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Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC

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1 Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC
PLEASE MUTE CELL PHONES Responsible Use of Refrigerants in HVAC Julian de Bullet ASHRAE Distinguished Lecturer Director of Industry Relations McQuay International

2 It’s About the World….. Globally the Issues are the Same……….

3 History of Refrigerants
1830s - Jacob Perkins - Vapor Compression (ether) John Gorie - Patent for Vapor Compression Cycle 1859 R-717 / R-718 (Ammonia / Water) 1866 CO2 - Naval Applications R-717 (Ammonia) Commercial Refrigeration - Karl Linde R-764 (Sulfur dioxide) 1920s -R-600a (Isobutane) & R-290 (Propane) Willis Carrier - R-1130 (Dielene) R-30 (Methylene Chloride) Considering the nearly infinite possible combinations of atoms it is amazing only a handful are good refrigerants. Thomas Midgley found the Fluorocarbons in the 1920s Since then, many other substances have been evaluated but they did not meet the requirements previously discussed. Next we will have an overview of fluorocarbon chemistry

4 Fluorocarbons CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs Limited Combinations
Adding Chlorine Or Bromine Increases ODP Adding Fluorine Increases GWP Adding Hydrogen Increases Flammability And Lowers Atmospheric Lifetime CFCs HCFCs and HFCs are fluorocarbons There are only so many ways you can arrange the atoms to come up with new refrigerants The figure shown here shows what happen as we change the composition of the molecules Adding Chorine or bromine moves us to the lower right This increases the ODP Also tends to increase toxicity CFCs and HCFCs are here Adding Fluorine moves us to the lower left increases GWP HFCs are here Adding Hydrogen moves us up the figure increases flammability tends to shorten atmospheric lifetime which is good hydrocarbons are here Pretty much all the substances possible that remotely meet the criteria we discussed earlier are known

5 Ozone Depletion was Detected in the 70’s………..
By the mid1970’s concerns began to surface about the thinning of the ozone layer and whether CFC’s may be in part responsible. The work done by Rowland and Molina led to the ratification of the Montreal protocol in It required the phase out of CFC’s and HCFC’s.

6 Refrigerants Circa 1987 Common HVAC Refrigerants Include CFC-11, CFC-12 (ODP=1.0), HCFC-22 (ODP=0.05) Chiller Efficiency kW/ton Low Pressure Chillers Lose 25% Of Charge Annually

7 Montreal Protocol Corrective Measures
HFC-134a (ODP=0) Replaces CFC-12 for Chillers and HCFC-22 for most Commercial HVAC Systems HCFC-123 (ODP=0.02) Replaces CFC-11 These Chillers Tightened Up (High Efficiency Purge, Portable Refrigerant Vessels, Blankets etc.) New refrigerant solutions were developed with HFC’s taking on a major role. HCFC’s continue to be phased out. HFC’s have no ODP and are not subject to any phase out. Owners of CFC-11 chillers had options to tighten up their existing chillers to avoid loss of CFC’s and maintain operating efficiencies.

8 20 years later….Ozone Depletion Continues…..
2005 ‘Hole” was one of largest and deepest ever…. Stratospheric ozone depletion continues. Assuming the continued phase out schedules, Antarctic ozone is projected to return to pre-1980 levels by 2060 to 2075. Latest NASA predictions delays recovery until 2068…..nearly 20 years later than previously believed…..

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10 Montreal Protocol –Changes Made on Friday September 21st, 2007
Phase Out Schedule – Developed Countries 100% Consumption cap reduced from 35% to 25% in 2010 80% 65% 60% Consumption 40% 25% 2015 Service Tail Review 20% 10% 0.5% 0% 1996 2004 2010 2015 2020 2030 Phase Out Schedule – Developing Countries 100% Freeze 90% Current: Consumption cap steadily reduced starting in 2015 There were no changes to the end dates. Trane did not get there extension or exemption. There were significant reductions to consumption especially for developing countries. It is too early yet to determine what additional HCFCs will be in involved in the additional 10% reduction starting in 2010. 80% 65% 60% Previous: Consumption capped at 2015 levels until 2040 Consumption 40% 32.5% 20% 2.5% 0% 2013 2015 2020 2025 2030 2040 Note: acceleration shown in light blue

