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1 Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC Julian de Bullet ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer Director of Industry Relations McQuay International 703-395-5054.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC Julian de Bullet ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer Director of Industry Relations McQuay International 703-395-5054."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC Julian de Bullet ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer Director of Industry Relations McQuay International PLEASE MUTE CELL PHONES

2 2 Its About the World….. Globally the Issues are the Same……….

3 3 History of Refrigerants 1830s - Jacob Perkins - Vapor Compression (ether) John Gorie - Patent for Vapor Compression Cycle 1859 R-717 / R-718 (Ammonia / Water) 1866 CO 2 - Naval Applications R-717 (Ammonia) Commercial Refrigeration - Karl Linde R-764 (Sulfur dioxide) 1920s -R-600a (Isobutane) & R-290 (Propane) Willis Carrier - R-1130 (Dielene) R-30 (Methylene Chloride)

4 4 Fluorocarbons CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs Limited Combinations –Adding Chlorine Or Bromine Increases ODP –Adding Fluorine Increases GWP –Adding Hydrogen Increases Flammability And Lowers Atmospheric Lifetime

5 5 Ozone Depletion was Detected in the 70s………..

6 6 Refrigerants Circa 1987 Common HVAC Refrigerants Include CFC-11, CFC-12 (ODP=1.0), HCFC-22 (ODP=0.05) Chiller Efficiency kW/ton Low Pressure Chillers Lose 25% Of Charge Annually

7 7 Montreal Protocol Corrective Measures HFC-134a (ODP=0) Replaces CFC-12 for Chillers and HCFC-22 for most Commercial HVAC Systems HCFC-123 (ODP=0.02) Replaces CFC-11 – These Chillers Tightened Up (High Efficiency Purge, Portable Refrigerant Vessels, Blankets etc.)

8 8 20 years later….Ozone Depletion Continues… Hole was one of largest and deepest ever…. Latest NASA predictions delays recovery until 2068…..nearly 20 years later than previously believed…..

9 9

10 % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 65% 25% 10% 0.5% Consumption cap reduced from 35% to 25% in % 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 65% 32.5% 2.5% % Current:Consumption cap steadily reduced starting in 2015 Previous:Consumption capped at 2015 levels until 2040 Phase Out Schedule – Developed Countries Phase Out Schedule – Developing Countries Consumption Freeze Note: acceleration shown in light blue 2015 Service Tail Review Montreal Protocol –Changes Made on Friday September 21 st, 2007

11 11 AVAILABILITY OF REFRIGERANT (Dupont & ICI Projections) Tons (000) HCFC22 HCFC123 HFC134aHFC410A Year

12 12 And Dont Forget HCFC-22 HCFC-22 phase-out in 2010 for new equipment and 2020 for service tail production –Consider alternatives for HCFCs now Recommended actions –Select high efficiency units that use zero ozone depleting refrigerants like HFC-410A, HFC-134a and HFC-407C

13 13 HCFC-22 Issues- Clarification Allow the sale of window air conditioners, packaged terminal air conditioners, and some commercial refrigeration units after Jan. 1, 2010, if they were manufactured before Jan. 1, Stockpiling of this equipment is allowed under the rule. Allow the sale of pre-charged appliance components and parts manufactured (in the traditional sense), such as condensing units, line sets, and expansion valves, used for servicing as long as they were manufactured before Jan. 1, Stockpiling of this equipment is allowed under the rule. Ban the sale and installation on or after Jan. 1, 2010, of pre-charged R-22 air conditioners (such as split systems) and refrigeration appliances that require field charging. Contractors are advised not to stockpile this equipment. Permit servicing and repair work that requires the refrigeration loop to be opened and closed. There was a question as to whether this activity would be banned because it could be interpreted as manufacturing after the Jan. 1, 2010 deadline.

