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DD DD GG GG GG MM MM MM AA AA L LL LL LL L Layout.

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Presentation on theme: "DD DD GG GG GG MM MM MM AA AA L LL LL LL L Layout."— Presentation transcript:

1 DD DD GG GG GG MM MM MM AA AA L LL LL LL L Layout

2 What Is Layout Planning? What centres should the layout include? How much space and capacity does each centre need? How should each centres space be configured? Where should each centre be located?

3 Strategic Issues Facilitating the flow of materials Increasing the efficient utilization of labour and equipment Increasing customer convenience Reducing hazards to workers Improving employee morale Improving communication

4 Criteria for a Good Layout Maximum flexibility Maximum co-ordination Maximum use of volume Maximum visibility Maximum accessibility

5 Criteria for a Good Layout Minimum distance Minimum handling Minimum discomfort Inherent safety Maximum security Efficient material flow Identification

6 Layout Types Process Layout Product Layout Fixed-Position Layout Hybrid Layout - Cells

7 Layout Types - Process Layout

8 Organizes resources around the process and groups work stations or departments according to function Intermittent, low volume, high-variety

9 Layout Types - Process Layout Foundry Milling machines LathesGrinding PaintingDrills Office Welding Forging (a) Layout of a job shop

10 Layout Types - Process Layout (a) Layout of a job shop Foundry Milling machines LathesGrinding PaintingDrills Office Welding Forging

11 Layout Types - Process Layout (a) Layout of a job shop Foundry Milling machines LathesGrinding PaintingDrills Office Welding Forging

12 Layout Types - Process Layout (a) Layout of a job shop Foundry Milling machines LathesGrinding PaintingDrills Office Welding Forging

13 Layout Types - Process Layout Foundry Milling machines LathesGrinding PaintingDrills Office Welding Forging (a) Layout of a job shop

14 Layout Types - Process Layout Advantages General purpose, flexible resources are less capital intensive Less vulnerable to changes in product mix or new market strategies Equipment utilization can be higher, because not dedicated to one product line Employee supervision can be more specialized

15 Layout Types - Process Layout Disadvantages –Slower processing rates –Lost production time during setups –More capital and more floor space tied up with inventory –Longer manufacturing lead times –Costly materials handling, requiring variable path devices –Production planning and control more difficult

16 Layout Types - Process Layout A major challenge in designing process layouts is to identify dominant flow patterns among the jumbled traffic and to locate centres so that materials handling is minimized.

17 Layout Types - Product Layout

18 Dedicates resources to a product or closely related product family Repetitive, high-volume, continuous production Workstations or departments are arranged in a linear path, which is consistent with the routing sequence of the product.

19 Layout Types - Product Layout (b) Layout of a production line Station 1Station 2Station 3Station 4

20 Layout Types - Product Layout (b) Layout of a production line Station 1Station 2Station 3Station 4

21 Layout Types - Product Layout (b) Layout of a production line Station 1Station 2Station 3Station 4

22 Layout Types - Product Layout Station 1Station 2Station 3Station 4 (b) Layout of a production line

23 Layout Types - Product Layout Advantages Faster processing rates Lower inventories Infrequent setups

24 Layout Types - Product Layout Disadvantages –More risk of layout redesign –Less flexible –For low volume, dedicated resources have low utilization

25 Layout Types - Product Layout Challenge in designing product layouts –Minimize resources used to achieve desired output rate –Balance tasks, equalize the workload assigned to resources

26 Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout

27 Product is fixed in place. Resources come to the product, minimizing number of times product must be moved. Used for: Very large products, ships, roads, power plants, airplanes Service of fragile or bulky items

28 Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout Product Process

29 Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout Advantages –Material movement is reduced to a minimum. –The task is usually carried out by a gang of operators, hence continuity of operators and responsibility is required. –Production centres often operate independently of each other, and effective scheduling can be planned to ensure minimum total production time.

30 Layout Types - Fixed-position Layout Limitations –Movement of machines and equipment to the production centre may be costly and time consuming. –Positioning of the material or object or machines may be cumbersome and costly. –Machine and equipment utilisation is usually low, owing to handling and positioning time. –High grades of skill are required.