11 AVAILABILITY OF REFRIGERANT (Dupont & ICI Projections)
Tons (000) 300 250 200 150 100 50 HFC134a HFC410A HCFC22 HCFC123 Year 41 97

12 And Don’t Forget HCFC-22 HCFC-22 phase-out in 2010 for new equipment and 2020 for service tail production Consider alternatives for HCFCs now Recommended actions Select high efficiency units that use zero ozone depleting refrigerants like HFC-410A, HFC-134a and HFC-407C With only two years remaining before R-22 is phased-out in new equipment, you need to begin to make refrigerant choices today. The most common are HFC-410A, -134a and -407C…all zero ODP refrigerants.

13 HCFC-22 Issues- Clarification
Allow the sale of window air conditioners, packaged terminal air conditioners, and some commercial refrigeration units after Jan. 1, 2010, if they were manufactured before Jan. 1, Stockpiling of this equipment is allowed under the rule. • Allow the sale of pre-charged appliance components and parts manufactured (in the traditional sense), such as condensing units, line sets, and expansion valves, used for servicing as long as they were manufactured before Jan. 1, Stockpiling of this equipment is allowed under the rule. • Ban the sale and installation on or after Jan. 1, 2010, of pre-charged R-22 air conditioners (such as split systems) and refrigeration appliances that require field charging. Contractors are advised not to stockpile this equipment. • Permit servicing and repair work that requires the refrigeration loop to be opened and closed. There was a question as to whether this activity would be banned because it could be interpreted as ‘manufacturing’ after the Jan. 1, 2010 deadline.”

14 ASHRAE Standard 34 ASHRAE Standard 34, Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants lists over 100 refrigerants, although only very few are used on a regular commercial HVAC basis.

15 ASHRAE 34 SAFETY GROUPS B3 A3 A2 B2 A1 B1 High Flammability
Propane Butane High Flammability Low Flammability No Flame Propagation A2 R-142b, 152a B2 Ammonia A1 R-11, 12, 22, 114, 500, 134a B1 R-123, SO Toxicity and flammability are the two key parameters used by ASHRAE to indicate the safety level of a refrigerant. The standard has adopted a matrix indicating the relative levels of these two parameters. 2 Lower Toxicity Higher Toxicity 94 36

16 Refrigerants & Compressors
Application Considerations Refrigerants & Compressors

17 REFRIGERANT TRANSITION
SO2 -NH3 CFCs HCFCs HFCs 1920s 1930s-1990s 1950s-2010s 1990s + toxic flammable high chlorine strong ozone depletion strong global warming 1974 – Molina-Rowland theory 1987 – Montreal protocol 1990 – CAA amendments 1996 – total phaseout of CFCs lower chlorine lower ozone depletion lower global warming phaseout of HCFC-22 for new equipment total phaseout of HCFC-22 and New HCFC -123 chillers. no chlorine zero ozone depletion lower global warming

18 ASHRAE Standard 15

19 ASHRAE Standard 15 What is ASHRAE 15?
An industry standard that specifies safe design, construction, installation, and operation of refrigerating systems Establishes safeguards for life, limb, health, and property, and prescribes safety standards

20 Mechanical Room Safety Check:
Location of inlet vents in relation to exhaust outlets ? Location of roof drains ? Rupture disc outlet locations ? Is there a tight seal on doors ? Purge vents to outside ? Are safety rupture lines the right size ? Is access to mechanical room restricted ? Review this data carefully to recognize areas where the standard addresses these long standing equipment room problems. Are drain valves connected to evacuation devices ? Are there any pit areas in the room ? Where do the floor drains empty to ?