14 14 ASHRAE Standard 34

15 15 ASHRAE 34 SAFETY GROUPS High Flammability Low Flammability No Flame Propagation A3 Propane Butane B3 A2 R-142b, 152a B2 Ammonia A1 R-11, 12, 22, 114, 500, 134a B1 R-123, SO 2 Lower Toxicity Higher Toxicity

16 16 Refrigerants & Compressors Application Considerations

17 17 REFRIGERANT TRANSITION CFCsHCFCsHFCs high chlorine strong ozone depletion strong global warming 1974 – Molina-Rowland theory 1987 – Montreal protocol 1990 – CAA amendments 1996 – total phaseout of CFCs lower chlorine lower ozone depletion lower global warming phaseout of HCFC-22 for new equipment total phaseout of HCFC-22 and New HCFC -123 chillers. no chlorine zero ozone depletion lower global warming 1930s-1990s1950s-2010s1990s + SO 2 - NH s toxic flammable

18 18 ASHRAE Standard 15

19 19 ASHRAE Standard 15 What is ASHRAE 15? An industry standard that specifies safe design, construction, installation, and operation of refrigerating systems Establishes safeguards for life, limb, health, and property, and prescribes safety standards

20 20 Mechanical Room Safety Check: Location of inlet vents in relation to exhaust outlets ? Location of roof drains ? Rupture disc outlet locations ? Purge vents to outside ? Are safety rupture lines the right size ? lines the right size ? Is access to mechanical room restricted ? Is there a tight seal on doors ? Where do the floor drains empty to ? Are drain valves connected to evacuation devices ? Are there any pit areas in the room ?

21 21 Mechanical Room Per ASHRAE 15 Relief discharge shall be located not less than 20 from ventilation opening and not less than 15 above ground level (9.7.8) All indoor machinery rooms must be vented rooms must be vented to the outdoors utilizing to the outdoors utilizing mechanical ventilation & 4 Access to mechanical room shall be restricted. Tight fitting doors opening outward (self closing if the open into the building) adequate in number to ensure freedom of escape. No other openings that would permit passage of escaping refrigerant (8.13) Purge systems and relief devices must be vented to outside (8.16) Refrigerant sensors are located in areas where refrigerant vapor from a leak will be concentrated so as to provide warning at concentration not exceeding the refrigerant TLV-TWA The total amount of refrigerant stored in a machinery room in all containers not provided with relief valves & piped in accordance with standard shall not exceed 330 lb.. (11.5)

22 Oak Ridge National Laboratory (AFEAS/DOE) Energy and Global Warming Impacts of HFC Refrigerants and Emerging Technologies Nov 1997 What About GWP and Leakage Rates? For chillers, (Indirect) global warming gas emissions (CO2) at the power plant account for more than 96% of the Total Equivalent Warming Impact

23 23 Number of Leaks Detected per Unit

24 24 Climate Change & HFC Refrigerants GWP=How much a given mass of GHG contributes to global warming HFC emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol – Represent less than 2% of all GHG emissions 1 kg R-12 = 10,600 kg CO2 1 kg R-134a = 1,430 kg CO2 1 kg R-410A = 2,088 kg CO2 1 kg R-404A = 3,922 kg CO2

25 25 Climate Initiatives Waxman/Markey House Bill- Energy Efficiency The goal would be for the model building energy codes to be updated every three years to reduce building energy consumption by 30% such target to be increased to 50% incremental reductions in building energy consumption for new code editions released after January 1, 2016, with the ultimate goal being net-zero-energy buildings. The starting baselines would be the 2004 IECC and ASHRAE Standard

26 26 Climate Initiatives Waxman/ Markey Bill- Climate –The Draft provides for an HFC regulatory program under the Title VI of the Clean Air Act, and as expected, provides for (1) a cap and reduction schedule, (2) allocations to HFC Producers, Users and Importers (both bulk and products-containing); and several other provisions –The Draft proves for an initial cap in 2012 that is based on the average of production (and 100% of HFC and HCFC production). The number is then to be reduced by 6% in the first year, and then 3% each year until EPA is given authority to set this baseline within the bounds of 380 and 280 MMTCO2e