31 Muthers P-Q Chart

32 Group Technology

33 Machine 1 Machine 2 Machine 3 Machine 4 Machine 5 Materials in Finished goods out One Worker, Multiple Machines

34 Group Technology

35 Parts Families Source: Mikell P. Groover. Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1980, p Used by permission.

36 Group Technology

37 Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

38 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

39 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells Drilling DD DD Grinding GG GG GG Milling MM MM MM Assembly AA AA Lathing Receiving and shipping L LL LL LL L

40 Group Technology (a) Jumbled flows in a job shop without GT cells

41 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

42 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

43 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

44 Group Technology (b) Line flows in a job shop with three GT cells Cell 3 LM G G Cell 1 Cell 2 Assembly area A A L M D L L M Shipping D Receiving G

45

46 Longhorn Machine

47 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Department Area Needed(ft 2 ) 1 Burr and grind NC equipment950 3 Shipping and receiving750 4 Lathes and drills Tool crib800 6 Inspection700 Total5400

48 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Department Area Needed(ft 2 ) 1 Burr and grind NC equipment950 3 Shipping and receiving750 4 Lathes and drills Tool crib800 6 Inspection700 Total5400 Figure 10.6

49 60' 90' Longhorn Machine

50 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Trips Between Departments Department Burr and grind 2 NC equipment 3 Shipping and receiving 4 Lathes and drills 5 Tool crib 6 Inspection

51 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Trips Between Departments Department Burr and grind NC equipment Shipping and receiving Lathes and drills70 5 Tool crib 6 Inspection

52 60' 90' Longhorn Machine

53 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Closeness Rating Between Departments Department Burr and grind 2 NC equipment 3 Shipping and receiving 4 Lathes and drills 5 Tool crib 6 Inspection

54 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Closeness Rating Between Departments Department Burr and grind 2 NC equipment 3 Shipping and receiving 4 Lathes and drills 5 Tool crib 6 Inspection Closeness Rating Rating Definition AAbsolutely necessary EEspecially important IImportant OOrdinary closeness UUnimportant XUndesirable

55 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Closeness Rating Between Departments Department Burr and grindEUIUA 2 NC equipmentOUEI 3 Shipping and receivingOUA 4 Lathes and drillsEX 5 Tool cribU 6 Inspection Closeness Rating Rating Definition AAbsolutely necessary EEspecially important IImportant OOrdinary closeness UUnimportant XUndesirable

56 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Closeness Rating Between Departments Department Burr and grindEUIUA 2 NC equipmentOUEI 3 Shipping and receivingOUA 4 Lathes and drillsEX 5 Tool cribU 6 Inspection Explanation Codes Code Meaning 1Materials handling 2Shared personnel 3Ease of supervision 4Space utilization 5Noise 6Employee attitudes

57 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Closeness Rating Between Departments Department Burr and grindEUIUA (3, 1)(2, 1)(1) 2 NC equipmentOUEI (1)(1)(6) 3 Shipping and receivingOUA(1) 4 Lathes and drillsEX (1)(5) 5 Tool cribU 6 Inspection Explanation Codes Code Meaning 1Materials handling 2Shared personnel 3Ease of supervision 4Space utilization 5Noise 6Employee attitudes

58 60' 90' Longhorn Machine

59 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together Figure 10.6

60 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' 43 Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together Example 10.1

61 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' 43 Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together 6 Example 10.1

62 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' 43 Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together 61 Example 10.1

63 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' 43 Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together Example 10.1

64 60' 90' Longhorn Machine 60' 90' 43 Departments 3 and 6 close together Departments 1 and 6 close together Departments 2 and 5 close together Departments 4 and 5 close together Figure 10.7

65 60' 90' Longhorn Machine

66 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Trips Between Departments Department Burr and grind NC equipment Shipping and receiving Lathes and drills70 5 Tool crib 6 Inspection Example 10.2

67 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan DeptClosenessDistanceDistance PairFactor, ld ld Scoredld Score 1,220 1,420 1,680 2,310 2,575 3,415 3,690 4,570 Example 10.2

68 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan DeptClosenessDistanceDistance PairFactor, ld ld Scoredld Score 1,2203 1,4202 1,6802 2,3102 2,5752 3,4151 3,6903 4,5701 Example 10.2

