospitals. Hotels, Restaurants, Motels, Banquet halls and Guest Houses. Jail Barracks, Canteens. Housing complex set up by Group housing societies/housing boards/other developers. All residential buildings with built-up area of 600 Sq.feet and above constructed on sites measuring 1200 Sq.feet and above falling within the limits of Muncipalities/Corporations and Bangalore Development Authority sectors. All Government buildings/Residential schools/All educational institutions/Technical/Vocational Education Institutions/ All training institutions/ Hostels/ Tourism complexes/ Universities/ Community centers/ Kalyana Mantapas where facility for stay is provided.

21 Aditya Solar shop of Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Limited will act as an approved source for supply and installation of solar water heating systems in the state to ensure the installation of optimally designated quality systems as per the specifications. All the departments like Urban Development Department, Public Works Departments , Housing Department, Health and Family Welfare Department and Agriculture & Horticulture Department will amend their rules / bye-laws within a period of two months from the date of issue of this order to make use of the solar water heating systems mandatory. These departments will also designate a district and a state level nodal officer to monitor and report the progress of enforcement of the State Government decisions to the Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Limited on Quartely basis the prescribed format. Mandatory use of Compact Florescent Lamp (CFL) in Government Buildings / Government aided Institutions/Boards/Corporations. The use of incandescent lamps in all new buildings/institutions constructed in Government Aided Sector/Board and Corporation / Autonomous bodies is banned with immediate effect.

22 It will be mandatory that in existing buildings the defective incandescent lamps when replaced would be replaced by only compact florescent lamps (CFL). Power utilities will affect necessary modification in the load demand notices within two months time from the date of issue of this order to promote the use of Compact Florescent Lamps instead of conventional bulbs while releasing/ sanctioning new connections/loads. Mandatory use of ISI marked motor pump sets, Power capacitor, Foot/Reflex valves in Agriculture Sector. For all new tube well connection the use of ISI marked pump sets and accessories will be mandatory. All ESCOMS and KPTCL will make the amendments in the load demand notices for tube well connections within two months from the date of issue of this order to ensure use of only ISI marked pumps in the state. Promotion Of Energy Efficient Building Design. All the new buildings to be constructed in the Government/ Government Aided Sectors will incorporate energy efficient building design concepts including Renewable Energy Technologies with effect from one year from the date of issue of this order.

23 The Public Works Department will ensure the incorporation of energy efficient building concept in all buildings to be constructed in future in the Government /Government Aided sector. A committee shall be formed in the Public works Department to examine all new building plans/drawing to be constructed in the Government / Government Aided Sector to ensure that all the features of the Energy Efficient design concepts have been incorporated in these. The Public Works Department will designate a nodal officer for coordination and monitoring of these measures who will report the progress in this regard to the Managing Director, Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Limited. - By order and in the name of Governor of Karnataka -Sd/- Suresh.B.Krishnappanavar Under Secretary to Government, Energy Department.

24 A rebate of 50 paise per unit of electricity consumed subject to a maximum of Rs.50/- per installation per month will be allowed to Tariff schedule LT 2(a), if solar water heater are installed and used. Where bulk solar water heating system is installed, solar water heater rebate shall be allowed to each of the individual installations, provided that, the capacity oof solar water heater in such apartment/group housing shall be a minimum capacity of 100 Ltr. Per household. Regarding the installation of Solar Water Heaters, the following directions are issued as per Circular No: BESCOM/BC-9/1554/ Sl. No Area of the Rooftop in Sq. ft Recommended capacity of Solar Water Heater in Lts 1. 1200 Sq ft – 1500 Sq. ft 200 Ltrs 2. 1501 Sq ft – 2400 Sq ft 300 Ltrs 3. 2401 Sq ft and above (Dwelling Unit) 100 Ltrs per one house (can be installed in Bulk)

Solar Water Heaters: The public are being enlightened on this in various forums especially in Janasamparka Sabhas, Customer meets etc., We have also instructed the Meter Readers and the Linemen who are visiting the customer premises during the meter readings and while attending to the customer complaints to explain about the advantages of Solar Water Heating systems in the form of saving energy and consequential reduction in the electricity bills.   We have issued strict directions to the field officers to adhere to the notifications issued regarding mandatory use of Solar Water Heating systems by the customers as per the guidelines of Government of Karnataka.

