Presentation on theme: "Microbiology 205 Georgetta Seidel. Definitions Mycologists--scientists who study fungi Mycology--scientific discipline dealing with fungi Mycoses--diseases."— Presentation transcript:
The five kingdom system Eukarya (includes all organism with a nucleus & membrane bound organelles) Plants and Animals are fairly obvious Fungi, are very distinct from the other kingdoms Kingdom Protista is a dumping ground for organisms that dont fit into the other eukaryotic kingdoms
Exoenzymes are found in fungi and some bacteria. They are digestive enzymes that are secreted into the environment, where they digest the food into small molecules that can be absorbed and used by the fungus.
FUNGI 100,000 species 100 human pathogens, fungi associated diseases are rising, due to nosocomial infections and in immunocompromised patients (ie. HIV, diabetes, lupus, transplant folks) Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis pulmonary infections and dissemination may be involved 5,000 plant pathogens=$1 billion/yr
IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI Fermentation industry Remember fermentation is an anaerobic process -Wine (yeast) - Beer -Bread -Cheese (bacteria) -Soy sauce (filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae provides a low protein diet with amino acids, yeast & bacteria) soy beans & flour are held in a container for mold to growmoldy beans are incubated for several months -Sauerkraut -Vinegar (yeast and bacteria) -Yoghurt (Bacteria)
IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI Drug manufacturing (usually their waste products are to our benefit) – Citric acid –Ethanol (yeast) –Antibiotic griseofulvin, penicillin – Cortisone (Rhizopus) – immunosuppressive agents (cyclosporine)
IMPORTANCE OF FUNGI (cont.) SAPROPHYTE Degrade complex organic materials into simple ones, which become available for other organisms
Importance of Fungi (cont.) MYCORRHIZAE Fungi associated with plants Symbiosis Fungi help plant roots absorb minerals and water in the soil- serve as root extensions Fungi benefit by absorbing nutrients exuded by plant roots
They are often called ancient plants 4 broad classes exist Algal fungi Sac fungi Imperfect fungi Club (basidium) fungi
Algal fungi All are microscopic and grow in water and damp soil Many species in this group are responsible for blights (like Irish Potato Famine) Some species, such as Rhizopus however, are used as a source of cortisone and other "drugs"
yeasts and the blue and green molds often seen on decaying citrus fruits, in jellies and on leather Some species, like Penicillium are economically useful, but others such as Ergot (Clavicep s purpurea) which infects rye crops, can cause mass destruction In controlled doses, however, Ergot becomes an important alkaloid used to control hemmorrage (during the birthing process) as well as in the treatment of migraine Candida albicans is another species of sac fungi that is parasitic in human beings and aids in the normal functioning of the digestive tract Sac fungi
Imperfect fungi molds that mildew walls and spot clothes, as well as those that cause plant diseases, athlete's foot, and ringworm. Some of these fungi are useful like Aspergillus, used in the production of miso (fermented soy paste)
Club (basidium) fungi largest group of fungi which includes rusts and smuts that attack specific plants, such as corn, beans, apples, wheat, asparagus, coffee, roses and barberry many of the mushrooms in this division are edible and delicious, a large number of them, such as the Amanita's are deadly poisonous
FUNGAL STRUCTURE Thallus-body –Molds & fleshy fungi have these structures Long filaments of cells (hyphae) Septate -Cross Wall (Most Fungi) Coenocytic -No cross wall, continuous mass with many nuclei
YEAST Facultative Anaerobes Fermentation=ethanol and CO 2 Non-filamentous unicellular fungi –Spherical or oval Reproduction –Two types exist –a)Fission or b) budding
Yeast Reproduction FISSION even reproduction, nucleus divides forming two identical cells, like bacteria BUDDING uneven reproduction, parent cells nucleus divides and migrates to form a bud and then breaks away
DIMORPHIC FUNGI Growth as a mold or as a yeast Most pathogenic fungi are dimorphic fungi At 37 o C yeast-like At 25 o C mold-like Can also occur with changes in CO 2 Fungi grow differently in tissue vs nature/culture; often dictated by temp
Within Agar=mold, Agar Surface=yeast Changes in CO2
