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1 Going Green In The Laboratory Laboratory Association of NH September 24, 2009 Greener Chemistry Associates LLC 66 Ridgeview Lane New Boston, NH 03070.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Going Green In The Laboratory Laboratory Association of NH September 24, 2009 Greener Chemistry Associates LLC 66 Ridgeview Lane New Boston, NH 03070."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Going Green In The Laboratory Laboratory Association of NH September 24, 2009 Greener Chemistry Associates LLC 66 Ridgeview Lane New Boston, NH Office

2 Valero Harnesses Wind Energy to Fuel Its Oil-Refining Process 2 Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2009 Embracing new green technology in order to make more money producing old fashioned fossil fuels

3 Valero Harnesses Wind Energy to Fuel Its Oil-Refining Process Key Points Sunray, TX 70 yr old refinery 33 windmills, $115 million Produce gasoline and diesel fuel Payback 10 yrs Produces 50 Megawatts/Hr -> 100% of plant needs, 40-45% of the time 3 employees 3

4 Outline Principles of Green Chemistry Solvent Recycling Energy Conservation & Funds Water Conservation Greener Consumable Materials & Supplies Lab Equipment Laboratories for the 21 st Century Additional Resources 4

5 Principles of Green Chemistry 5

6 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Prevent waste, not clean it up Reduce scale of experiments Reduce excess of chemicals used in an analysis, when possible Reduce cost/quantity of hazardous waste Preventing a problem is better than trying to solve the problem 6

7 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Incorporate all materials into the product Synthesis 7

8 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Produce substances with little to no toxicity to humans and the environment Synthesis 8

9 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Products should preserve the efficacy of function while reducing toxicity Formulators 9

10 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Reduce the use of auxiliary substances Synthesis 10

11 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Minimize energy requirements for process Heat input for acceleration of reactions Use of catalysts to reduce energy of activation Need for cooling reactions Energy required for separation 11

12 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Use renewable materials when possible Solvents Reagents 12

13 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Avoid unnecessary derivatives Synthesis 13

14 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Catalytic reagents are better than stoichiometric reagents A + B = C is > A + B = C + D 14

15 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Products should degrade to innocuous substances, not persist in the environment, at the end of their function Bioaccumulators that persist in nature Plastics Pesticides Degradable products that form more toxic derivatives NPEs 15

16 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Develop analytical methods for in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances Synthesis 16

17 Principles of Green Chemistry Paul Anastas, John Warner Substances in a chemical process should minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions and fires Toxics Flammables Explosives Chemical recycling 17

18 Solvent Recycling 18

19 Solvent Recycling Most any solvent is capable of being distilled Recycling depends on contaminants (co-solvents; azeotropes; dangerous mixtures to heating) Commercial units can be from 2.6 gallons on up in capacity BPts o C; >200C with vacuum Typical cycle time 4-6 hrs Manual or automatic operation; batch or continuous Explosion proof atmospheres 19

20 Why Recycle Solvents? Reduce Cost! (Chemical purchases and waste disposal) Reduce storage and handling of hazardous waste up to 95% Reduce shipments of hazardous waste Reduce landfill of hazardous waste Help the environment Be a greener facility 20

21 Cost Savings With Solvent Recycling? Small Scale Facility-Solvent Information SolventProprietary Boiling Point223 C Vacuum Required?Yes Solvent Cost/Gallon$10.84 Gallons/Year1,155 Solvent Purchases/Year$12,520 Hazardous Waste Disposal: Gallons/Year1,155 Cost/Drum$53 Cost/Year$1,113 Total Solvent Cost/Year$13,633 21

22 Cost Savings With Solvent Recycling? Small Scale Facility-Recycle Unit Gallons/Year1,155 Gallons/Week23 Gallons/Day4.6 Shifts Worked/Day2 Capacity of Recycle Unit Required2.6 Gallons Cost of Recycle Unit~$6,000 Cost of Vacuum~$4,000 Total Cost~$10,000 22

23 Cost Savings With Solvent Recycling? Small Scale Facility-Cash Flow Projection Solvent Cost/Year (Purchase + Disposal)$13,600 Assumed Recovery Efficiency90% Projected Annual Savings$12,240 Total Cost of Recycle Unit + Vacuum$10,000 Payback10 Months 23 First Year Savings = $2,240

24 Energy Conservation & Funds 24

25 Energy Conservation Lighting Systems & Components 25

26 Energy Conservation Lighting Systems & Components Design of lighting system is critical for work done in the laboratory Lab lighting is up to 2X greater than office space Cost of lighting varies from 8% to 25% of total energy consumption Laboratory lighting codes: W/sf 26

