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The Earth Sea / oceans ---------------- 70% Land-------------------------27% Ice --------------------------- 3% (Antarctica and Greenland)

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Presentation on theme: "The Earth Sea / oceans ---------------- 70% Land-------------------------27% Ice --------------------------- 3% (Antarctica and Greenland)"— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Earth Sea / oceans % Land % Ice % (Antarctica and Greenland)

3 The Earth and its climate Earth receives energy from the sun (radiation) Earth reflects about 30% of the solar radiation Absorbs 70% of the radiation ( warming the land atmosphere oceans) Visible radiation heats up the earth nor the atmosphere. Constantly changing over 5 billion years Sometimes, climate has warmed, oceans have risen, much earth covered. Earth average surface temperature : C Warmer than it would be with out greenhouse effect.

4 Atmosphere Covers the earth A thin layer of mixed gases, which makes up the air we breath. Helps to avoid the earth becoming too cold or too hot.

5 Global Warming Warming of the Globe (Earth) due to solar radiation and emission of gases including human activities.

6 THE PROCESS OF GLOBAL WARMING

7 GLOBAL WARMING Not from yesterday Its for years ago For hundreds of years; Impact is not immediate Yet, very serious

8 Average composition of the atmosphere up to an altitude of 25km Sl. No.Gas NameChemical FormulaPercent Volume Nitrogen Oxygen *Water vapour Argon *Carbon dioxide Neon Helium *Methane Hydrogen *Nitrous oxide *ozone N 2 O 2 H 2 O Ar CO 2 Ne He CH 4 H 2 N 2 O O 3 *Variable gases 78.08% 20.95% 0 – 4% 0.93% % % % % % % %

9 CAUSES ? ? ? ?

10 GREENHOUSES

11 Greenhouse A structure with glass or plastic roof and frequently with glass or plastic walls for heating inside to warm plants, soil and other things kept inside. Glass – A selective transmission medium. Effective to trap energy within the greenhouse.

12 Greenhouse gases Components of atmosphere Contribute to greenhouse effect Some GHG occur naturally in atmosphere Others result from human activities (Burning of fossil fuels)

13 Greenhouse gases Major: Water vapour % (clouds not included ) Carbon dioxide % Methane 4 - 9% Ozone 3 - 7% Other Greenhouse gases: Nitrous oxide Sulfur hexafluoride Hydrofluorocarbons Perfluorocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons

14 This graph shows the distribution of GHG in Earth's atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide is clearly the majority. GREENHOUSE GASES

15 Emissions of Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Methane (CH 4 ) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Hydrofluro carbons Sulphur dioxide Perfluro carbons

16 Pie chart shows how CO2 is produced CARBON DIOXIDE

17 Deforestation and Forest Fires contribute to an increase in CO2 levels Cars also contribute to CO2 in the atmosphere. CARBON DIOXIDE

18 Cows such as these contribute a large amount of methane to the air. METHANE

19 CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS Refrigerators and Air Conditioners using CFC's were a huge problem for the ozone layer, but now HFC's are a problem for the climate.

20 CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS-Problems

21 WORLD PRODUCTION CHLOROFLUOROCARBONS

22 When do we send greenhouse gases into the Air? Whenever we…… Watch TV Use the AC Turn on a light Play video games Listen to stereo Wash/Dry clothes Use hair dryer Ride in a car Use a dish washer Microwave a meal

23 Main sources of GHG due to human activities Burning of fossil fuels Deforestation Live stock, paddy, wetland changes (Methane) Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) (In refrigeration systems) Agricultural activities (fertilizers) – nitrous oxide concentration

24 Green house effect It is important Responsible for warming of earth Warm enough for human living If effect is more? Problems for Humans, plants and animals

25 Diagram to help explain the how greenhouse gases create the "greenhouse effect"

26 Importance of greenhouse effect Present temperature of the earth - 57ºF (14ºC). If there is no green house effect – temperature would be 0ºF (-18ºC) Can we live? Can other organisms thrive? Greenhouse effect is required also.

