Source of air pollution (natural) Volcano eruption produces sulphur dioxide Digestion in cows produces methane SO 2 and CH 4 are air pollutants
There are many kinds of air pollutants 1. Carbon monoxide and carbon 1. Carbon monoxide and carbon 2. Unburnt hydrocarbons 2. Unburnt hydrocarbons 3. Sulphur dioxide 3. Sulphur dioxide 4. Oxides of nitrogen 4. Oxides of nitrogen 5. Photochemical smog 5. Photochemical smog 6. 6. Repairable Suspended Particulates (RSPs) 7. Ozone 7. Ozone
1. Carbon monoxide and carbon Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas emitted into the atmosphere by incomplete combustion processes formed by the oxidation of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. survives in the atmosphere for about 1 month will oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Carbon particles are part of the dark smoke that forms.
Effect Mainly emitted by vehicles on road reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood Low conc.: dizzy, headache and irritable High conc.: unconsciousness and death
2.Unburnt hydrocarbons (Volatile organic compounds) (VOCs) released in vehicle exhaust gases emitted by the evaporation of solvents and motor fuels Effect Causing cancer Formation of smog (smoke + fog)
3. Sulphur dioxide From power stations burning fossil fuels which contain sulphur
Effect combines with H2O in atmosphere to produce acid rain SO 2 in air is associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis SO 2 emissions effect air quality in urban areas Low conc. : respiratory tracts and lung diseases High conc. : cancer and death SO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 3 (aq) Sulphurous acid
Effect Oh, so poor destroy vegetation and degradation of soils, building materials and watercourses
4.oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) formed during high temperature combustion processes from the oxidation of nitrogen in the air or fuel From power stations, heating plants and industrial processes Mostly NO & NO 2 N 2 (g)+O 2 (g) 2NO(g) 2NO(g)+O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g)
Effect Irritation of respiratory tracts and lungs Causing asthma In the presence of sunlight, it reacts with hydrocarbons to produce photochemical pollutants such as ozone
5. Photochemical smog Sunlight acts on air pollutants (e.g. carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons) form a new substance called photochemical smog
Effect Irritate the eyes dangerous to people with breathing and heart problems poisonous to plants damages rubber, paint and other materials
6. Repairable Suspended Particulates Solid matter or liquid droplets from smoke, dust, fuel ash, or condensing vapours Suspended in the air Particles smaller than 100 micrometers in diameter Natural: from sea (wind-blown sea-salt ) or soil Man made: from diesel exhausts, construction activities and factories
6. Repairable Suspended Particulates Usually hydrocarbon, sulphates, nitrates These small particles can enter deep into lungs Most of the RSP is carbon
Effect creating dirt, odour and visibility problems health effects :risk of heart and lung disease carry surface-absorbed carcinogenic compounds into the lungs
Installing precipitator in factory Using unleaded petrol in vehicle How to solve the problem???
7. Ozone pollutant produced by reaction between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydrocarbons and sunlight powerful oxidizing agent
Effect persist for several days and be transported over long distances. irritate the eyes causing breathing difficulties is a highly reactive chemical, capable of attacking surfaces, fabrics and rubber materials toxic to some crops, vegetation and trees.
Introduction The Air Pollution Index (API) is a simple way of describing air pollution levels.
Uses enhance awareness of public to air pollution Alert those with heart or respiratory illnesses, to consider taking precautionary measures
AIR MONITORING STATIONS General Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station located on 4 to 6-floor buildings Represent air quality in areas of high population density A general air quality monitoring station located at Tsuen Wan.
AIR MONITORING STATIONS Roadside Air Quality Monitoring Station provides information on the level of pollution very close to vehicle emission sources in busy streets and roads. A roadside air quality monitoring station located at Causeway Bay.
