Presentation on theme: "APES Day 87…return to your mines and complete (15 minutes) How did your mines do? Did you make a profit? What would have to do to process (purify and distribute)"— Presentation transcript:
APES Day 87…return to your mines and complete (15 minutes) How did your mines do? Did you make a profit? What would have to do to process (purify and distribute) the resource? Ores, Fossil Fuels (Natural gas, coal, oil), uranium? External costs? Full-cost pricing factors in external costs in the price of goods/services Internal costs? Marginal costs? Intangible costs? Costs/Benefit analysis How does the 1977 Surface Mining Reclamation Act assist (SMRCA)?
Price Elasticity High Price elasticity: Restaurants dinner, Plasma TV, Laptops, Refrigerators, Chocolates Low Price elasticity: beef, loaves/ bread, table salt, beer, MacDonald's chicken nuggets, bottled water at Airport High Income elasticity: Luxury Cars, Artwork Paintings, Air conditioners, Perfumes, Costly Jewelry Low Income elasticity: Gasoline, bread, eggs, milk
General Mining Law of 1872 take valuable hardrock minerals including gold, silver, and uranium from public lands without royalty payment to the taxpayer -- unlike other mining industries that extract coal, oil or natural gas; buy valuable mineral bearing public lands for no more than $5 per acre -- 1872 prices BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT which is part of the Department of Interior
Processing the ore Removing the gangue produce piles called tailings..can runoff from wind or water to contaminate surface or groundwater Placer Mining - Hydraulically washing out metals deposited in streambed gravel. Destroys streambeds and fills water with suspended solids Heap-leach-Crushed ore piled in large heaps and sprayed with a dilute alkaline cyanide solution which percolates through the pile to dissolve the gold. Effluent left behind in ponds.
Processing continued Smelting- Roasting ore to release metals. Major source of air pollution. Lead and other heavy metals…video action…cost/benefits
SMCRA Steps to Restore Land Re-contouring land to original topography Improve soil quality by adding topsoil/nutrients Replanting native vegetation Monitoring the land for 5/10 years
Based on climate The more arid the harder it is Low precipitation Low fertility of the soils wind erosion and runoff due to slower growth
Coal is high in sulfur Acidification can result: groundwater, surface water, soil Heavy metals broken down and transported Reduced plant growth because of the lower pH
Remedies to Coal tailings Buffer with limestone Cover tailings Catch basins or ponds bioremediation
Burning of Coal leads to… Increase carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide hence global warming and acid precipitation Mercury and arsenic released Thermal pollution Particulates Uranium and thorium released
How can we reduce? CONSERVING GEOLOGIC RESOURCES Recycling Aluminum must be extracted from bauxite by electrolysis. Recycling waste aluminum consumes one-twentieth the energy of extraction from raw ore. Nearly two-thirds of all aluminum beverage cans in US are recycled. Saves 90-95% of energy required to make aluminum cans from bauxite Other metals commonly recycled: Platinum, gold, copper, lead, iron, steel.
Reduction is best or find alternatives Reduce Reuse Recycle
Coal Economic advantages Abundant so lower cost More electrical appliances need electricity Technology is available
North America, China and Russia have 50% of coal resources
Coal formation Peat…decaying plants in a bog Lignate-Over 1 million years of pressure and heat can form(40% C) Subituminous (100 million yrs…40- 60% C) Bituminous (over 100 million yrs…60-80% C) Anthracite (over 300 million yrs…80- 98% C
Coal Obtained Coal is a sedimentary rock therefore forms in bands or layers. It can be strip minded or tunneled. The material above the vein is called overburden High particulates Since we dig it can hit the water table where water lowers its pH due to coal dust. Black Lung Disease - Inflammation and fibrosis caused by accumulation of coal dust in the lungs or airways.
Coal Transport Crush it and sort it Wash it so heavier impurities fall out Ship with rail or barge Ship in a slurry of water and crushed rock through pipelines.
Uses of coal Electricity=90% Steel mills use Bituminous coal in airtight ovens to form pure carbon called COKE=7% Coke is used with iron to make steel. 2% other industry processes…cement industries 1% home heating
Air Pollution Coal burning releases radioactivity and toxic metals into the atmosphere. Coal combustion is responsible for 25% of all atmospheric mercury pollution in the US. Coal contains up to 10% sulfur by weight. Unless removed by washing or flue-gas scrubbing, sulfur is released and oxidizes to sulfur dioxide or sulfate
Coal Gasification Heat coal in a large reactor with oxygen and steam. Impurities are removed and gases react with hydrogen to make methane gas. Gas must be used as it is produced