27 Greenhouse gases (Specifically CO2) in pre- industrial and post-industrial periods By the end of the 21st century = 490 – 1260 ppm Pre-industrial periodPost-industrial period About 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv) 370 ppmv

28 Atmospheric life time and GWP of greenhouse gases Sl.No GHGAtmospheric Lifetime (yrs.) Global warming Potential (GWP) 1CO Methane (over 20 yrs.) 3Nitrous oxide over 100 yrs. 4CFC – ,600 5HCFC – ,700 6Tetra fluromethane50,0005,700 7Sulphur hexafluoride3,20022,000

29 CO2 A colorless, odorless non-flammable gas Most important Greenhouse gas in earths atmosphere Recycled through the atmosphere by photosynthesis Human and over 30 billion tons of CO2 anually in the atmosphere by the above process CO2 emission into the air due to Humans exhale Burning of fossil fuel Deforest the planet

30 Seven Sources of CO2 due to fossil fuel combustion Solid fuels (eg. Coal) – 35% Liquid fuels (eg. Petrol) – 36% Gaseous fuels (eg. Natural gas) – 20% Flaring gas industrially and at walls - <1% Cement production – 3% Non fuel hydrocarbons - <1% International bunkers of shipping and air transport – 4%

31 Burning fossil fuels for driving Burning fossil fuels for flying Burning fossil fuels for sailing Burning fossil fuels for Electricity Burning fossil fuels for Heating Burning fossil fuels for cooling Burning fossil fuels for cooking CO2 Release into the Atmosphere

32 CO2 Production and Utilization Release of CO2 by average American/yr. – 30,000 pounds (Through personal transportation and home energy needs) Utilization of CO2 by single tropical tree over its life time – 2,000 pounds 50 pounds /yr. over 40 years) Trees must be planted at the rate of 15/person to offset CO2 release

33 Methane Often called swamp gas Colourless, odorless, flammable gas Formed when plants decay, while air is very little Often called swamp gas Abundant in swampy areas Bacterial breaking of organic matter in wetlands Bacteria found in livestock produce naturally Annually 350 – 500 million tons of methane is added to the atmosphere (due to livestock - cows, sheep, goats, buffalos, camels and also terminates), coal mining, drilling for oil, rice cultivation etc.,)

34 Nitrous oxide Colourless greenhouse gas Has a sweet odor Used as an anesthetic (Deadens pain) Known as laughing gas Released naturally from oceans and soil bacteria Risen more than 15% since 1750 Annual addition to the atmosphere is 7-13 million tons (due to fertilizer application, disposal of human and animal waste, automobile exhaust, etc.,)

35 Fluorocarbons A term for a group of synthetic organic compounds, containing fluorine and carbon Can be easily converted from gas to liquid and liquid to gas Because of this, fluorocarbons can be used in aerosol cans, refrigerators and air conditioners. They do harm to the atmosphere Banned for production in the US

36 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Do not harm or breakdown the ozone molecule But trap heat in the atmosphere Used in air-conditioners

37 1996 PROCESSES CARBON DIOXIDE WAS PRODUCED Country (region)OILNatural GasCoal World44.7%18.4%36.9% Canada51.8%30%18.2% United States45%21.3%33.7% European Union56.2%19%24.8% China17.4%1.1%81.5% Japan64.6%9.9%25.5% This chart shows what percentage of CO2 comes from Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal. For example, in 1996, 44.7% of the world's CO2 emissions came from the combustion of oil

38 IMPACTS.. ? !!!

39 What Effect Do Greenhouse Gases Have on Climate Change?

40 Effects of Global Warming Attributed Glacier retreat Ice shelf disruption Sea level rise Change in rainfall pattern Frequent extreme weather events

41 Expected effects: Water scarcity Increased precipitation Changes in mountain snow pack Adverse health effects Increasing deaths Displacements Economic losses

42 Additional anticipated effects: Sea level rises of 110 to 770mm ( ft) between 1990 – Repercussions to agriculture. Slowing of thermocline circulation. Reduction in ozone layer Increased intensity and frequency of hurricanes. Extreme weather events. Lowering of ocean pH. Spreading of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever % samples-animal and plant species would be extinct by 2050.

43 ×

44 EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT 1.Glaciers and polar ice caps melting. 2.Floods & droughts becoming more. 3.Increasing sea levels ( 4-10 inches since 1990). 4.We might get 2 feet sea rise by Freshwater salinity will increase. 6.Coastal lands will be immersed. 7.Warmer water and increased humidity will encourage tropical cyclones.