Solar Water Heaters: No. of Solar Water Heating Systems installed in BESCOM are as follows: : 6,187 : 47,218 : 52,491 : 72,084 : 95,819 As on June : 1,13,156

27 Time of Day Tariff KERC has decided to make Time of Day Tariff compulsory for HT2(a) and HT2(b) consumers with a contract demand of 500 KVA and above. Further, the optional ToD would continue as existing earlier for HT2(a) and HT2(b) consumers with contract demand of less than 500 KVA. Also the ToD for HT1 consumers on optional basis would continue as existing earlier. Details of TOD tariff are indicated under the respective tariff category. BESCOM has replaced all the 1278 nos of ToD feature meters for HT2(a) and HT2(b) consumers with a contract demand of 500 KVA and above as on 30th September 2012. TOD Tariff applicable to HT 2(a)(i) & HT2 (b) category Time of Day Increase +/reduction (-) in energy charges over the normal tariff applicable 22.00 Hrs to Hrs (-) 125 paise per unit 06.00 Hrs to Hrs 18.00 Hrs to Hrs +100 paise per unit

28 TOD tariff applicable to LT5(a) & (b): At the option of the consumer as follows.

4. Lifestyle change approach to Best Energy Conservation Practices- a pilot by M/s CSD : M/s. Centre for Sustainable Development were engaged for bringing in awareness among residential / commercial customers for adopting of Energy Efficient methods in their daily lifestyle as a pilot project in Brigade Road, M.G. Road, Residency Road and Halasur. About 1601 customers have participated in this project. M/s CSD have submitted the final report and the results are encouraging which indicate a saving of an average 8-10% of energy by all participating customers in this scheme. This pilot is the first of its kind in India conducted by a public utility using an NGO.

30 5. Replacement of Copper Chokes by electronic ballast
BESCOM has undertaken replacement of existing Copper chokes in Fluorescent tubelight fittings of BESCOM buildings by energy efficient electronic ballast through M/s. KEONICS a State Government undertaking. During 2011– 2012, BESCOM has replaced 5,298 nos. of existing 50 Watts copper ballast by 28 Watts electronic ballast chokes (with 8 years warranty period) in various BESCOM building at a cost of Rs lakhs. This resulted in saving of energy to the tune of 0.35 million units per year considering average usage of TL fittings of 10 hours per day for 25 days in a month.

6. Involvement of BBMP:- BBMP was requested to reduce energy consumption in street lights, hoardings and parks etc. BESCOM is insisting on BBMP and Bangalore Metropolitan Area Zone for fixing automatic timer switches to street light circuits as mandatory. As studies show the usage of electronic timer switches saves energy upto 30%. And also it ensures timely switching streetlight circuits ON at 6 PM and switching off at 6 AM exactly. To switch ON the street lights just at the dusk i.e pm and switch OFF just before the sunrise i.e. by 5.30 am (During summer). To switch OFF lights (except for security lighting) in parks and gardens immediately after exit of public in the evenings i.e. by pm. To take action for reduction of 50% of power in respect of hoardings, boards and advertising illuminations. (Make provision for dimmers to lighting after 10 PM or to switch off after 10 PM). Make provision for dimmers, for street lights and put them on 3 phases in such a manner that alternative street lights are ON in different phases with a facility to switch off the lights whenever required. To switch off 1/3rd of the street lights on high masts after 10.00pm.