Types of REPRODUCTION Asexually-fragmentation of hyphae Asexually and Sexually-spores –Spores: Used for Identification Four groups of true fungi –Zygomycetes (common bread mold Rhizopus) –Basidiomycetes (puffballs & common mushrooms) –Ascomycetes (Dutch elm disease/rye smut) –Deuteromycetes (fungi imperfecti)
Classification of these groups First three groups is based on their method of sexual reproduction 4 th group, the Deuteromycetes, have NO sexual reproduction
REPRODUCTION (cont.) Asexual Reproduction Progeny will be identical to parent –Spores (Conidiospores, Blastospores,Chlamydospores, Sporangiospores) –Hyphae fragmentation (Arthrospores)
IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGI Examination of asexual spores **Fungal spores are different than the endospores of bacteria Endospores are not for reproduction, but an environmentally resistant life stage Fungal spores are for reproduction, do not ensure resistance to environmental conditions
Chlamydospores The chlamydospore is a method of producing a substantial resting spore very quickly Nutrient is shunted from adjacent cells into a preferred cell and it swells up, converts nutrient materials to oil droplets for efficient storage, then rounds off with a thick, often roughened outer wall for protection
ALL FUNGI: are eukaryotes develop from spores display neither flagella, cilia, nor chloroplasts have cell walls (though not necessarily ones composed of cellulose as are plant cell walls, but instead of chitin and other polysaccharides) Though displaying great variety and complexity, the fungi are routinely divided into two major groups: the macroscopic (fleshy) fungi the microscopic fungi (molds and yeasts)
Fungal growth requirements In contrast to bacteria, fungi tend grow in places that are: –more acidic –have higher osmotic pressures –are lower in moisture –are low in nitrogen –contain complex carbohydrates
Fungal structures Hyphae are one dimensional arrangements of cells. septa are the cross walls which separate individual cells in hyphae. Mycelium are a tangled mass of hyphae. Mycelium can extensively permeate the substrate within which the fungi grows whether it be soil, water, or even living tissue.
Molds vs Yeast Molds Molds are aerobic, filamentous fungi including –mildews –rusts –smuts Molds tend to grow on surfaces rather than throughout substrates. Yeasts –unicellular/nonfilamentous: Yeasts are fungi which are: typically spherical or oval facultatively anaerobic They are often observed as powdery coatings on plant material.
Dimorphic fungi Dimorphic fungi are fungi that behave like molds (multicellular---consist of hyphae) under some conditions, and like yeasts (unicellular--- lack hyphae) under others.
Fungal reproduction fungi replicate by mitosis rather than the binary fission employed by bacteria. Types of fungal reproduction, : –budding –fission –hyphae fragmentation –sporulation
Sexual and asexual: Fungal spores come in two varieties: asexual spores and sexual spores –Spores are used extensively to identify fungi. Asexual spores –asexual spores are formed by a single parental fungi and therefore genetically identical to the parental fungi. –Asexual spores come in a variety of types formed by a variety of mechanisms including: Arthrospores (sliced bread pieces) Blastospores (buds on a twig) Chlamydospores (giant cell with oil) Conidiospores (fingers) Sporangiospores (sac)
Ascomycetes Asexual phase- Conidiospores (Penicillium and Aspergillus & budding yeast Sexual phase (morels lichens)
Zygomycetes Asexual phaseSporangiumbread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) Sexual phase--- sporgangium --- shotgun fungus (lives on dung) it shoots its sporgangium explosively towards light or fly pathogen (Entomophthora muscae--these types of fungi have been used as agents for biological control of insects)
Basidiomycetes Basidiospore Examples: boletes, puffballs,smuts, stinkhorns and tooth fungi
Ascomycetes sac fungi Septate hyphae and yeasts Asexual spore: –Conidiospores Approximately 30,000 species including yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), some of the molds (Aspergillus), morels, and truffles. Ascomycetes have typical reproductive structures called asci.
Basidiomycetes clubfungi Mushrooms Approximately 25,000 species including many macroscopic fungi (mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi) as well as a number of plant pathogens (rusts, smuts).