27 27 Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) TEWI - Tool to estimate global warming impact of various technologies TEWI estimates CO 2 emissions of a given system over its lifetime –Direct: equivalent CO 2 emissions caused by direct leakage or loss of refrigerant –Indirect: CO 2 emissions due to energy consumption by the system

28 28 TEWI – Major Findings New products have half the carbon footprint than products manufactured 35 years ago Energy efficiency is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HVACR equipment

29 29 Ohnishi Basis for ICCP/TEAP report

30 30 ARI Standard 550/590 Chiller Certification and IPLV

31 The Industry ARI Standard Part Load Analysis (IPLV) % Load % Hrs Systems Solution

32 32 Historic Energy Improvements

33 33 Full Load Vs. Annual Load

34 34 ASHRAE Standard 147 Reducing the Release of Halogenated Refrigerants from HVAC & R Systems Replaces Guideline 3 Includes HFC Refrigerants New Initiatives ARI- Responsible Use Guideline for Minimizing Fluorocarbon Emissions in Manufacturing Facilities

35 35 Other Refrigerants R-718 Water R-717 Ammonia R-744 CO 2 R-290,600,600a (Propane, Butane, Isobutane) R-407c R-410a

36 36 Natural Refrigerants - Water R-718 Refrigerant In Absorption Chillers Safe, Abundant, Environmentally Friendly COP = 1 (Centrifugal COP = 6.4) Current Energy Rates Offer Poor Life Cycle Analysis In America Common In Japan

37 37 Natural Refrigerants - Ammonia R-717 Higher Toxicity And Lower Flammability (B2) Environmentally Friendly Efficient Special Safety Efforts Required (Std 15) Guarded Plants European Built Ammonia A/C Chiller

38 38 IIAR 2

39 39 Refrigerants CO 2 R-245fa Hydrocarbons Water

40 40 Flammable Refrigerants Propane And Butane Major Safety Concerns +35% Domestic Market In N. Europe 8% Domestic World Market Not Popular In North America

41 41 Compression Best Performance And Lowest Cost Always Starts With Compression Refrigerant Choice Drives Compressor Design Examples –Magnetic Bearing –High Speed Synchronous DC Motors –DC Rotary And Scroll Compressors (Japanese Technology) –Inverter Technology Synchronous brushless DC motor Magnetic Brgs

42 42 AHRI CFC Chiller Task Force Most recent estimate: 27,000 CFC chillers still in N.A. Summit of AHRI and Efficiency Advocates- ACEEE, ASE, Utilities etc Plan to use Stimulus moneys to replace CFC chillers Three targets –Federal Buildings –State and Local Government Buildings –Commercial Buildings Plan: –Gain consensus –Develop communication piece – e.g. CFC chillers at 0.9 kw/ton vs 0.56 kw/ton or standards –Write legislative language to finance using Stimulus funds

43 43 Considerations when Replacing or Retrofitting Difficulties in Servicing and Maintaining Existing HCFC Equipment. Declining Availability of HCFC Refrigerants. Adequate Life-Cycle Timeframes for New Equipment using HCFCs. Determining the Remaining Life-Cycle of Existing Equipment. Understanding Alternative Equipment, Refrigerant Options and Compatibility of Both Refrigerants and Equipment. Containment is Key……………

44 44 Steps we can take today To have sustainable HVAC solutions –Need to focus on overall global impact –No one solution works for everyone A focus on components alone –Limited by efficiency of individual components –Need to look at the performance of the system A focus on refrigerants alone –May increase energy consumed (indirect effect) –HFCs are a good solution today Focus on overall impact of building –Reduce leaks in system –Increase energy efficiency through performance standards

45 45 Innovative Design Award Innovative Technology Award

46 46 Its about the NEXT GENERATION……. THANK YOU………

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