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Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer

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Presentation on theme: "Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer"— Presentation transcript:

1 Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer
ATMOSPHERE AND CLIMATE Greenhouse gases, global warming and the ozone layer

2 The Atmosphere Is a thin layer of gases that surrounds the earth
Extends thousands of km above the surface The reason there is life on Earth – we are protected from most of the sun’s radiation Allows some light to reach the surface, supplying energy and allowing photosynthesis (O2 and CO2) 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1%= water vapor, argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, and other gases

The early atmosphere contained little oxygen. Bacteria appeared about 4 bya and evolved the ability to perform photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + sun energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2

4 The 4 Layers

5 Troposphere 75–80% of the earth’s air mass
Closest to the earth's surface 0-11 km above sea level Chemical composition of air Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% H20, CO2, trace amounts of others (Ar) Weather, climate and all life forms exist here As altitude increases, temperature decreases

6 Stratosphere 11-50 km (6-30 miles) above Earth's surface
Similar composition to the troposphere, with 2 exceptions Much less water (1/1000) O3, ozone layer As altitude increases, temperature increases Air motion is horizontal Airplanes fly here

7 Mesosphere Thermosphere
50-80 km (30-50 miles) Middle atmosphere – Air thin, pressure low, Need oxygen to live in this region. Air quite cold -90°C (-130°F) near the top of mesosphere Thermosphere km ( miles) Very few atoms and molecules in this region. Intense UV – breaks O2 and N2 bonds International Space Station is here

8 Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse effect – the trapping of infrared radiation from the sun by gases in earth’s atmosphere which warms the planet Raises earth’s temp to an average of 59 ⁰F. Without the greenhouse effect, the average temp would be 0⁰F.


10 Bill Nye

11 Greenhouse Gases CO2 – most abundant greenhouse gas (GHG)
Sources: burning fossil fuels, deforestation Ice cores have shown that CO2 increasing in atmosphere – 35% higher than pre-Industrial Rev. Ocean acts as “sink,” absorbing large amounts. Vegetation acts as a sink (until it dies or is cut down) 1 kg burned fossil fuels = 3 kg CO2

12 Vostok Ice Core Deepest drilling of ice took place.
The ice removed was nearly a half a million years old. Graph = CO2 levels going back to over 400,000 years before present. The (kyr BP) means kilo=1,000 years Before Present. CO2 rises and falls about every 100,000 years. At present we are at a high point again.

13 Global Warming/climate change
Global warming – increase in Earth’s average surface temp. caused by an increase in greenhouse gases “runaway greenhouse effect” Earth’s average temperature has risen 1 ° F in last 100 years. Some argue natural fluctuation; however, corresponds w/ rising greenhouse gases

14 CO2 - Did you know… Burning 1 gallon of gasoline produces 9 kg of carbon dioxide? Using one kWh of electricity from a coal-fired generating plant produces 1 kg of carbon dioxide? Burning 100 cubic feet of natural gas produces 5.5 kg of carbon dioxide? 1 kg= 2.2 pounds So 1 gallon produces almost 20 pounds of CO2

15 The Jones Family Complete the worksheet to see how the Jones family contributes to greenhouse gas emissions.


17 CO2 Emissions Countries: Per Capita:
Largest emitters: China (6534 million metric tons): US (5833): Russia (1729): India (1495): Japan (1214) Per Capita: Australia tons (437, country) US tons China – 4.91 India: 1.31

18 Other Greenhouse Gases
Methane (CH4) – 21 times more warming effect than CO2 and increasing at 8 times the rate. Methane production is faster than broken down Main sources are wetlands, rice fields, fossil fuels, livestock, and landfills Remains in the air about 12 years

19 Greenhouse Gases Nitrous oxides – slow to breakdown (120 yrs)
Sources are fossil fuels, fertilizers, deforestation CFCs– slow breakdown; absorb 10,000 X more infrared than CO2 (100 + years) Sources are foams, aerosols, refrigerants, solvents, air conditioners Water vapor – Warmed by CO2, the atmosphere is thus able to absorb more water vapor. And that water vapor, in turn, causes further warming—it amplifies the effects of carbon dioxide.

20 Global average temperatures - surface temperatures collected from land and ocean-based stations .
Compiled by the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia and the Hadley Centre of the UK Meteorological Office.

21 Predicted Results Of Global Warming
Weather patterns will change - more hurricanes, typhoons, flooding and droughts Agriculture – weather patterns will move farther north, shifting farmland Sea Levels - polar regions warm, icebergs melt, sea levels rise. Warming water also expands. Coastal areas may flood (Walrus, tiger, Alaska)

22 Melting of Alaska’s Muir Glacier between 1948 and 2004

23 Predicted Results Of Global Warming
Human health will be affected more infectious diseases. Diseases that normally occur near equator will move northward. Diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects due to warmer/wetter climates.