FUNGAL DISEASES Mycosis: Fungal infection Usually chronic Four groups of mycoses based on degree of tissue involvement and mode of entry
TYPES OF MYCOSES Systemic Subcutaneous Cutaneous Opportunistic Because fungi are slow growing, mycoses are generally long-lasting
SYSTEMIC MYCOSES Deep within the body –effects a number of different tissues and organs Usually soil fungi Spore inhalation=Route of transmission-starts in the lungs and spreads to other body tissues Not contagious
SYSTEMIC MYCOSES (cont.) Histoplasmosis Coccidiomycosis Coccidioides immitis got renamed for the AZ Valley fever Coccidioides posadasii
SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSES Infections beneath the skin Soil and plant fungi Hyphae or spores in wounds
CUTANEOUS MYCOSES Called Dermatophytes Epidermis Hair Nails Secrete keratinase-degrades keratin (protein found in hair, skin and nails) Contagious-direct contact with infected hairs and epidermal cells
CUTANEOUS MYCOSES Skin high osmotic pressure Low moisture
OPPORTUNISTIC MYCOSES Broad-spectrum antibiotics Transplant patients AIDS patients Cancer patients –Ex: Stachybotrys (mold), Mucormycosis and Aspergillosis
DERMATOPHYTES Grow on keratin –Hair –Nails Tinea or ringworm
TINEA Capitis (scalp)-can lead to bald patches Cruris (groin) Pedis (athletes foot)
FUNGI IN CUTANEOUS MYCOSES Three genera involved in cutaneous mycoses: Trichophyton Microsporum Epidermophyton
Mycetoma Mycetoma is a chronic infection of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and sometimes bone It is generally found on the foot where it is given the name watering can foot Mycetoma may be due to several fungi or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). Actinomycetes are bacteria producing filaments like fungi. Both the fungi and the actinomycetes are found in soil and plant material in tropical regions. The organism is inoculated into the skin by a minor injury, for example, a cut with a thorn when barefoot.
Clinical features Mycetoma is more common in men than women, particularly those aged 20 to 50. It generally presents as a single lesion on an exposed site and may persist for years. It starts as a small hard painless lump under the skin. It grows slowly but eventually involves underlying muscles and bones. The middle of the lesion caves in, ulcerates and discharges pus, which contains grains. Eventually, sinus tracts (holes) develop which also discharge pus and grains. The surface skin is scarred and pale. Considerable deformity often makes it difficult to walk. Mycetoma may cause no discomfort but it often itches or burns. Secondary bacterial infection is common. Treatment is slow
CANDIDIASIS Mucosal normal microbiota suppresses the growth of Candida albicans
CANDIDIASIS (cont.) Vaginitis and thrush are initiated by: –Antibiotics eliminate normal microbiota –pH changes Infants that may not have their normal microbiota established=thrush
MYCOSES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Histoplasmosis-resembles TB, starts in the lungs, most cases are minor –Histoplasma capsulatum Coccidioidomycosis –Coccidioides immitis in CA –Coccidioides posadasii in AZ
MYCOSES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (cont.) Blastomycosis –Blastomyces dermatidis Pneumocystis pneumonia –Pneumocystis carinii
HISTOPLASMOSIS Resembles tuberculosis May affect all organs Vague symptoms Yeast lives within macrophages and multiplies
HISTOPLASMOSIS (cont.) Histoplasma capsulatum Dimorphic fungi Mississippi river and Ohio river states
HISTOPLASMOSIS (cont.) Very low mortality –50/year/USA Transmission –Airborne conidia –Bats: Carry fungus in feces –Birds: Feces
Histoplasmosis second most significant fungus disease It is infectious but not contagious The "summer flu" that Midwesterners use to get often is now thought to have been histosplasmosis Histoplasmosis basically is a pulmonary or respiratory disease, but may extend to the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen; it may disseminate to the blood and bone marrow and be fatal The victim frequently has chills and fever to 105 degrees, night sweats, chest pains, and fatigued. A non-productive cough is fairly common.
COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS In tissues C. immitis forms spherules –Thick-walled structures filled with spores –In soil, forms filaments that reproduce by the formation of arthrospores, transmitted by wind, 100,000 infections per year
Spherule form (top half) multiplies in the lungs; mycelia (bottom half) grow in the soil Life cycle of C. immitis
BlastomycosisGlichrists Disease Blastomycosis is a chronic, systemic fungal disease that affects humans The disease affects the lungs. It is caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. The main route of infection is by inhalation of spores The disease is infectious but is not contagious. Major symptoms in humans include loss of weight, fever, cough, and bloody sputum and chest pains. The disease may disseminate into the skin, bones, or urogenital tract.
BLASTOMYCOSIS (cont.) Diagnostic –Isolation of organism from pus and biopsies Treatment –Amphotericin B
PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA Pneumocystis carinii Opportunistic pathogen Leading cause of death in AIDS patients Present in healthy lungs Immunosuppressed individuals
PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA (cont.) Rare before AIDS epidemic –Less than 100 cases/year 1993-Indicator of AIDS Currently, one of the most common infectious diseases
OTHER FUNGAL RESPIRATORY DISEASES Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus spp.-present in decaying vegetation Rhizopus spp. Mucor spp.