27 Energy Conservation Lighting Systems & Components Daylight Integration Electric lighting should supplement daylighting Fixture Configuration Direct-Indirect (20-40%:60-80%) ambient lighting parallel to benchtop Task lighting (use only when required) Lamps and Ballasts T5 for new construction Super T8 for upgrade from T12 or T8 Electronic ballasts (RF shielded luminaires in instrument labs) Compact Fluorescent (CFL) or Low Wattage Ceramic Metal Halide lamps instead of incandescent Controls Bi-level switching Occupancy sensors 27

28 Energy Conservation Lighting Systems & Components Light BulbLumens/Watt of Heat Gain Incandescent5-15 Tungsten-Halogen20-35 Mercury Vapor25-50 CFL15-75 Linear Fluorescent60-95 Metal Halide High Pressure Na Daylight/Direct Daylight w/o Direct

29 Energy Conservation HVAC 29

30 Energy Conservation Audience Poll How many attendees have hoods in their laboratories? Is this a major source of energy waste? 30

31 Energy Conservation HVAC Energy consumption is typically greater percentage of electricity usage than lighting 31

32 Energy Conservation HVAC RM&M Regular Monitoring & Maintenance Calibrate, check and adjust thermostats Implement set-back strategies Multiple HVAC systems fighting each other (simultaneous heating & cooling) Clean/replace air filters and dampers Inspect ducts and pipe insulation Clean heat transfer coils – chillers, heat pumps, air conditioners 32

33 Energy Conservation Typical Causes for Waste Underutilized or inappropriate fume hoods Fume hoods with large bypass openings Unnecessary reheat of lab space Positive pressure in containment labs Excessive duct static pressure Over ventilated lab spaces Supply air temperature overshoot Lack of load management for equipment Setback of temperature or airflow when unoccupied 33

34 Energy Conservation Fume Hoods Typical hood uses as much energy in a year as 3 U.S. households U.S. safety standards require air turnover 6-12 times/hr. Not unusual to measure rates of turnovers/hr. A reduction from 12 to 10 turnovers/hr can reduce amount of fan power by >40%. Key improvement can be variable air volume by adjust speed of fan Sash opening 34

35 Energy Conservation Fume Hoods Sash Police and Lab Policy Create atmosphere of friendly exchange and overlook 35

36 Energy Conservation Sustainability UK Survey of 400 laboratory scientists 95% agreed science & technology are important if sustainable solutions were to be developed for the future 40% said they always or often considered the effect of their work on the environment 53% of the 40% thought not relevant to their area of science 36

37 Energy Funds Regional Greenhouse Gas initiative (State Business Finance Authority) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (3X funding for Rural Energy for America Program) Expanded tax incentives through ARRA Free or reduced cost energy audits Federal grants or tax credits for alternative energy 37

38 Energy Funds Utility rebates for more energy efficient lighting, motors and insulation (gas and electric heating) incentives PSNH training program for energy audits for small and large businesses (Tom Belair) EPA Portfolio Manager for comparing facility energy efficiency to others in similar business Federal tax credits of 30% for installing solar, wind and fuel cells with no dollar cap Federal tax credits of 10% for geothermal systems, microturbines and combined heat and power systems (secondary heating) with no dollar cap 38

39 Energy Funds Tax credits based on facility square-footage to make them more energy efficient Business Energy Efficiency Program (BEEP) run by NH Dept of Resources and Economic Development provides energy audits free of charge Loans and grants for energy efficiency- conservation and renewable energy projects Office of Energy and Planning competitive awards 39

40 Water Conservation 40

41 Water Conservation Laboratory buildings use more water than standard commercial buildings, per SF More opportunities for cost-effective improvements water usage Big hitters: cooling towers and special process equipment; water treatment and sterilizing systems 41

42 Water Conservation Audience Poll How many attendees have a cooling tower for their labs or buildings? 42

43 Water Conservation Cooling towers offer the greatest potential for improving the efficiency of water usage 43

44 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Cooling of equipment Single pass (once through) 40X more water than a cooling tower at 5 cycles of concentration to remove the same heat load Equipment: CAT scannersvacuum pumps DegreasersX-ray equipment Hydraulic equipmentAir conditioners CompressorsProcess chillers CondensersElectron microscopes Gas chromatographsMass Spectrometers 44

45 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Process or cooling loop, at fixed temperature, is best alternative to single pass cooling Water meter on the loop to determine water volume – separate process water from domestic Optional uses: Irrigation for farming Initial water rinses followed by clean water Heat recovery and transfer to another process 45

46 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Rinsing equipment Counter flow rinsing operation Fresh water is last rinse Dirty water is first rinse Number of rinses between determined by process requirements 46

