Presentation on theme: "GLOBAL WARMING DR. V. SUNDARARAJ, Dean (Retd.),"— Presentation transcript:
1GLOBAL WARMING DR. V. SUNDARARAJ, Dean (Retd.), Fisheries College & Res. Inst.,DIRECTOR (TECHNICAL)Asian Analytical Laboratories, Palavakkam, Chennai – 41.Ph: / 87; mob:
2The Earth Sea / oceans ---------------- 70% Land %Ice %(Antarctica and Greenland)
3The Earth and its climate Earth receives energy from the sun (radiation)Earth reflects about 30% of the solar radiationAbsorbs 70% of the radiation ( warming the land atmosphere oceans)Visible radiation heats up the earth nor the atmosphere.Constantly changing over 5 billion yearsSometimes, climate has warmed, oceans have risen, much earth covered.Earth average surface temperature : CWarmer than it would be with out greenhouse effect.
4Atmosphere Covers the earth A thin layer of mixed gases, which makes up the air we breath.Helps to avoid the earth becoming too cold or too hot.
5Global WarmingWarming of the Globe (Earth) due to solar radiation and emission of gases including human activities.GLOBAL
7GLOBAL WARMING Not from yesterday Its for years ago For hundreds of years;Impact is not immediateYet, very serious
8Average composition of the atmosphere up to an altitude of 25km Sl. No.Gas NameChemical FormulaPercent Volume1234567891011NitrogenOxygen*Water vapourArgon*Carbon dioxideNeonHelium*MethaneHydrogen*Nitrous oxide*ozoneN2O2H2OArCO2NeHeCH4H2N2OO3*Variable gases78.08%20.95%0 – 4%0.93%0.0360%0.0018%0.0005%%%%%
11GreenhouseA structure with glass or plastic roof and frequently with glass or plastic walls for heating inside to warm plants, soil and other things kept inside.Glass – A selective transmission medium.Effective to trap energy within the greenhouse.
12Greenhouse gases Components of atmosphere Contribute to greenhouse effectSome GHG occur naturally in atmosphereOthers result from human activities(Burning of fossil fuels)
13Greenhouse gases Major: Water vapour 36 - 70% (clouds not included ) Carbon dioxide %Methane %Ozone %Other Greenhouse gases:Nitrous oxideSulfur hexafluorideHydrofluorocarbonsPerfluorocarbonsChlorofluorocarbons
14GREENHOUSE GASESThis graph shows the distribution of GHG in Earth's atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide is clearly the majority.
22When do we send greenhouse gases into the Air? Whenever we……Watch TVUse the ACTurn on a lightPlay video gamesListen to stereoWash/Dry clothesUse hair dryerRide in a carUse a dish washerMicrowave a meal
23Main sources of GHG due to human activities Burning of fossil fuelsDeforestationLive stock, paddy, wetland changes (Methane)Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)(In refrigeration systems)Agricultural activities (fertilizers) – nitrous oxide concentration
24Green house effect It is important Responsible for warming of earth Warm enough for human livingIf effect is more?Problems for Humans, plants and animals
25Diagram to help explain the how greenhouse gases create the "greenhouse effect"
26Importance of greenhouse effect Present temperature of the earth - 57ºF (14ºC).If there is no green house effect – temperature would be 0ºF (-18ºC)Can we live?Can other organisms thrive?Greenhouse effect is required also.