45 ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CO 2, a global pollutant does not adversely impact the local environment – common belief Many problems are due to Co2 related pollutants a) Toxic organic micro pollutants: Respiratory problems Asthma attacks premature death

46 b) Sulphur oxides: Acid rain Smog c) Carbon monoxide: Inabilty of blood to carry O2 Affects health Neurological impairment heart problems Lung problems

47 d) Nitrogen oxides: Lung damage Respiratory disorders (Also acid rain and smog) e) Arsenic: Highly toxic Carsinogenic f) Benzene: Highly toxic Carsinogenic Disrupts reproductive & Neurological systems Causes anaemia

48 g) Mercury: Highly toxic Affects child development Impairs brain function h) Lead: Highly toxic More so to children Neurological toxicant i) Ozone: Lung damage Respiratory impairment

49 j) Polycyclic organic matter: Carcinogenic Respiratory toxicant k) Formaldehyde: Carcinogen Respiratory impairment Asthma inducement Neurological toxicant l) 1, 3- Butadiene Carcinogen Respiratory impairment Cardio vascular disease

50 EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT FLOODING

51 Typhoon Droughts EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON ENVIRONMENT

52 EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING ON SOCIETY Food production 1.Global warming – Good for human race 2.Helps in improving food production. 3.Climate – Determinant factor in Agriculture. 4.Warming – better than cooling for food production. 5.CO 2 - essential nutrient for food production. 6.Food – the most important resource for our life. 7.Temperature rise – more land for agriculture (towards poles) - Longer growing season.

53 ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH 1.Loss of life 2.Insects and other pests migrate towards earths pole. 3.They migrate up to 550 km (or 550 miles). 4.Some insects carry diseases- like malaria and dengue fever. 5.Thus diseases increase & spread leading to a 50 – 80 million additional malaria cases annually – 10 – 15% increase. 6.Heat itself has effect on health. 7.Heat waves - heart stroke, heart attacks 8.July 1995 heat wave in Chicago- killed 700 people. 9.Hot conditions cause smoke particles and noxious gases-linger in air-accelerate chemical reactions & generate other pollutants- result in bronchitis and asthma.

54 ADVERSE IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH -CONTD Oceans become warm and expand – result in sea level rising. Coastal people have to move away. Bangladesh – cannot build a coastal wall. Maldive islands (1190 islands) – Avg height – 1.5 mts above sea level – more than 2,00,000 people will have to abandon their homes. Ocean warming – promote toxic algae – red tide – fish mass kill – birds kill – cholera etc..

55 IMPACT ON FISHERIES 1.Fisheries are directly and strongly affected by variations in the natural conditions. 2. Habitat conditions decide the productivity and location of fish stocks (migration). 3. Fish are more sensitive to temperature than many animals because they cannot maintain a constant body temperature. 4. Different fish species live in different temperature zones and they are accordingly adapted.

56 IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 5. Fish need more food and more oxygen when temperature increases. 6. Rainbow trout grow significantly more slowly when temperature rises by 2o C and food is limited. 7. A warming of 3o C will double the food requirement of Arctic trout. 8. Dissolved oxygen and temperature are negatively related and hence in high temperature (global warming) oxygen will be insufficient. 9. Even 1- 2 o C rise may cause mass mortality.

57 IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 10. Warm water fishes mature more quickly – 90% of such fish species are small in size than those in cooler waters. 11. Rise in temperature leads to less fish off springs. 12. Some may not be able to reproduce at all. 13. Tropical Guppies produce smaller broods. 14. Grass carp ovulate less frequently in warmer waters.

58 IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 15. Temperate species like Salmon and Sturgeon cannot spawn at all, if winter temperatures do not drop below a certain level. 16. Global warming has drastically brought down, the fishery of the much preferred quality fish Lactarius lactarius. 17. When the water temperature increases, fish head out to cooler water areas. 18.When fish in the Gulf of Alaska moved deep in 1993, 1,22,000 sea birds starved to death.

59 IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 19. As water warms up, many microbes and parasites grow faster and become more virulent. 20. Fish species suffer heavily due to diseases. 21. Due to temperature increase (supported by nutrients) algal blooms (including red tides) occur and mass mortality of marine organisms occur either due to production of toxin or reduction of oxygen.