Those darn pigeons!! Cryptococcosis: Yeast Meningitis Affects: Humans The disease is caused by a systemic pathogenic yeast called Cryptococcus Neoformans, which is found worldwide. Cryptococcosis in humans usually begins as a primary infection of the lungs. There are no visible early symptoms may include cough, chest pain, weight loss, fever or dizziness. The disease may be in the lungs, mucous membranes, bones, and joints, with no organ or tissue of the body exempt. It very frequently involves the brain covering as cryptococcal meningitis. Pigeon excreta is the most common source of C. Neoformans. The yeast is carried in the intestinal tract of pigeons. Pulmonary cryptococcsis has occurred in the workmen who have been exposed to the yeast while demolishing old buildings where pigeons had roosted. Most of the cryptococcal infections occur from inhalation of the fungas along with the dust from areas enriched with pigeons manure.
Other diseases associated with pigeons Salmonellosis is more than just food poisoning. Pigeons are important factors in the spread of salmonellosis, since the bacteria are left wherever the pigeons defecate Pigeons trample back and forth through their copious excretions on ledges and air intake vents The dust enters through air conditioners and ventilators. S. Typhimurium var. Copenhagen is the most common salmonella isolated from pigeons Salmonellosis in humans may manifest itself in one or more of four types (1) temporary carriage without infection (2) Gastroenteritis (food poisoning) (3) enteric fever septicemia (blood poisoning) (4) Persistent infection
FUNGAL DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Mycotoxins: Fungal Toxins –Ergot poisoning –Aflatoxin poisoning
ERGOT POISONING Claviceps purpurea Infects Grain Crops Ergotism: Disease caused by ingestion of contaminated grains Claviceps-contaminated grains (rye or wheat)
Claviceps purpurea as recently as 1951, in Pont-St. Esprit, a small town in France, there was an outbreak of the disease. In Europe it is the custom to buy fresh bread nearly every day.
In this small town there was only one bakery and everyone bought bread from it. Strange things started happening. People developed a burning sensation in their limbs, began to hallucinate that they could fly, did strange things to their dogs with forks and in general acted weirdly. This outbreak is chronicled in a marvelous (but out of print) book called "The day of St Anthony's Fire" by John Grant Fuller. St. Anthony is the patron saint of lost causes When all of the other saints have failed, St. Anthony is the one you are supposed to pray to. And St. Anthony's fire was rampant in the town that day. Similar outbreaks probably occurred throughout the world wherever the conditions were right for the growth of Claviceps purpurea.
The chemical responsible for the hallucinations is actually LSD! lysergic acid. There was even an outbreak of ergotism on the television show "Quincy" starring Jack Klugman, who played a coroner. He was aboard a cruise ship and people were acting very strangely. Quincy finally traced the behavior to contamination of the flour tortillas that had been served aboard ship.
The X-Files also had an episode featuring ergot, although it had a surreal twist (of course). In that episode, Scully got a tattoo that caused her to hallucinate (she thought the tattoo was talking to her). Turns out the tattoo artist was an ex-con who learned his art in prison. He collected plants in the prison yard and extracted dyes from them for his tattoos.
Another ergot derivative may cause spontaneous abortions in animals-- in small doses this same drug is used to aid in childbirth. Another of the ergot derivatives is used to cure migraine headaches.
ERGOT POISONING (cont.) Witchcraft in Salem (1690s) Similar Behavior caused by Lysergic acid (LSD)
There have been various attempts to explain those witch trials. None of them are more logical and interesting than the hypothesis of ergot poisoning, caused by Claviceps purpurea. The behavior was not identified as witchcraft until 1691, and this was just the beginning of the problem. All of the accused had similar symptoms: manic melancholia, psychosis, delirium, crawling sensations of the skin, vertigo, headaches, vomiting and diarrhea. All of these are symptoms of ergot poisoning, and it is likely that at least the initial hysteria was started by Claviceps purpurea infecting the grains of rye compelling, although circumstantial, evidence that the Salem witch trials coincided with a weather period that would have produced large quantities of ergot on rye, which was grown in the lowlands in that area.
Aflatoxin Aflatoxin is a naturally occurring mycotoxin produced by two types of mold Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aspergillus flavus is common & widespread in nature and is most often found when certain grains are grown under stressful conditions such as drought. The mold occurs in soil, decaying vegetation and hay At least 13 different types of aflatoxin are produced in nature with aflatoxin B1 considered as the most toxic While the presence of Aspergillus flavus does not always indicate harmful levels of aflatoxin it does mean that the potential for aflatoxin production is present.