47 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Flow control Equipment On continuously even with intermittent use 1.5 gpm trickle flow through small cooling unit becomes 788,400 Gallons of water consumed per year Control or solenoid valve allows water to run only when equipment is being used Shut-off valves or timers to automatically turn equipment off after-hours and for maintenance 47

48 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Water-treatment equipment for water free of minerals or organic contaminants As finer and finer particles are removed, energy use and water waste increases Particle filtration Microfiltration Ultrafiltration Nanofiltration Hyperfiltration 48

49 Water Conservation Laboratory Processing Equipment Alternative water sources Condensate recovery Air conditioners Dehumidifiers Refrigeration units Rainwater harvesting elements Roof or catchment area Downspouts, roof drains Leaf screens, roof washers Cisterns, storage tanks (above or below ground) Conveyance system Treatment system 49

50 Water Conservation Plumbing Faucets Automatic on/off Low flow Urinals Waterless Low flow Toilets Low flow Variable volume Plumbing Fixtures Flow restrictors Pressure regulators 50

51 Greener Consumable Materials & Supplies 51

52 Greener Consumable Materials & Supplies Janitorial/Cleaning Environmentally friendly products Paper Towels Recycled paper content Bathroom Tissue Recycled paper content Hand Care Skin compatible soaps and sanitizers Disposable Wipes Effective and environmentally compatible 52

53 Lab Equipment 53

54 Lab Equipment Typical Laboratory Equipment Significant energy users Autoclaves Glass washers Refrigerators Computers Lack of measured equipment load data = Nameplate data or assumptions => Peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated=> Oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, increased use of energy due to inefficiencies at low part load operation 54

55 Lab Equipment Best Practice Strategies Measure equipment loads in a comparable lab Use a probability-based approach to assess load diversity Allow for flexibility and growth, especially in the distribution systems Compare design loads with most-likely maximum loads 55

56 Lab Equipment Best Practice Strategies Configure equipment for high part-load efficiency (high efficiency at low loads) Variable speed drives on chillers, fans and pumps Negotiate risk management between owner and designer Use energy efficient equipment (EnergyStar TM ) Manufacturers data for operation at: Peak mode Nominal mode Dormant (sleep) mode 56

57 Lab Energy Audits Check List Power Lights Instruments/Equipment Water Faucets Cooling Water Rinse Water Air Thermostats Hoods/Sashes 57

58 Laboratories For The 21 st Century (Labs21) 58

59 Labs21 About Labs21 EPA & DOE Professionals exchange information Partnership Program Training and Education Tool Kit Growth opportunity for advanced, environmentally preferred, building technologies Typical Laboratories use far more energy and water per square-foot than office space Ventilation Health and Safety Concerns Guiding Principle: Examine the entire facility Component analysis can miss/eliminate greater opportunities to make other more significant efficiency improvements 59

60 Labs21 Approach Sustainable, high performance and low energy laboratories to Minimize overall environmental impacts Protect occupant safety Optimize whole building efficiency on a life-cycle basis Establish goals, track performance, and share results for continuous improvement 60

61 Labs21 Partner Commitments Adopt voluntary goals Assess opportunities using whole building approach Life-cycle cost analysis Include whole building approach for new construction and retrofit projects Measure energy and water consumption Track emission reductions Build with green construction materials 61

62 Labs21 Partnership Program Criteria Identify a central contact Identify and describe a laboratory site Set measurable energy and environmental performance goals Benchmark existing performance of facility Share results Report project results annually 62

63 Labs21 Benefits of Membership Cost savings Environmental and health improvements Reduced pollution and greenhouse gas emissions Expert technical assistance Tool Kit and other resources Networking opportunities 63

64 Labs21 Tool Kit Overview Introduction to low energy design Labs21 video (online) Core information services Design guide for energy-efficient research labs Best practices guide (20) Case studies Energy benchmarking Laboratory equipment efficiency Wiki Design process tools Environmental performance criteria Design intent tool Labs21 Design process manual 64

65 Resources Anastas and Warner, Introduction to Green Chemistry Corbyn, Nature, Vol. 445(8) February 2007 U.S.EPA/U.S.DOE Laboratories for the 21 st Century: Best Practices Sanders, New Hampshire Business Review, August 14-27,

66 Additional Resources Websites outline energy programs dsireusa.org nh.gov/oep/recovery/sep_programs/index.htm nh.gov/oep/recovery/documents/grant_matrix.pdf energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=tax_credits.tx_index energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=evaluate_performance.bus_ portfoliomanager puc.state.nh.us/Sustainable%20Energy/SustainableEner gy.htm rurdev.usda.gov/rbs/ Labs21century.gov 66


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