60 IMPACT ON FISHERIES - CONTD 22. Increased warming has led to the extinction of 20 species which are found nowhere in the world. 23. Global warming has resulted in coral bleaching and the loss of symbiotic bacteria that corals depend upon. 25. Events like the El Nino has put off 1500 boats, 200 processing plants and 1,00,000 people out of work in the Peruvian Anchoveta fishery.

61 MITIGATION

62 Save Agriculture Protect farmers Produce your foods Avoid/ Reduce imports and transports

63 GLOBALIZATION…. Exports and Imports Required…? To what extent?

64 PAINTING HOUSES No oil paints Latex paints…. May be O.K NO VAASTU NO VASSTU COLOURS

65 HAVE ECO FRIENDLY HOUSES

66 USE ENERGY EFFICIENT ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES

67 NO OLD TYPE BULBS USE CFL BULBS ALSO ULTRA COMPACT LEDS- LIGHTS

68 USE TWO WHEELERS ELECTRIC SCOOTERS AND BICYCLES

69 IS NOT WALKING BETTER? TO CONTROL..BLOOD SUGAR BLOOD PRESSURE FAT DEPOSITION AND OVER WEIGHT

70 FOR LONG JOURNEYS PUBLIC TRANSPORT TRAIN REDUCE PERSONAL VEHICLES

71 HOW MANY CARS IN A HOUSE?

72 IS THIS CONGESTION REQUIRED? HOW MUCH RELEASE OF CO2

73 GENERATE WIND POWER

74 SOLUTIONS FOR PRODUCING "CLEANER"ENERGY Hydro Power plant on a river

75 PRODUCE SOLAR ENERGY

76 SUBJECT TO SAFETY HAVE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

77 Geothermal power plant

78 CREATE AWARENESS

79 LET THERE BE GREENERY - EVERYWHERE

80 PRODUCE ALGAL DIESEL

81 Nanochloropsis Nitzschia Bacteriococcus FROM HIGH FAT ALGAE Scenedemus – 16 – 40% Neochloris – 35 – 65% Nitzschia – 45 – 47% Isochrysis – 25 – 33% Nanochloropsis – 31 – 60% Bacteriococcus – 25 – 75%

82 CULTURE METHODS

83 UTILIZE MARINE ALGAE

84 CULTURE SEAWEEDS

85 A«óC«ôKò£ â´Lv (Gracilaria edulis) ªüL®ªòô£ ÜC«ó£ê£ ( Gelidiella acerosa) è£ô˜Šð£ ( Caulerpa) ê˜è£ú ªõŒ® (Sargassum wighti) èŠð£ç¬ðèv ÜõªóC (Kappaphycus alvarezii) ì˜H«ùKò£ èù£Œìv (Turbinaria canoides) CULTIVABLE INDIAN SEAWEEDS

86 RAFT CULTURE

87 MONOLINE CULTURE

88 Jatropha

89 Jatropha curcas

90

91

92 GROW BAMBOO, SIMILAR ONES AND GET CARBON CREDIT

93 Seven steps to curb global warming 1. Global carbon pricing 2. Global satellite monitoring of GHG emissions 3. Compensating developing countries for preserving rainforest 4. Creation of a global market for responsible biofuel 5. Creation and furtherance of markets for renewable electricity 6. Global moratorium on building new coal-fired power stations 7. Creation of global incentives for developing countries

94 Solution for Global Warming Reduce use of fossil fuel Protect rainforests as Carbon store houses Plant tropical trees and compensate rainforests being lost Develop Plantations for biodiesel production

95 Global Warming Is GLOBAL WARNING Avoid Pollution, Protect Nature, Promote Plantation, and Use Biodiesel

96 Energy Independence is the lifeline of a nation BIO-DIESEL MISSION

97 CONTACT FOR CONSULTANCY PROJECTS.. Aquaculture, environment, water treatment Aquariums AND Project monitoring Dr.V.Sundararaj – Dr.D.Yuvaraj Asian Analytical Laboratories Pvt Ltd, 4/2, Bharathiar St, Palavakkam, Chennai , Ph;

98 THANK YOU


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