21 Mechanical Room Per ASHRAE 15
Relief discharge shall be located not less than 20 ‘ from ventilation opening and not less than 15’ above ground level (9.7.8) All indoor machinery rooms must be vented to the outdoors utilizing mechanical ventilation & 4 Purge systems and relief devices must be vented to outside (8.16) Access to mechanical room shall be restricted. Tight fitting doors opening outward (self closing if the open into the building) adequate in number to ensure freedom of escape. No other openings that would permit passage of escaping refrigerant (8.13) Here are the sections where the standard specifically addresses main equipment room issues. Refrigerant sensors are located in areas where refrigerant vapor from a leak will be concentrated so as to provide warning at concentration not exceeding the refrigerant TLV-TWA The total amount of refrigerant stored in a machinery room in all containers not provided with relief valves & piped in accordance with standard shall not exceed 330 lb.. (11.5)

22 Energy Efficiency What About GWP and Leakage Rates?
For chillers, (Indirect) global warming gas emissions (CO2) at the power plant account for more than 96% of the Total Equivalent Warming Impact Energy Efficiency In a study by ORNL they determined that over the lifetime of operation more than 96% of the global warming gas emissions are from the electricity to operate the chillert. Clearly the focus of our industry will be on improving energy efficiency. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (AFEAS/DOE) Energy and Global Warming Impacts of HFC Refrigerants and Emerging Technologies Nov 1997

23 Number of Leaks Detected per Unit
The industry continues to employ better manufacturing techniques to minimize leakage rates. Reference: Zero Leaks by Denis Clodic from the ASHRAE Bookstore

24 Climate Change & HFC Refrigerants
1 kg R-12 = 10,600 kg CO2 1 kg R-134a = 1,430 kg CO2 1 kg R-410A = 2,088 kg CO2 1 kg R-404A = 3,922 kg CO2 GWP=How much a given mass of GHG contributes to global warming HFC emissions covered under the Kyoto Protocol – Represent less than 2% of all GHG emissions

25 Climate Initiatives Waxman/Markey House Bill- Energy Efficiency
The goal would be for the model building energy codes to be updated every three years to reduce building energy consumption by 30% such target to be increased to 50% incremental reductions in building energy consumption for new code editions released after January 1, 2016, with the ultimate goal being “net-zero-energy” buildings. The starting baselines would be the 2004 IECC and ASHRAE Standard

26 Waxman/ Markey Bill- Climate
Climate Initiatives Waxman/ Markey Bill- Climate The Draft provides for an HFC regulatory program under the Title VI of the Clean Air Act, and as expected, provides for (1) a cap and reduction schedule, (2) allocations to HFC Producers, Users and Importers (both bulk and products-containing); and several other provisions The Draft proves for an initial cap in 2012 that is based on the average of production (and 100% of HFC and HCFC production).  The number is then to be reduced by 6% in the first year, and then 3% each year until 2028.  EPA is given authority to set this baseline within the bounds of 380 and 280 MMTCO2e

27 Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI)
TEWI - Tool to estimate global warming impact of various technologies TEWI estimates CO2 emissions of a given system over its lifetime Direct: equivalent CO2 emissions caused by direct leakage or loss of refrigerant Indirect: CO2 emissions due to energy consumption by the system

28 TEWI – Major Findings New products have half the carbon footprint than products manufactured 35 years ago Energy efficiency is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HVACR equipment

29 Ohnishi Basis for ICCP/TEAP report
TEWI is the sum of the effect of a direct discharge of refrigerant plus the effect of carbon dioxide emissions due to energy use over the lifetime of the equipment. TEWI’s are based on carbon dioxide which has a GWP of 1.0 The refrigerant portion is converted to the amount of carbon dioxide that would have an equivalent affect and then added to the power station emissions also in carbon dioxide. Other comparisons take into account a cradle to grave approach. Always the direct emissions of the refrigerants have a minimal impact. Ohnishi Basis for ICCP/TEAP report

30 ARI Standard 550/590 Chiller Certification and IPLV

31 The Industry ARI Standard Part Load Analysis (IPLV)
% Load % Hrs Systems Solution - Notice the huge change in how the entire industry has changed the load profile to which every chiller is compared. - The biggest change is the 50% load point which went up over 33% !!! … perfect for the dual design. 42

32 Historic Energy Improvements

33 Full Load Vs. Annual Load
7 story office building Minneapolis 375,000 ft2 Floor by floor VAV Single chiller plant as shown earlier Design performance shows the chillers as dominant Annual performance shows fans are dominant and pumps are significant

34 ASHRAE Standard 147 Reducing the Release of Halogenated Refrigerants from HVAC & R Systems Replaces Guideline 3 Includes HFC Refrigerants New Initiatives ARI- Responsible Use Guideline for Minimizing Fluorocarbon Emissions in Manufacturing Facilities ASHRAE Standard 147 prescribes practices and procedures to reduce release into the atmosphere of halogentaed refrigerants used in refrigerating and air-conditioning systems. ARI has published this Guideline to encourage refrigerant containment and environmental protection in Manufacturing Facilities.

