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Earth’s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Air Movement

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Air Movement"— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Atmosphere Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Air Movement

2 Earth’s Atmosphere Atmosphere is a thin layer of air that forms a protective covering around the planet Importance of the Atmosphere: Buffer between space and the solid earth Atmosphere maintain balance between amount of heat absorbed from the sun and the amount of heat that escapes back into space

3 Makeup of the Atmosphere
Earth’s atmosphere has evolved 2 billions ya: little O2, large volcanic eruption of CO2 and N Early organisms released O2 when it utilized sunlight to produce its own food Eventually a layer rich in ozone O3 formed to protect organisms from harmful sun rays Plants flourished and as by product of photosynthesis, O increased

4 Gases in the Atmosphere
Nitrogen (N) 78% Oxygen (O) 21% Water vapor (H2O) up to 4% Argon (Ar) and CO2 Atmosphere composition changes slightly depending on human interruptions to the atmosphere Smog: brown haze formed from O and other chemicals in presence of sunlight CO2 burned into atmosphere by human activity

5 Solids and Liquids in Atmosphere
Dust, salt, and pollen in atmosphere Water droplets are moved around the atmosphere by air currents

6 Layers of Atmosphere Lower layer composed of troposphere
99% of atmosphere of water vapor and 75% of gases found here Weather occurs in troposphere which extends 10 km (6 miles) up Stratosphere extends above troposphere and extends to 50 km (30 miles) and upper layers contain ozone layer

7 Upper Layer of Atmosphere
Mesosphere extends 50 and 85 km (30-50 miles) Thermosphere extends 85 to 500 km ( miles) Ionosphere is found within the mesosphere and thermosphere where electrically charged particles are found Ionosphere allows radio waves to travel across the country to another city Exosphere has so few of molecules that rocket wings are useless and that rocket blast are used to move the shuttle Outer space lies farther out


9 Ozone Layer Ozone is an Oxygen compound found in the stratosphere
Unlike the Oxygen we breath which is O2, ozone is O3 Ozone is important to life on earth because it absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun Ultraviolet radiation is one of many types of energy that comes from the sun. Damage to skin (cancer) occurs from ultraviolet radiation


11 Atmosphere Pressure Force exerted on an area is known as pressure
Gravity pulls air particles to the surface The pull is greater closer to the surface More gas particles are found at lower levels As move above surface the pressure is less

12 Temperature in Atmosphere
As sunlight passes through the layers of atmosphere, some gases absorb some of the sunlight and some gases don’t, the temperatures at each layer is different Troposphere: temperature is warmed by warming earth’s surface that is transferred to the troposphere As you move upward the temperature decreases at a rate of 6.5℃ every km (5.5℉ every mile) Stratosphere contains the ozone layer that absorbs some of sun’s energy so as you move upward the temperature increases

13 Temperature in Atmosphere
Mesosphere: temperature decreases with increasing altitude Thermosphere and exosphere are the first layers to receive the sun’s rays Because they are fewer molecules each molecule have great deal on energy and the temperatures are high


15 Ozone Layer Ozone is an Oxygen compound found in the stratosphere
Unlike the Oxygen we breath which is O2, ozone is O3 Ozone is important to life on earth because it absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun Ultraviolet radiation is one of many types of energy that comes from the sun. Damage to skin (cancer) occurs from ultraviolet radiation


17 Cfc’s Chlorofluorocarbons (Cfc’s) are chemicals that destroy ozone
Cfc’s is found in refrigerators, air conditioners, aerosol cans and production of some foam packaging Destruction is caused when Cl atom combines with O3 and it breaks apart forming O2 depleting O3 in atmosphere Also the original Cl atom can continue to break apart O3

18 Ozone hole The study of the atmosphere above Antarctica shows changing ozone layers where holes have been seen Concentrations of Cfc’s since mid 1990’s have been decreasing helping some

19 Energy Transfer in Atmopshere section 2
Heat is energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature Energy from the sun reaches earth’s surface and heats it 3 different ways Radiation Conduction Convection

20 Radiation Radiation is energy that is transferred in the form of rays or waves When you face the sun your face is warmed by that direct contact with radiant energy

21 Conduction Conduction is the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into one another Energy is transferred from warmer objects to cooler objects Hot sand warms the air directly above it by conducting heat energy to the atmosphere

22 Convection Convection is the transfer of heat by the flow of material
Warm air is less dense and rises, It eventually becomes cooler, more dense and settles back down to surface This turning of the atmosphere warms it

23 radiation/conduction/convection

24 Water cycle Hydrosphere is the sphere of the earth where water is
Could be as a liquid, solid or gas Water evaporates into the atmosphere where it will eventually cool, condensation occurs (process of changing water vapor to a liquid) and it falls back to surface in form of precipitation Water vapor in atmosphere is important in weather and climate factors to an area


26 Yahoo! Video Detail for NASA: The Water Cycle [720p]

27 Earth’s unique atmosphere
Atmosphere on earth holds just the right amount of sun’s energy for life The sun’s radiation can be absorbed by the atmosphere or absorbed by land and water, or be reflected into space Mar’s atmosphere is so thin that the radiation can’t be absorbed and temp range from 35℃ to -170℃ Venus’s atmosphere is so thick that it traps sun’s energy and temp are about 470℃

28 Air Movement section 3 Wind is the movement of air from area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure Differences in pressure can be caused by uneven heating of the atmosphere Areas of the earth receive different amount of radiation because of the curvature of the earth Poles receive less radiation because of the angle of the suns rays and thus have cooler temperature The air sinks in these areas and moves along earth’s surface At equator, suns rays strike earth directly and warms faster, rises and is replaced by denser colder air creating convection currents

29 Uneven heating caused by earth’s curved surface

30 Coriolis Effect Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the earth
Affects air and water on earth Causes air and water to appear to turn to the right in the northern hemisphere, in southern hemisphere it appears to turn left Distinct wind patterns develop

31 Coriolis effect

32 Global Winds Doldrums are areas near equator where wind doesn’t blow, but rains a lot Sailors who relied on winds for their sails might die of starvation because of lack of wind on ocean fronts Near the equator you have heating and rising air, creating lower pressure and little wind

33 Surface wind Trade winds develop at around 30˚ north and south of the equator Air that rose over the equator traveled aloft (above at high altitude)drops back down the surface Air at the surface moves then moves either back toward the equator in trade winds Some air travels away from equator north (northern hemisphere) to 60˚ N latitude in the prevailing westerlies wind patterns Polar easterlies are found near poles. In N pole it moves from northeast to southwest

34 Wind patterns in atmosphere

35 Winds in Upper Troposphere
Jet streams (ribbon of air currents aloft) are boundaries between cold dry polar air and warmer, moist air in south Pilots use it to aid them and save fuel when travel with stream Jet streams also help move storms across the country

36 Local Wind Systems Sea breezes: is created during the day because solar radiation warms the land more than the water Heated air is less dense, rises and at ground air is replaced by cooler air from seas. Convection currents occur. You have movement of air from sea to land Land breezes: At night the air over land cools faster than air over ocean, and that cooler denser air moves toward the ocean. Movement of air toward the water from the land to sea is land breeze


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