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Lecture 11 Lecture 10 Air & Noise Pollution.

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1 Lecture 11 Lecture 10 Air & Noise Pollution

2 The Atmosphere thin, gaseous envelope of air around Earth
we live at the bottom of this sea of air

3 The atmosphere is divided into the:

4 Troposphere atmosphere’s inner layer contains most of Earth’s air
N2 ( 78% ), O2 ( 21% ), CO2 ( 0.04% ) weather occurs here temperature drops with an increase in altitude

5 Stratosphere layer above troposphere temperature rises with altitude
our global sunscreen

6 Stratosphere cont’d contains O3 “good ozone”
ozone layer prevents 99% of harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching Earth’s surface

7 Ozone in the Troposphere (Pollutant)
Trace amounts of O3 that form in the troposphere as a component of urban smog cause damage to: • plants • materials, e.g., rubber • respiratory systems of humans & other animals

8 What is Air Pollution? one or more chemicals in high enough concentrations in the air to: 1) harm organisms or materials 2) alter climate these chemicals are called air pollutants.

9 Sources of Air Pollution
Natural events (e.g., volcanic eruptions, dust storms) 2. Human activities (e.g., emissions from cars and smoke stacks)

10 Major Air Pollutants Carbon Dioxide ( CO2) linked to global warming
2. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Linked to global warming, acid deposition 3. Nitrogen Oxides Linked to global warming

11 Major Classes of Air Pollutants cont’d
4. Volatile Organic Compounds - e.g., methane, propane, benzene, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) found in paints and protective coatings have long-term health risks including: compromised immune system in infants respiratory disorders

12 Major Classes of Air Pollutants cont’d
5. Suspended Particles - e.g., solid particles (dust, asbestos, soot) - e.g., liquid droplets (pesticides, sulfuric acid) - linked to respiratory disorders

13 Types of Air Pollutants
Primary Pollutant - chemical, that occurs in a harmful concentration, added directly to the air by natural events or human activities e.g. sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide

14 Types of Air Pollutants cont’d
Secondary Pollutant - harmful chemical formed in atmosphere when a primary air pollutant reacts with the normal air components or with other air pollutants e.g. ozone, sulphur trioxide

15 Urban Air Pollution Smog - originally a combination of smoke & fog
- now describes other mixtures in the atmosphere

16 Urban Air Pollution cont’d
Industrial Smog - consists mainly of a mixture of sulfur dioxide, suspended droplets of sulfuric acid and a variety of suspended solid particles - found in cities that burn large amounts of coal and heavy oil which contain sulfur impurities


18 Effects of Climate & Topography on Air Pollution
Areas with high average annual precipitation, help cleanse the air of pollutants. Winds help sweep pollutants away and bring in fresh air. Hills & mountains reduce the flow of air in valleys below and allow pollutant levels to build up at ground level.

19 Effects of Climate & Topography on Air Pollution cont’d
Buildings in cities slow wind speed & reduce dilution and removal of pollutants. The process of hot air rising and cold air sinking causing continual mixing of air, helps keep pollutants from reaching dangerous levels near the ground.

20 Temperature Inversion
also called thermal inversion a layer of warm air settles over a layer of cooler air that lies near the ground. the warm air holds down the cool air and prevents pollutants from rising and scattering allowing them to build up to harmful levels


22 Smoke rising in Lochcarron, Scotland is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air – thermal inversion

23 Acid Deposition the falling of acids and acid-forming compounds from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface commonly known as acid rain

24 Acid Rain refers only to wet deposition of droplets of acids and acid-forming compounds natural precipitation is slightly acidic (pH ) acid rain can have a pH of 4.3 or 3 (as acidic as vinegar)

25 Harmful Effects of Acid Deposition
contributes to human respiratory diseases damages foliage and weaken trees contaminate fish damages statues, buildings, metals, & car finishes releases aluminium ions which damage tree roots

26 Greenhouse Effect natural effect that traps heat in the troposphere
some of the heat flowing back toward space from Earth’s surface is absorbed, by H2O vapour, CO2, O3 and other gases, then radiated back toward Earth’s surface


28 Greenhouse Gases gases in the troposphere that cause the greenhouse effect include: carbon dioxide chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) ozone methane water vapour nitrous oxide

29 Greenhouse Gases cont‘d
the 2 predominant greenhouse gases are: water vapour carbon dioxide if the atmospheric concentrations of these gases increase, the average temperature of the troposphere will gradually rise

30 Global Warming warming of atmosphere due to increases in the concentrations of one or more greenhouse gases primarily as a result of human activities, mainly: burning of fossil fuels use of CFCs agriculture deforestation                                                

31 Global Warming cont’d In recent decades certain greenhouse gases have increased in concentration: carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide CFCs CO2 contributes to ~ 55% of global warming.

32 Global Warming cont’d

33 Possible Impacts of Global Warming on Caribbean States
disastrous for ecosystems e.g. coral reefs (coral bleaching) alter climatic conditions faster than some species could adapt shift food-growing areas rise in sea levels due to melting of icecaps and glaciers may flood coastal settlements

34 Meltwater from Ice Sheet in Greenland flowing into ocean

35 Possible Impacts of Global Warming on Caribbean States cont’d
more frequent and fierce hurricanes disastrous for economic and social systems

36 Ozone Layer layer of gaseous ozone that protects life on Earth by filtering out harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun being depleted by CFCs, halons and other chemicals

37 CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons
used in air conditioners, refrigerators, aerosol spray cans, cleaners for electronic parts, hospital sterilants, fumigants, plastic foam ozone eaters

38 Impact of Ozone Depletion
increased cases of cancer & cataracts suppression of human immune system lowers crop yield degradation of materials reduction in phytoplankton

39 Noise Pollution - any unwanted, disturbing or harmful sound that impairs or interferes with hearing, causes stress, hampers concentration and work efficiency or causes accidents

40 Impact of Noise Pollution
permanent hearing loss hypertension insomnia irritability migraine headaches muscle tension gastric (stress) ulcers psychological disorders (eg, increased aggression)

41 Solutions to Air & Noise Pollution
enforce air & noise pollution laws use emission control devices ban or limit smoking to well-ventilated areas tax each unit of pollution produced use office machines in well-ventilated areas shift to less polluting energy sources increase intake of outdoor air car exhaust inspections

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