7. Involvement of Hoardings and Advertising Agencies: To Switch OFF illumination on hoardings not given to the clients. By using energy efficient lighting & dimming hoarding lighting after 10 PM/ Switching OFF illumination after pm. Reduce 1/3rd of the illumination. To use LEDs for illumination.

8. Involvement of Commercial Establishments: To reduce lighting illumination by 25%. Non usage of more decorative lights. To reduce usage of Air conditioning. Stoppage of downward escalators during peak hours. To reduce hoarding lights. To reduce lights in car parking area and passage area.

9. VIDHYUTH JAGRUTHI YOJANE “Vidhyuth Jagruthi Yojane” an awareness program introduced for Higher Primary & High school children to bring in awareness among the children who in-turn communicate this in their families. A booklet with information of Electricity Generation, Transmission, Distribution, Regulators and Energy Conservation methods was distributed among the children. An objective and pick and speak test were conducted after a week and cash prizes awarded for the top three students in both the test.

35 Under Vidyuth Jagruthi Yojane, a tender amounting to Rs. 1
Under Vidyuth Jagruthi Yojane, a tender amounting to Rs.1.5 Crores (approximately) has been called for Design and implementation of conducting energy efficiency measures and demand side management awareness activities in selected 100 schools in Bangalore Urban District and to sensitize approximate one lakh students and to bring down energy consumption on contract period of two years. This tender was closed on and tender evaluation is under progress. The bidders have to collect last two years electricity consumption data of selected schools and from one lakh students (preferably). Government/municipal and aided private schools. The bidders has to prepare a working model study material/booklets/exhibits/ drawings/posters/ppt models/awards/prizes to school on energy conservation measures that the bidder is going to adopt, duly approved by GM(DSM) to be distributed among all the 100 schools covering approximately One lakh students and BESCOM officials in the Bangalore Urban District. The bidder shall identify means to reduce energy consumption through evolving innovative ideas.

10. Energy Awareness Program: Energy Awareness programs are being conducted regularly on the following issues : Necessity of energy saving and energy conservation. Benefit of using energy efficient appliances Use of CFLs/ LEDs Use of Solar Water Heaters. Do’s and Don’ts Climate change – reduction of Carbon print.

Communication Modes Utilized: Advertisements in Newspapers, Magazines, Souvenir etc. On Hoardings, Bus shelters. Jingles in Doordarshan, AIR, Big FM etc. Posters, Pamphlets, Brochures, Car Stickers etc. Street plays in 400 villages across BESCOM. 20 Minute documentary film developed and displayed in Rural areas through Department of Information, GOK. Through Janasamparka sabhas. Through Interaction meetings etc. 11. a) Awareness Program:

12. NIRANTHARA JYOTHI SCHEME: Niranthara Jyothi project is a prestigious scheme of Government of Karnataka where in segregation of Non - Agricultural loads and Agricultural loads in Rural areas was undertaken to provide 24 hrs 3 phase power supply to non – agricultural loads like domestic, commercial, water supply, street light, rural industries, milk diaries etc. This will enable BESCOM to give 24X7 supply to Non-Agricultural loads in Rural areas Reduction in transformer failures Increase in metered sales Reduction in technical losses Improved load management 38

39 12.a) Stages of implementation of Niranthara Jyothi Scheme (as part of DSM activity)
A pilot project on Niranthara Jyothi Scheme was undertaken in 2011 at Malur in Kolar district covering 272 villages by drawing 10 new 11 KV feeders at a cost of Rs crores. In phase I of Niranthara Jyothi Scheme, 246 nos of completed new 11 KV feeders were commissioned out of 260 nos of newly proposed 11 KV feeders. Upto Rs crores financial progress was achieved out of DPR cost of Rs crores covering 19 taluks. In the phase II of Niranthara Jyothi Scheme, the work of constructing 15 nos of new 11 KV feeders work completed out of 289 nos of newly proposed 11 KV feeders. Upto , Rs crores financial progress has been achieved out of DPR cost of Rs crores covering 21 taluks.

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