69 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan DeptClosenessDistanceDistance PairFactor, ld ld Scoredld Score 1, , , , , , , , ld =785 Example 10.2

70 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan DeptClosenessDistanceDistance PairFactor, ld ld Scoredld Score 1, , , , , , , , ld =785 ld =400 Example 10.2

71 60' 90' Longhorn Machine Load Distance Analysis Current Plan Proposed Plan DeptClosenessDistanceDistance PairFactor, ld ld Scoredld Score 1, , , , , , , , ld =785 ld =400 Example 10.2

72 A-1 Distribution Systems

73 Figure 10.8 DockAisle Storage area

74 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks) 1.Toasters Air conditioners Microwaves Stereos TVs Radios Bulk storage1002 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area

75 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = 80 3.Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 50 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area

76 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area

77 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area

78 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area 3

79 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area 3 1

80 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Example 10.3 DockAisle Storage area

81 A-1 Distribution Systems Trips to andArea Needed Departmentfrom Dock(blocks)RatioRank 1.Toasters /1 = Air conditioners /2 = Microwaves /1 = Stereos /3 = TVs /4 = Radios /1 = Bulk storage /2 = 507 Figure 10.9 DockAisle Storage area

82 Zone Systems

83 Shipping doors Tractor trailer Zones Figure 10.10

84 Zone Systems Click to add title Zones Shipping doors Tractor trailer Feeder lines Figure 10.10

85 Zone Systems Click to add title Zones Control station Shipping doors Tractor trailer Feeder lines Figure 10.10

86 Zone Systems Click to add title Zones Trunk line Control station Shipping doors Tractor trailer Overflow Feeder lines Figure 10.10

87 Addison Wesley Longman Distribution Center

88 Line Balancing Green Grass, Inc. Big Broadcaster

89 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster

90 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) Example 10.4

91 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) Example 10.4

92 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) 40 A Example 10.4

93 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) B A Example 10.4

94 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) B C A 30 Example 10.4

95 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) D B C A Example 10.4

96 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) E D B C A Example 10.4

97 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) E D B F C A Example 10.4

98 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) E D B F C A G Example 10.4

99 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) E H D B F C A G Example 10.4

100 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster ABolt leg frame to hopper40None BInsert impeller shaft30A CAttach axle50A DAttach agitator40B EAttach drive wheel6B FAttach free wheel25C GMount lower post15C HAttach controls20D, E IMount nameplate18F, G Total244 WorkTimeImmediate ElementDescription(sec)Predecessor(s) E H I D B F C A G Example 10.4

101 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Figure 10.11

102 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week Example 10.5

103 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week r = 2400/40 = 60 units/hour Example 10.5

104 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week r = 2400/40 = 60 units/hour c = 1/60 = 1 minute/unit = 60 seconds/unit Example 10.5

105 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week c = 60 seconds/unit Example 10.5

106 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 244 seconds/60 seconds = or 5 stations Example 10.5

107 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G Desired output rate = 2400/week Plant operates 40 hours/week TM = 244 seconds/60 seconds = or 5 stations Efficiency = [244\5(60)]100 = 81.3% c = 60 seconds/unit Example 10.5

108 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% Example 10.6

109 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime Example 10.6

110 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 Example 10.6

111 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 Example 10.6

112 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S1 Example 10.6

113 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S1 Example 10.6

114 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S1 Example 10.6

115 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S1 S2 Example 10.6

116 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 S1 S2 Example 10.6

117 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 S1 S2 Example 10.6

118 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 S1 S2 Example 10.6

119 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 E,F,GF555 S1 S2 Example 10.6

120 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 E,F,GF555 S1 S2 Example 10.6

121 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% CummIdle StationCandidateChoiceTimeTime S1AA4020 S2B,CC5010 S3B,F,GB3030 E,F,GF555 S1 S2 S3 Example 10.6

122 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% S1 S2 S3 Example 10.6

123 Line Balancing Big Broadcaster E H I D B F C A G c = 60 seconds/unit TM = 5 stations Efficiency = 81.3% S1 S2 S3 S5 S4 Figure 10.12


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