Presentation on theme: "Global Strategic Management"— Presentation transcript:
1Global Strategic Management Nike & Reebok: Core competencies, make versus buy, designing and managing the global supply chain
2Nike & Reebok: Summary of Key Ideas A firm’s supply chain management strategy, including what and where to outsource, is often key to competitive success.Nike’s core competencies are marketing (e.g., creating a brand name, including managing relationships with athletes) and shoe design.Nike/Reebok design their global value chain to take advantage of country comparative advantages and to maximize flexibility to adjust to changing market conditions/country advantages. At the extreme, Nike could potentially save as much as $23 billion in labor costs by choosing Indonesia vs. Germany as a mfg. location for all it’s shoes (assumes identical labor productivity and production methods).
3Nike & Reebok: Summary of Key Ideas When firms choose to outsource, they need to determine whether to treat outside firms as partners or as arms-length subcontractors.The greater the inter-company interdependence and value of coordination (and the less environmental factors [e.g., exchange rates, wages, etc.] change the relative costs and performance of suppliers), the more it makes sense to partner.The more the company values flexibility (due to changes in suppliers costs, technology, etc., the more it makes sense to use arms-length relationships
4STRATEGIC GLOBAL SOURCING (Building a global network of capabilities) MatureGrowthInnovationIndustrializedCountriesNewlyIndustrializedCountriesEmergingEconomiesAdaptor(India: $.50/hr)PCMCIAUnit(Japan: $17.50/hr)Notebook (P.C)(Singapore: $3.25/hr)COMPAQ’SNOTEBOOKCOMPUTER
6Theories of Vertical Integration (Efficiency) Vertical Integration as a means for reducing transaction costs and improving coordination.When investments in specialized assets are high (e.g., oil refinery and pipeline)Vertical Integration as a means to gain control over important inputs/marketsAvoid foreclosure to inputs or markets (e.g., Alcoa integrates back into bauxite to secure scarce and critical raw material for aluminum)Guarantee input quality (e.g., McDonalds growing potatoes in Russia)Vertical Integration as a means to control/acquire informationProtect proprietary information/technology (Bose makes most critical inputs for its audio equipment)Acquire information on markets or technologies (e.g., GM integrating into automotive components to gain knowledge regarding suppliers’ costs and technology that assists in bargaining).
7Theories of Vertical Integration (Non-Efficiency) Vertically Integrate to exercise monopoly powerPrice discrimination (to allow firm to price discriminate in different markets and avoid arbitrage).Create or increase the size of the barrier to entry in to a business (capital market imperfections make it more costly to raise larger sums of capital required for multi-stage entry; e.g., Coke & Pepsi)Squeeze non-integrated competitors (subsidize one stage of the value chain with another to squeeze competitor margins; bundle/matrix price, e.g., Microsoft Office vs. WordPerfect).Vertical Integration as a “loophole” for regulatory actionTax avoidance (through transfer pricing and sales tax avoidance).Price controls/rate of regulation avoidance (integrate backwards into non regulated industries and make higher profits in that industry).
8MODEL FOR MAKE VS. BUY Partner (compare capabilities) Make - Seats - Air conditioners- Tires- Engines- TransmissionsHighComponentValueBuyPartner(compare capabilities)- Bolts- Nuts- Belts- Filters- Engine components- Interior and exterior trimproductsLowLowHighAsset Specificity