AIR MONITORING STATIONS StreetBox Urban Pollution Monitor in foreign country
AIR MONITORING STATIONS The map below shows the locations of air quality monitoring stations
HOW IS THE API CALCULATED? Measure pollutant concentrations in the air and analysis effect of polluted air on public Measure pollutants include NO 2 SO 2 O 3 CO and respirable suspended particulates. Taking the maximum of the subindices among all the parameters measured at that station. Photochemical smog by NO x
DescriptorAPIHealth Implications Low0 to 25Not expected. Medium26 to 50Not expected for the general population. High51 to 100Few or none in the general population may notice immediate health effects. Long-term effects may, however, be observed if you are exposed to such levels persistently for a long time. Very High101 to 200People with existing heart or respiratory illnesses may notice mild aggravation of their health conditions. Generally healthy individuals may also notice some discomfort. Severe201 to 500People with existing heart or respiratory illnesses may experience significant aggravation of their symptoms and there will be also widespread symptoms in the healthy population. These include eye irritation, wheezing, coughing, phlegm and sore throat.
The most air polluted area in HK (by API from EPD)
Station Distribution of Hourly API (Number of Hours) (General stations) Low (0-25) Medium (26-50) High (51-100) Very High (101-200) Severe (201-500) Central/Western 0432177300 Eastern 0517167000 Kwai Chung 0370182870 Kwun Tong 0358183500 Sha Tin 0414178100 Sham Shui Po 0337186000 Tai Po 324958400 Tap Mun 0464170100 Tsuen Wan 0350185320 Tung Chung 192961859210 Yuen Long 0291190800 Distribution of Hourly API for General Stations for the period October 2004 - December 2004 Medium 17.9% High 81.8%
Distribution of Hourly API for Roadside Stations for the period October 2004 - December 2004 Distribution of Hourly API (Number of Hours) Low (0-25) Medium (26-50) High (51-100) Very High (101-200) Severe (201-500) Causeway Bay 002171340 Central 03218842890 Mong Kok 02716904880 Very high high
Global Warming & Green House effect What are they? certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) More energy is keep in atmosphere The temperature is increased
Global Warming and Green House Effect Effect Change in climate, rainfall Impact on organism on earth Earth has warmed by about 1 º F over the past 100 years Increase the temperature will melt the polar ice cap sea level rise Causes the earth to heat up, just like the inside of a car parked in sunlight Keeps the plants warm enough to live in the winter. good or not?
Lichen are particularly good indicators of gas pollution in the air Almost all lichen are sensitive to air pollutions. Such as SO 2, F 2, O 3, pH or even metal ion More: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/aq/lichen/images.htm
Lichen Lichen + Green algae not found : SO2 conc. >170 mg/m 3 Only green algae : max. 170 mg/m 3 close formations of lichen on the trunk of the tree, even in the cracks : 125-150 mg/m 3
Lichen leaf shaped lobe plates formed by leafy lichen : 60-70 mg/m 3 lichen growing as a little bush or hanging like a beard : 40-50 mg/m 3
Make maximum use of mass public transport avoid travel by car. Benefits - Reduces the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulates from road vehicles. Maintain your car engine keep your car engine properly tuned. Benefits - Saves fuel, money and air pollution. Switch off idling engines switch off engine while waiting. Benefits - Saves fuel, money and air pollution. On road:
Solve the air pollution problem Switch off domestic appliances turn off fans, air-conditioners, lights, etc. when not required. Use non-aerosol consumer products hair sprays, pesticides often use hydrocarbons as their propellants. Benefits: Reduce the formation of ozone. At home:
Sources http://enviro.nicesoda.com/~S077_01/greenpost.php?flash =true http://enviro.nicesoda.com/~S077_01/greenpost.php?flash =true http://www.imor.org.mk/programmes/planet/ghouse.htm http://home.school.net.hk/~chemmag/issue6/ming- k/greenhouseeffect.html http://home.school.net.hk/~chemmag/issue6/ming- k/greenhouseeffect.html http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html http://www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain/ http://www.smartown.com/sp2000/AIDS/index.htm http://www.cleartheair.org.hk/api.htm http://www.meteorology.org.hk/acid_guide.htm http://www.foek.hu/korneteng/utalas/utal4_7.htm http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/aq/lichen/images.htm http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/air/ai r_maincontent.html http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/air/ai r_maincontent.html Advanced-level Biology for Hong Kong Vol.1