35 Other Refrigerants R-718 Water R-717 Ammonia R-744 CO2
R-290,600,600a (Propane, Butane, Isobutane) R-407c R-410a Some alternative refrigerants.

36 Natural Refrigerants - Water R-718
Refrigerant In Absorption Chillers Safe, Abundant, Environmentally Friendly COP = 1 (Centrifugal COP = 6.4) Current Energy Rates Offer Poor Life Cycle Analysis In America Common In Japan When you pick absorption chillers you get water as a refrigerant It is safe, abundant, environmentally friendly It has a relatively low COP=1 Compare that to a centrifugal with a COP = 6.4 It does run off a direct energy source (natural gas) as opposed to electricity. With electricity, you should consider how the power is generated Current energy rates make it difficult to show good life cycle analysis An absorption chiller is twice as expensive as centrifugal They are the norm in Japan and centrifugals are rare PREDICTION Niche applications in hybrid plants and cogen If energy rates change significantly (a possibility with deregulation) then more absorption may be used

37 Natural Refrigerants - Ammonia R-717
Higher Toxicity And Lower Flammability (B2) Environmentally Friendly Efficient Special Safety Efforts Required (Std 15) Guarded Plants Ammonia is a “natural refrigerant” It has high toxicity and is slightly flammable It is environmentally friendly It is very efficient It requires special safety efforts outlined in Std 15 and typically requires a supervised plant PREDICTION Continued presence in industrial applications and some large institutional projects. European Built Ammonia A/C Chiller

38 IIAR 2 IIAR publication

39 Refrigerants CO2 R-245fa Hydrocarbons Water
Carbon Dioxide is also a natural refrigerant that was used up to the turn of this century It is safe ODP = 0 GWP =1 It is very in efficient The critical point is very low It is also very high pressure - over 1450 psi ASHRAE has ongoing research in the trans-critical region for CO2 PREDICTION Cascade refrigeration (resolves low critical point issue) Possible automotive air conditioning application

40 Flammable Refrigerants
Propane And Butane Major Safety Concerns +35% Domestic Market In N. Europe 8% Domestic World Market Not Popular In North America In the U.S, OSHA Regulations would prevent these refrigerant from being used in confined spaces.

41 Synchronous brushless DC motor
Compression Best Performance And Lowest Cost Always Starts With Compression Refrigerant Choice Drives Compressor Design Examples Magnetic Bearing High Speed Synchronous DC Motors DC Rotary And Scroll Compressors (Japanese Technology) Inverter Technology Synchronous brushless DC motor Magnetic Brgs

42 AHRI CFC Chiller Task Force
Most recent estimate: 27,000 CFC chillers still in N.A. Summit of AHRI and Efficiency Advocates- ACEEE, ASE, Utilities etc Plan to use Stimulus moneys to replace CFC chillers Three targets Federal Buildings State and Local Government Buildings Commercial Buildings Plan: Gain consensus Develop communication piece e.g. CFC chillers at 0.9 kw/ton vs 0.56 kw/ton or standards Write legislative language to finance using Stimulus funds

43 Considerations when Replacing or Retrofitting
Difficulties in Servicing and Maintaining Existing HCFC Equipment. Declining Availability of HCFC Refrigerants. Adequate Life-Cycle Timeframes for New Equipment using HCFC’s. Determining the Remaining Life-Cycle of Existing Equipment. Understanding Alternative Equipment, Refrigerant Options and Compatibility of Both Refrigerants and Equipment. Containment is Key……………

44 Steps we can take today To have sustainable HVAC solutions
Need to focus on overall global impact No one solution works for everyone A focus on components alone Limited by efficiency of individual components Need to look at the performance of the system A focus on refrigerants alone May increase energy consumed (indirect effect) HFC’s are a good solution today Focus on overall impact of building Reduce leaks in system Increase energy efficiency through performance standards

45 Innovative Technology Award
Innovative Design Award

46 It’s about the NEXT GENERATION…….
THANK YOU………


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