27By the end of the 21st century = 490 – 1260 ppm Greenhouse gases (Specifically CO2) in pre-industrial and post-industrial periodsPre-industrial periodPost-industrial periodAbout 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv)370 ppmvBy the end of the 21st century = 490 – 1260 ppm
28Atmospheric life time and GWP of greenhouse gases Sl.NoGHGAtmospheric Lifetime (yrs.)Global warming Potential (GWP)1CO22Methane12 + 362 (over 20 yrs.)3Nitrous oxide120296 over 100 yrs.4CFC – 1210010,6005HCFC – 2212.15,7006Tetra fluromethane50,0007Sulphur hexafluoride3,20022,000
29CO2 A colorless, odorless non-flammable gas Most important Greenhouse gas in earth’s atmosphereRecycled through the atmosphere by photosynthesisHuman and over 30 billion tons of CO2 anually in the atmosphere by the above processCO2 emission into the air due toHumans exhaleBurning of fossil fuelDeforest the planet
30Seven Sources of CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion Solid fuels (eg. Coal) – 35%Liquid fuels (eg. Petrol) – 36%Gaseous fuels (eg. Natural gas) – 20%Flaring gas industrially and at walls - <1%Cement production – 3%Non fuel hydrocarbons - <1%International bunkers of shipping and air transport – 4%
31CO2 Release into the Atmosphere Burning fossil fuels for drivingBurning fossil fuels for flyingBurning fossil fuels for sailingBurning fossil fuels for ElectricityBurning fossil fuels for HeatingBurning fossil fuels for coolingBurning fossil fuels for cooking
32CO2 Production and Utilization Release of CO2 by average American/yr. – 30,000 pounds(Through personal transportation and home energy needs)Utilization of CO2 by single tropical tree over its life time – 2,000 pounds50 pounds /yr. over 40 years)Trees must be planted at the rate of 15/person to offset CO2 release
33Methane Often called swamp gas Colourless, odorless, flammable gas Formed when plants decay, while air is very littleOften called swamp gas Abundant in swampy areasBacterial breaking of organic matter in wetlandsBacteria found in livestock produce naturallyAnnually 350 – 500 million tons of methane is added to the atmosphere (due to livestock - cows, sheep, goats, buffalos, camels and also terminates), coal mining, drilling for oil, rice cultivation etc.,)
34Nitrous oxide Colourless greenhouse gas Has a sweet odor Used as an anesthetic (Deadens pain)Known as laughing gasReleased naturally from oceans and soil bacteriaRisen more than 15% since 1750Annual addition to the atmosphere is 7-13 million tons (due to fertilizer application, disposal of human and animal waste, automobile exhaust, etc.,)
35FluorocarbonsA term for a group of synthetic organic compounds, containing fluorine and carbonCan be easily converted from gas to liquid and liquid to gasBecause of this, fluorocarbons can be used in aerosol cans, refrigerators and air conditioners.They do harm to the atmosphereBanned for production in the US
36Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Do not harm or breakdown the ozone moleculeBut trap heat in the atmosphereUsed in air-conditioners
371996 PROCESSES CARBON DIOXIDE WAS PRODUCED Country (region)OILNatural GasCoalWorld44.7%18.4%36.9%Canada51.8%30%18.2%United States45%21.3%33.7%European Union56.2%19%24.8%China17.4%1.1%81.5%Japan64.6%9.9%25.5%This chart shows what percentage of CO2 comes from Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal. For example, in 1996, 44.7% of the world's CO2 emissions came from the combustion of oil
39What Effect Do Greenhouse Gases Have on Climate Change?
40Effects of Global Warming AttributedGlacier retreatIce shelf disruptionSea level riseChange in rainfall patternFrequent extreme weather events
41Expected effects: Water scarcity Increased precipitation Changes in mountain snow packAdverse health effectsIncreasing deathsDisplacementsEconomic losses
42Additional anticipated effects: Sea level rises of 110 to 770mm ( ft) between 1990 – 2100.Repercussions to agriculture.Slowing of thermocline circulation.Reduction in ozone layerIncreased intensity and frequency of hurricanes.Extreme weather events.Lowering of ocean pH.Spreading of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever.18-35% samples-animal and plant species would be extinct by 2050.
44EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT Glaciers and polar ice caps melting.Floods & droughts becoming more.Increasing sea levels ( 4-10 inches since 1990).We might get 2 feet sea rise by 2100.Freshwater salinity will increase.Coastal lands will be immersed.Warmer water and increased humidity will encourage tropical cyclones.
45Many problems are due to Co2 related pollutants ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTHCO2, a global pollutant does not adversely impact the local environment – common beliefMany problems are due to Co2 related pollutantsToxic organic micro pollutants:Respiratory problemsAsthma attackspremature death
46Inabilty of blood to carry O2 b) Sulphur oxides:Acid rainSmogc) Carbon monoxide:Inabilty of blood to carry O2Affects healthNeurological impairmentheart problemsLung problems
50EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT FLOODING
51EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT TyphoonDroughts
52EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SOCIETY Food productionGlobal warming – Good for human raceHelps in improving food production.Climate – Determinant factor in Agriculture.Warming – better than cooling for food production.CO2 - essential nutrient for food production.Food – the most important resource for our life.Temperature rise – more land for agriculture (towards poles) - Longer growing season.
53ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH Loss of lifeInsects and other pests migrate towards earth’s pole.They migrate up to 550 km (or 550 miles).Some insects carry diseases- like malaria and dengue fever.Thus diseases increase & spread leading to a 50 – 80 million additional malaria cases annually – 10 – 15% increase.Heat itself has effect on health.Heat waves - heart stroke, heart attacksJuly 1995 heat wave in Chicago- killed 700 people.Hot conditions cause smoke particles and noxious gases-linger in air-accelerate chemical reactions & generate other pollutants- result in bronchitis and asthma.
54ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH -CONTD Oceans become warm and expand – result in sea level rising.Coastal people have to move away.Bangladesh – cannot build a coastal wall.Maldive islands (1190 islands) – Avg height – 1.5 mts above sea level – more than 2,00,000 people will have to abandon their homes.Ocean warming – promote toxic algae – red tide – fish mass kill – birds kill – cholera etc..
55IMPACT ON FISHERIESFisheries are directly and strongly affected by variations in the natural conditions.Habitat conditions decide the productivity and location of fish stocks (migration).3. Fish are more sensitive to temperature than many animals because they cannot maintain a constant body temperature.4. Different fish species live in different temperature zones and they are accordingly adapted.
56IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 5. Fish need more food and more oxygen when temperature increases.6. Rainbow trout grow significantly more slowly when temperature rises by 2o C and food is limited.7. A warming of 3o C will double the food requirement of Arctic trout.8. Dissolved oxygen and temperature are negatively related and hence in high temperature (global warming) oxygen will be insufficient.9. Even 1- 2oC rise may cause mass mortality.
57IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 10. Warm water fishes mature more quickly – 90% of such fish species are small in size than those in cooler waters.11. Rise in temperature leads to less fish off springs.12. Some may not be able to reproduce at all.13. Tropical Guppies produce smaller broods.14. Grass carp ovulate less frequently in warmer waters.
58IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 15. Temperate species like Salmon and Sturgeon cannot spawn at all, if winter temperatures do not drop below a certain level.16. Global warming has drastically brought down, the fishery of the much preferred quality fish Lactarius lactarius.17. When the water temperature increases, fish head out to cooler water areas.18.When fish in the Gulf of Alaska moved deep in 1993, 1,22,000 sea birds starved to death.
59IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 19. As water warms up, many microbes and parasites grow faster and become more virulent.20. Fish species suffer heavily due to diseases.21. Due to temperature increase (supported by nutrients) algal blooms (including red tides) occur and mass mortality of marine organisms occur either due to production of toxin or reduction of oxygen.
60IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 22. Increased warming has led to the extinction of 20 species which are found nowhere in the world.23. Global warming has resulted in coral bleaching and the loss of symbiotic bacteria that corals depend upon.25. Events like the El Nino has put off 1500 boats, 200 processing plants and 1,00,000 people out of work in the Peruvian Anchoveta fishery.
93Seven steps to curb global warming 1. Global carbon pricing2. Global satellite monitoring of GHG emissions3. Compensating developing countries for preserving rainforest4. Creation of a global market for responsible biofuel5. Creation and furtherance of markets for renewable electricity6. Global moratorium on building new coal-fired power stations7. Creation of global incentives for developing countries
94Solution for Global Warming Reduce use of fossil fuelProtect rainforests as “Carbon store houses”Plant tropical trees and compensate rainforests being lostDevelop Plantations for biodiesel production
95GLOBAL WARNING Global Warming Is Avoid Pollution, Protect Nature, Promote Plantation,andUse Biodiesel
96“Energy Independence is the lifeline of a nation” BIO-DIESEL MISSION“Energy Independence is the lifeline of a nation”
97CONTACT FOR CONSULTANCY PROJECTS..Aquaculture,environment,water treatmentAquariums ANDProject monitoringDr.V.Sundararaj –Dr.D.YuvarajAsian Analytical Laboratories Pvt Ltd,4/2, Bharathiar St, Palavakkam, Chennai ,Ph;