24 Predicted Results Of Global Warming
Plant and animal species may migrate to maintain their preferred habitats Not all plants can adapt- cannot disperse their seeds adequately Certain birds/fishes may migrate Not all can adapt- ponds will dry up, land-locked fish cannot seek colder rivers Those that cannot adapt/migrate may experience regional extinction Blue winged teal

25 WHAT DO YOU REMEMBER???? 1. List 4 greenhouse gases.
2. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth’s temperature would be ____F instead of ____F. 3. Write the layers of the atmosphere starting with the one closest to Earth. 4. In which layer is the ozone layer? 5. In which layer does weather occur?

26 6. What is the most common greenhouse gas. 7
6. What is the most common greenhouse gas? 7. Which ghg comes from landfills, cows and wetlands? 8. List 2 “sinks” for carbon dioxide- this means what 2 things store large amounts of CO2 9. Which country emits the most CO2? 10. List 4 possible results of global warming.

27 Teachers domain- global warming

28 Albedo & Global Warming (albedo= ability of a surface to reflect light)
Rising global temperatures cause greater evaporation of water vapor into the atmosphere Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas, so an increase in water vapor might produce more warming. OR More water vapor might cause more clouds to form, increasing Earth's overall albedo, & reflecting incoming sunlight back into space. This would provide a net cooling effect. Might possibly induce a period of "global cooling"

29 Projected Effects of Global Warming and the Resulting Changes in Global Climate

30 Global Cooling Global cooling: natural
Planetary albedo – low, thick clouds reflect sunlight, prevent warming Volcanoes – dust reflect radiation Sulfate aerosols – from pollutants, create haze, reflecting sunlight

31 Cap and Trade System The goal: To steadily reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions economy-wide in a cost-effective manner. The cap: Each large-scale emitter, or company, will have a limit on the amount of greenhouse gas that it can emit. The trade: It will be cheaper or easier for some companies to reduce their emissions below their required limit than others. These more efficient companies, who emit less than their allowance, can sell their extra permits to companies that are not able to make reductions as easily.

32 Output solutions Massive global tree planting; how many?
Wangari Maathai Great Wall of Trees: China and Africa Plant fast-growing perennials on degraded land Capturing and storing CO2

33 Fifteen Ways to Cut CO2 Emissions

34 We Can Prepare for the Harmful Effects of Climate Change
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions as much as possible Move people from low-lying coastal areas Limit coastal building Remove hazardous material storage tanks away from the coast Genetically engineer crops more tolerant to drought Stockpile 1–5 years of key foods Waste less water Connect wildlife reserves with corridors

35 REVIEW 1. Name the 5 greenhouse gases.
2. What is the main greenhouse gas? 3. Why is the greenhouse effect good for our planet? Why is it harmful? 4. Name 3 sources of CO2 and CH4. 5. Name 2 sinks for CO2. 6. List 5 effects of global warming. 7. List 5 things you can do to reduce global warming. 8. How can we prepare for global warming? 9. Name 3 sources of global cooling.


37 THE OZONE LAYER O3 Located in the stratosphere
Absorbs most of the UV light from the sun UV light can cause genetic damage to living organisms- can cause skin cancer, faster aging, and cataracts, can kill one-celled organisms (phytoplankton) that live in the surface of the ocean, and interfere with photosynthesis, resulting in lower crop yields The ozone in the stratosphere acts as a sunscreen for Earth and its inhabitants.

38 OZONE EATERS CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) – used in refrigerants, air conditioners, styrofoam and propellants because they are chemically stable- they do not break down into other substances or combine with other substances. They are unreactive, odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic, noncorrosive and inexpensive to make. BUT, they do break apart in the stratosphere.

39 CFCs CFCs that are released in the troposphere can take years to float into the stratosphere. One single chlorine atom can destroy 10,000 + ozone molecules and remain in the stratosphere years!

40 STOPPING THE OZONE EATERS 75-85% of the ozone loss was from CFCs and other ozone depleting chemicals
CFC containing products have been banned, and the ozone hole is getting smaller. CFCs remain active for more than 30 years, so it will take decades for the layer to recover THE NUMBER 1 SOURCE OF CFCs IS LEAKING AIR CONDITIONERS!

41 CFCs A greenhouse gas AND an ozone-depleting chemical.

42 video clip from Teacher’s Domain

43 REVIEW 1. In what layer of the earth’s atmosphere is the ozone layer? 2. Why is the ozone layer beneficial? 3. What is the main chemical that affects the ozone layer? 4. Why was this chemical used in so many products? 6. What is the main source of CFC emissions?

44 You fill your tank with 13 gallons of gas
You fill your tank with 13 gallons of gas. How much CO2 will be produced by burning this amount of CO2? 13 gallons X 20 poundsCO2 = pounds gallon How much CO2 is produced if you use 150 kWh of electricity in a month? 150 kWh x 2 pounds = pounds CO kWh

45 The average amount of CO2 per capita produced in America is 19
The average amount of CO2 per capita produced in America is 19.8 tons, which is 39, 600 pounds!

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